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Laurence Kotlikoff — Jimmy Stewart is Dead — Ending The World’s Ongoing Plague With Limited Purpose Banking — Videos

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Kotlikoff Discusses Proposals for U.S. Banking Overhaul: Video

the whole system is corrupt … told by Laurence Kotlikoff

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Peter Schiff: The markets are going to collapse due to Fed raising rates

Ep. 428: The Fed’s Deal with the Devil

Why the Worst Market Crash EVER Will Happen in 2018

Debt bomb: Are we on the brink of another global financial crisis?

EXCLUSIVE!! JIM ROGERS EXPLAINS HOW BAD THE DEPRESSION WILL BE AND THE TRADE WAR WITH CHINA!

Alert! JIM ROGERS: The economic collapse will occur 100% / Last warning for December, 2018

Will there be a recession in 2019?

How Did America Go Bankrupt? Slowly, At First, Then All At Once!

The US federal debt has again been on the move, as of mid-week up to a fresh record of $20.7 trillion. But, really, without some sort of reference point, what does that mean?

Typically, the metrics of total debt or federal debt divided by GDP (Gross Domestic Product, or the total value of goods produced and services provided in the US annually) are used (chart below). Still, that’s a bit ethereal to most folks.

So, I thought I’d make this simpler. The chart below shows federal debt (red line) versus total full-time employees (blue line) since 1970. Clearly, debt has surged since 2000 and particularly since 2008 versus decelerating net full-time jobs growth. The number of full-time employees is economically critical as, generally speaking, only these jobs offer the means to be a home buyer or build savings and wealth in a consumer-driven economy. Part-time employment generally offers only subsistence level earnings.

But if we look at the change over those periods highlighted in the chart above, we get a clear picture (chart below). Full-time jobs are being added at a rapidly declining rate while federal debt is surging in the absence of the growth of full-time employees.

https://seekingalpha.com/article/4147977-america-go-bankrupt-slowly-first

 

Fiscal gap

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The fiscal gap is a measure of a government’s total indebtedness proposed by economists Laurence Kotlikoff and Alan Auerbach, who define it as the difference between the present value of all of government’s projected financial obligations, including future expenditures, including servicing outstanding official federal debt, and the present value of all projected future tax and other receipts, including income accruing from the government’s current ownership of financial assets.[1] According to Kotlikoff and Auerbach, the “fiscal gap” accounting method can be used to calculate the percentage of necessary tax increases or spending reductions needed to close the fiscal gap in the long-run.

Generational accounting, an accounting method closely related to the fiscal gap, has been proposed by the same authors as a measure of the future burden of closing the fiscal gap. The “generational accounting” assumes that current taxpayers are neither asked to pay more in taxes nor receive less in transfer payments than current policy suggests and that successive younger generations’ lifetime tax payments net of transfer payments received rise in proportion to their labor earnings.

According to Kotlikoff and Auerbach, “fiscal gap accounting” and “generational accounting” reports have been done for roughly 40 developed and developing countries either by their treasury departments, finance ministries, or central banks, or by the IMF, the World Bank, or other international agencies, or by academics and think tanks.

Size of the U.S. fiscal gap

Fiscal gap accounting is not new to the U.S. government.[citation needed] The Social Security Trustees and Medicare Trustees have been presenting such calculations for their own systems for years in their annual reports.[citation needed] And generational accounting has been included in the President’s Budget on three occasions.[citation needed]

Based on calculations using the 2012 Alternative Fiscal Scenario long-term projections by the Congressional Budget Office, some estimate the U.S. fiscal gap stands to be $222 trillion – more than 13 times larger than the reported U.S. National Debt.[citation needed] According to the same estimates, the gap grew $11 trillion from 2011 to 2012.[citation needed] Eliminating the entire U.S. fiscal gap through revenue alone would require a permanent 64% increase in all federal taxes.[citation needed] Alternatively, closing the gap through spending reductions alone would require a permanent 40% cut in all federal purchases and transfer payments.[2]

Criticism of fiscal gap accounting

The proposed “fiscal gap” accounting method has been criticized as fundamentally flawed by economists Dean Baker,[3] Bradford DeLong,[4] and Paul Krugman.[5] Their critiques, referenced above, center on the fact that fiscal gap accounting calculates the growth future debt in current account terms, without taking into account the fact that future GDP will also grow proportionately, with the result that future debt will fall on generations with substantially larger incomes to cover the debt, obviating the seeming fiscal impossibility of covering the gap.

References

  1. ^ “The Federal Government’s Long-term Fiscal Outlook: Spring 2012 Update” (PDF). Government Accountability Office. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  2. ^ Kotlikoff, Burns. “Blink! U.S. Debt Just Grew by $11 Trillion”Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  3. ^ Dean Baker, “Larry Kotlikoff Tells Us Why We Should Not Use Infinite Horizon Budget Accounting”Beat the Press blog, 31 July 2014 (accessed 9 October 2015).
  4. ^ J. Bradford DeLong, “Oh Dear. Larry Kotlikoff Fails to Read…: Let’s Make This This Week’s Monday Smackdown”Grasping Reality blog, August 04, 2014 (accessed 9 October 2015).
  5. ^ Paul Krugman, “Quadrillions and Quadrillions”The Conscience of a Liberal blog, 2 August 2014 (accessed 9 October 2015).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiscal_gap

Laurence Kotlikoff

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Laurence J. Kotlikoff
Kotlikoff.jpg

Kotlikoff in 2011
Born January 30, 1951 (age 67)
Nationality American
Institution Boston University
Field Public finance
Alma mater Harvard University
University of Pennsylvania
Influences Martin Feldstein
Awards Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a William Warren Fairfield Professor at Boston University, Fellow of the Econometric Society
Information at IDEAS / RePEc

Laurence Jacob Kotlikoff (born January 30, 1951) is an American academic and politician, who is a William Warren Fairfield Professor at Boston University. Apart from being an economics professor at Boston University, he is also a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, a Fellow of the Econometric Society, a former Senior Economist, and was formerly on President Ronald Reagan‘s Council of Economic Advisers. Kotlikoff ran, as he did in the previous elections, as a write-in candidate for President of the United States in the November 8, 2016 election.

Kotlikoff has made contributions in the fields and subfields of generational economicsfiscal policycomputational economicseconomic growth, national saving, intra- and intergenerational inequality, sources of wealth accumulation, intergenerational altruism and intra-family risk sharing, banking, and personal finance. He has also done work on Social Security, healthcare, tax, and banking reform. Kotlikoff attempted to run for President of the United States in the 2012 election, and sought the nominations of the advocacy group Americans Elect[1] and the Reform Party of the United States before ending his campaign in May 2012.

 

Research

Early research

Kotlikoff’s thesis examined, in a life-cycle simulation model, the impact of intergenerational redistribution on the long-run position of the economy. He also studied whether the rich spend a larger or smaller share of their lifetime resources than do the poor. And he provided a new empirical approach to understanding the impact of Social Security on saving. At UCLA, Kotlikoff wrote a paper with Avia Spivak on intra-family risk-sharing entitled “The Family as an Incomplete Annuities Market.”[2]

He also wrote a widely cited paper with Lawrence Summers questioning the importance of saving for retirement in determining total U.S. wealth accumulation.[3] The publication suggested that most of U.S. wealth accumulation was not attributed to life-cycle saving, but rather to private intergenerational transfers (whether intended or unintended).[3] The article was the subject of a lively debate between Kotlikoff and Franco Modigliani, who won the Nobel Prize in part for his work on the life-cycle model.[4]

Generational accounting

Kotlikoff, together with Alan Auerbach and Jagadeesh Gokhale, pioneered Generational Accounting, which measures the fiscal burdens facing today’s and tomorrow’s children.[5] Kotlikoff’s work on the relativity of fiscal language claims to show that conventional fiscal measures, including the government’s deficit, are not well defined from the perspective of economic theory.[citation needed]

According to Kotlikoff, their measurement reflects economically arbitrary fiscal labeling conventions.[citation needed] He argues that an “Economics labeling problem,” as he calls it, has led to gross misreadings of the fiscal positions of different countries, starting with the United States, which has a relatively small debt-to-GDP ratio, but, he argues, is in worse fiscal shape than any other developed country.[citation needed] In 1991, Kotlikoff, together with Alan Auerbach and Jagadeesh Gokhale, produced the first set of generational accounts for the United States.[citation needed]

Their study claimed to find a major fiscal gap separating future government spending commitments and its means of paying for those commitments, portending dramatic increases in the lifetime net tax burdens facing young and future generations.[citation needed] The generational accounting and fiscal gap accounting developed by Auerbach, Gokhale, and Kotlikoff is a means of assessing the sustainability of fiscal policy and how different countries intend to treat their next generations.[citation needed] Recent generational accounting by the IMF and fiscal gap accounting by Kotlikoff claim to confirm the truly severe long-run fiscal problems facing the U.S.[citation needed]

The Auerbach-Kotlikoff Model[edit]

In the late 1970s, Kotlikoff, together with Berkeley economist, Alan J. Auerbach, developed the first large-scale computable general equilibrium life-cycle model that can track the behavior, over time, of economies comprising large numbers of overlapping generations.[6] The model and its offspring have been used extensively to study future fiscal and demographic transitions in the U.S. and abroad.[citation needed] Demographically realistic overlapping generations models, in which agents can live for up to, say, 100 years, are very complicated mathematical structures.[citation needed]

Agents who are young would, if they were rational and precognitive, consider all future interest rates and wage rates in deciding how much to save and work in the current as well as in their remaining future years.[citation needed] This path of interest rates and wage rates will, in turn, depend on the course of the economy’s relative supplies of capital and labor, since these relative supplies determine whether capital or labor is relatively scarce in any given future year and, therefore, what these factors of production will get paid in the competitive market.[citation needed]

The paths of capital and labor will be determined by the aggregation of the saving and labor supply decisions of the individual agents alive through time.[citation needed] Thus a young person’s decision about consuming and working today depends, in part, on what he believes will be the interest and wage rates when he’s middle age and old, for example, age 90.[citation needed] But the value of these factor prices when he’s age 90 depend on how much capital and labor will be around in that year.[citation needed]

This depends, in part, on the saving and labor supply of unborn generations who will be saving and working when he reaches old age.[citation needed] In short, the economic decisions of one generation are interlinked with those of others because of general equilibrium considerations in which each year’s collective supplies of capital and labor must equal that year’s aggregate demands for these inputs.[citation needed] And the path of interest and wage rates must be such as to clear (equate supplies to their respective demands) these factor markets at each point in time.[citation needed]

Under standard assumptions about the nature of technology and in the simplest framework (which can be extended to more than two inputs), this problem devolves into a 200-plus order non-linear difference equation in the ratio of capital to labor.[citation needed] This ratio summaries both the relative supplies of and demands for the two factors. In equilibrium, the ratio of factor inputs supplied each year must equal the ratio of factor inputs demanded.[citation needed]

Since the path of the capital-labor ratio determines the path of the interest and wage rate, which determine both the annual supply of and demand for the two factors of production, the problem boils down to finding the precise path of the capital-labor ratio that will draw forth from extant households each year aggregate supplies of capital and labor that exactly match each year’s respective aggregate demands for capital and labor by firms.[citation needed]

There are no mathematical techniques for calculating the exact solution of high order non-linear difference equations.[citation needed] (The Scarf Algorithm cannot be used in this context because the number of markets is infinite; i.e., there is no assumed end of the world.) Auerbach and Kotlikoff devised an iterative solution method that entails guessing how the economy’s ratio of capital to labor will evolve and then updating the guesses based on deviations of annual capital and labor supplies from their respective annual demands and continuing in this manner until the economy’s capital-labor transition path converges to a fixed-point path (more precisely, until the guessed ratio of the annual demands for capital relative to labor equal the annual supplies of capital relative to labor).[citation needed]

Prior to the development of the Auerbach-Kotlikoff model, economists had no means of assessing how a realistic life-cycle economy would evolve, including the timing of its responses to a wide range of fiscal and demographic changes.[citation needed] For example, economists had no means of saying how much capital would be available to the economy in each future year were the government to increase its consumption on a permanent basis and finance that higher level of consumption by raising income tax rates.[citation needed]

One of the latest incarnations of the Auerbach-Kotlikoff model – a paper by Hans Fehr, Sabine Jokisch, and Laurence Kotlikoff entitled “Dynamic Globalization and Its Potentially Alarming Prospects for Low-Wage Workers,” includes five regions (the U.S., Europe, Japan, China, and India), six goods, region-specific fiscal policy and demographics, and the endogenous determination of the pattern of specialization.[citation needed]

The general relativity of fiscal language

In 1984, Kotlikoff wrote a fundamental paper entitled “Deficit Delusion”, which appeared in The Public Interest. This was the first of a series of papers and books (see, e.g., Generational Accounting and Generational Policy) by Kotlikoff, including work with co-authors, showing, via examples, that in economic models featuring rational agents, “the” deficit is a figment of language, not economics. I.e., the deficit is not economically well defined. Instead, what governments measure as “the” deficit is entirely a result of the language they use to label government receipts and payments.[citation needed]

If the government calls a receipt a “tax,” this lowers the reported deficit. If, instead, it calls the receipt “borrowing,” it raises the reported deficit. Thus, if you give the government, say, $1,000 this year, it can say it is taxing you $1,000 this year. Alternatively, it can say it is borrowing $1,000 from you this year and will be taxing you in, say, five years the $1,000 plus accrued interest and using this future tax to pay you the principal plus interest due on the current borrowing. With one set of words the deficit is $1,000 larger this year than with the other set of words.[citation needed]

If it so chose, the government could say it was taxing you $1,000 this year and also, this year, borrowing $1 trillion from you for, say, five years, making a transfer payment to you this year of $1 trillion, and taxing you in five years an amount equal to principal plus interest on the $1 trillion and using it to pay principal plus interest on the $1 trillion it is now borrowing. With this alternative choice of words, the reported deficit is $1 trillion larger than with the first set of words. But in all three examples, you hand over $1,000 this year and receive and pay zero on net in the future.[original research?]

Einstein taught us that neither time, nor distance are well-defined physical concepts. Instead, their measurement is relative to our frame of reference – how fast we were traveling in the universe and in what direction. Our physical frame of reference can be viewed as our language or labeling convention. Einstein showed that neither time nor distance were well-defined concepts, but could be measured in an infinite number of ways. The same is true of the deficit. Just like absolute time and distance are not well defined, the deficit and related conventional fiscal measures has no economic meaning.[citation needed][original research?]

Kotlikoff, along with Harvard’s Jerry Green, offered a general proof of the proposition that deficits and a number of other conventional fiscal measures are, economically speaking, content-free, concluding that the deficit is simply an arbitrary figment of language in all economic models involving rational agents.[7]

Such models can feature all manner of individual and aggregate uncertainty, incomplete markets, distortionary fiscal policy, asymmetric information, borrowing constraints, time-inconsistent government policy, and a host of other problems, yet “the” deficit will still bear no theoretical connection to real policy-induced economic outcomes.[citation needed][original research?] The reason, again, is that there is no single deficit, but rather an infinity of deficit or surplus policy paths that can be announced (by the government or any private agent) simply by choosing the “right” fiscal labels.[citation needed][original research?]

Frames of reference

According to Kotlikoff, using the deficit as a guide to fiscal policy is like driving in Los Angeles with a map of New York City.[citation needed] For unlike in our physical world in which we are all using the same language (have the same frame of reference), in the world of economics, we are each free to adopt our own frame of reference – our own labeling convention. Thus, if Joe wants to claim that the U.S. federal government ran enormous surpluses for the last 50 years, he can simply choose appropriate words to label historic receipts and payments to produce that time series.[citation needed]

If Sally wishes to claim the opposite, there are words she can find to justify her view of the past stance of fiscal policy. And if Sam wishes to claim that that economy has experienced fluctuations from deficits to surpluses of arbitrary magnitude from year to year, he can do so. Language is extremely flexible. And there is nothing in economic theory that pins down how we discuss economic theory.[citation needed]

Kotlikoff and Green claim that fiscal variables in all mathematical economic models involving rational agents can be labeled freely and tell us nothing about the models themselves (no more than does choosing to discuss the models in French or English), and this means that the multitudinous econometric studies relating well-defined economic variables, such as interest rates or aggregate personal consumption, to “the” deficit are, economically speaking, content free.[citation needed]

According to Kotlikoff, the deficit is not the only variable that is not well defined.[citation needed] An economy’s aggregate tax revenue, its aggregate transfer payments, its disposable income, its personal and private saving rates, and its level of private wealth – all are non-economic concepts that have, from the perspective of economic theories with rational agents, no more purchase on economic reality than does the emperor’s clothes in Hans Christian Andersen’s famous children’s story.[citation needed]

Kotlikoff chose the title of his paper with Green not to suggest in the slightest any comparison of intellect with Einstein,[original research?] but rather because of what seemed to him to be a strikingly similar message about confusing linguistics for substance.[citation needed] An example here is the definition of a capitalistic economy as one in which capital is primarily owed by the private sector. Kotlikoff claims that an economy which is described as having predominately privately owned wealth can just as well be described as one in which wealth is predominantly or, for that matter, entirely state-owned.[citation needed] Hence, “deficit delusion” implies that economic theory offers no precise measure/definition of capitalism, socialism, or communism.[citation needed]

Intergenerational altruism

Kotlikoff has done pioneering[peacock term] work testing intergenerational altruism[citation needed] – the proposition that current generations care about their descendants enough to ensure that government redistribution from their descendants to themselves will be offset by private redistribution back to the descendants either in the form of bequests or intervivos gifts. This proposition dates to David Ricardo, who raised it as a theoretical, but empirically irrelevant proposition.[citation needed]

In 1974, Robert Barro revived “Ricardian Equivalence” by showing in a simple, elegant framework that each generation’s caring about its children leads current generations to be altruistically linked to all their descendants. Hence, a government policy of transferring resources to current older generations at a cost to generations born, say, in 100 years would induce the current elderly to simply increase their gifts and bequests to their children who would pass the resources onward until it reached those born in 100 years.[citation needed]

This inter-linkage of current and future generations devolves into a mathematical model which is isomorphic to one in which all agents are infinitely lived (i.e., they act as if they live for ever in so far as their progeny are front and center in their preferences). The infinitely-lived model was originally posited by Frank Ramsey in the 1920s. It’s aggregation properties make it very convenient for teaching macro economics because one does not have to deal with the messiness of upwards of 100 overlapping generations acting independently, but also interdependently. Consequently, it has become a mainstay in graduate macroeconomics training and underlies the work by Economics Nobel Laureate Ed Prescott and other economists on Real Business Cyclemodels.[citation needed]

Kotlikoff’s singly and jointly authored work in the 1980s and 1990 called this model into question on both theoretical and empirical grounds. In a paper entitled “Altruistic Linkages within the Extended Family: A Note (1983),” which appears in Kotlikoff’s 1989 MIT Press book What Determines Savings? Kotlikoff showed that when agents take each other’s transfers as given, marriage generates intergenerational linkages between unrelated individuals.[citation needed]

I.e., if you, Steve, are altruistic toward your daughter, Sue, and your daughter marries John, who is altruistically linked to his father Ed, who has a daughter Sara who is altruistic toward her husband David, who cares about his sister Ida, who’s cares about her father-in-law Frank, you Steve are altrusitically linked to Frank. Furthermore, if Frank loses a dollar and you gain a dollar, Barro’s model implies that you Steve will take your new found dollar and hand it to Frank. Kyle Bagwell and Douglas Bernheim independently reached Kotlikoff’s conclusion, namely that the Barro model had patently absurd implications.[citation needed]

Together with Assaf Razin and Robert Rosenthal, Kotlikoff showed in [4] that dropping the unrealistic assumption that transfers are taken as given and permitting individuals to refuse transfers (e.g., refusing your mother’s offer of an extra helping of cabbage) invalidates Barro’s proposition of Ricardian Equivalence. I.e., they showed that Barro’s model was a combination of a plausible set of preferences (altruism toward one’s children) and an implausible assumption about the game being played by donors and donees. In a series of empirical papers with Stanford economist Michael Boskin, University of Pennsylvania economist Andrew Abel, Yale economist Joseph Altonji, and Tokyo University economist Fumio Hayashi, Kotlikoff and his co-authors showed that there was little, if any, empirical support for Barro’s very special model of intergenerational altruism.[citation needed]

Generational redistribution

In life-cycle models without operative intergenerational altruism, the young are the big savers because of every dollar they receive, they save a larger percentage than do the elderly for the simple reason that the elderly are closer to the ends of their lives and want to use it before they lose it. The unborn are, of course, the biggest savers because giving them an extra dollar (that they will be able to collect with interest when they arrive) leads them to consume nothing more in the present because they aren’t yet alive.[citation needed]

So taking from the young and unborn and giving to the elderly should lead to a decline in national saving. In a 1996 paper with Jagadeesh Gokhale and John Sablehaus, Kotlikoff showed that the ongoing massive redistribution from young and future savers to old savers was responsible for the postwar decline in U.S. saving.[8]

Notwithstanding his many studies overturning Ricardian Equivalence, on both theoretical and empirical grounds, Kotlikoff has a paper showing why intergenerational transfers may have no impact on the economy in a world of purely selfish life-cycle agents. The argument presented is simple. Once younger generations have been maximally exploited by older generations (who are assumed to have the ability to redistribute from the young to themselves), older generations can no longer extract resources for free, meaning they can no longer leave higher fiscal burdens for future generations without handing over a quid pro quo. At such an extreme, intergenerational transfers, per se, are no longer feasible because the young will refuse to accept them.[citation needed]

Policy reform proposals

Kotlikoff has written that the economic future is bleak for the United States without tax reform, health care reform, and Social Security reform in his book The Coming Generational Storm and other publications.[9]

Taxes

Kotlikoff has been a supporter of the FairTax proposal as a replacement for the federal tax code, contributing to research of plan’s effects and the required rate for revenue neutrality.[10] In 2010, Kotlikoff offered his own tax proposal, titled the Purple Tax (a blend of red and blue), a consumption levy that he says cleans up some problems with the FairTax.[11][12]

His plan calls for a 15% final (17.5% nominal) sales tax. The FICA tax ceiling is gone and the 7.65% of the employees contribution is applied on everything after $40,000 but the employer pays 7.65% on the employees entire salary.[13]

Finance

Kotlikoff’s proposed reform of the financial system,[14][15][16] discussed in Jimmy Stewart Is Dead, called Limited Purpose Banking, transforms all financial companies with limited liability, including incorporated banks, insurance companies, financial exchanges, and hedge funds, into pass-through mutual funds, which do not borrow to invest in risky assets, but, instead, allows the public to directly choose what risks it wishes to bear by purchasing more or less risky mutual funds.[17] According to Kotlikoff, Limited Purpose Banking keeps banks, insurance companies, hedge funds and other financial corporations from borrowing short and lending long, which leaves the public to pick up the pieces when things go south.[17] Instead, Kotlikoff argues Limited Purpose Banking forces financial intermediaries to limit their activities to their sole legitimate purpose—financial inter-mediation.[17] It would substitute the vast array of extant federal and state financial regulatory bodies with a single financial regulator called the Federal Financial Authority (FFA), which would have a narrow purpose namely to verify, disclosure, and oversee the independent rating and custody off all securities purchased and sold by mutual funds.[17]

Healthcare

In his 2007 book, The Healthcare Fix, Kotlikoff proposed a major reform of the U.S. healthcare system, subsequently dubbed “The Purple Health Plan”,[18] that would do away with MedicareMedicaid, employer-based healthcare, and health exchanges established under the Affordable Care Act.[19] In their place, every American would receive a voucher for a basic health insurance policy, whose coverages would be established by a panel of doctors such that the total cost of all vouchers remained within a fixed share, e.g., 10 percent, of GDP.[18][19] The voucher would be provided by the government at no cost and its amount would be individually risk-adjusted, i.e., sicker people would receive larger vouchers.[18][19] No health insurance company providing the basic insurance plan could turn anyone away and those who could afford supplemental health insurance plans would be free to purchase them.[18][19]

According to Kotlikoff, the plan provides universal basic health insurance, retains private provision of healthcare, limits government healthcare spending to a fixed share of GDP, and avoids adverse selection.[18][19] Kotlikoff has denounced critics of the plan such as economist Paul Krugman and President Obama for demagoguery over word voucher—arguing that the current health care law relies on vouchers.[20] He argues that the current Medicare program is unsustainable and that we have no choice but to embrace a plan with vouchers.[21] In order to highlight his Purple Plans, Kotlikoff ran for the nomination of the Americans Elect platform in its short-lived effort to field a third party candidate in the 2012 Presidential election.

Political parties

Kotlikoff fervently dislikes both political parties and has called for a third party.[22] In January 2012, Kotlikoff announced his plans to run as a third party candidate for President of the United States in 2012. Kotlikoff said he would seek the presidential nomination of the non-partisan advocacy group Americans Elect.[1][23][24] He announced in May that he would also seek the nomination of the Reform Party of the United States,[25] but ended the bid after the Americans Elect board decided to not field a 2012 presidential ticket.[26]

Other ventures

Kotlikoff is the President of Economic Security Planning, Inc., a company that markets ESPlanner, an economics-based personal financial planning software program,[27] a simplified version of which is available on-line for free use by the public,[28] and “Maximize My Social Security”, a software program that helps Americans decide which Social Security benefits to take and when, to get the highest lifetime benefits.[29]

Books

  • The Economic Consequences of the Vickers Commission, Civitas, 2012.
  • The Clash of Generations, (with Scott Burns), MIT Press, 2012.
  • Jimmy Stewart is Dead – Ending the World’s Ongoing Financial Plague with Limited Purpose Banking. John Wiley and Sons, 2010.
  • Spend ‘Til the End – The Revolutionary Guide to Raising Your Living Standard, Today and When You Retire. Simon & Schuster, (with Scott Burns), 2008.
  • The Healthcare Fix – Universal Insurance for All Americans, MIT Press, 2007.
  • The Coming Generational Storm, (with Scott Burns), MIT Press, 2004.
  • Generational Policy, The 2002 Caroli Lectures, MIT Press, 2003.
  • Essays on Saving, Bequests, Altruism, and Life-Cycle Planning, MIT Press, 2001.
  • Generational Accounting Around the World, co-edited with Alan Auerbach and Willi Leibfritz, NBER volume, University of Chicago Press, 1999.
  • Macroeconomics: An Integrated Approach Second Edition, (with Alan Auerbach), MIT Press, 1998.
  • Macroeconomics: An Integrated Approach (with Alan Auerbach), Southwestern Publishing Co., 1994.
  • Generational Accounting, The Free Press, 1992.
  • What Determines Savings, MIT Press, 1989.
  • The Wage Carrot and the Pension Stick: Retirement Benefits and Labor Force Participation(with David Wise), The W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1989.
  • Dynamic Fiscal Policy (with Alan Auerbach), Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Pensions in the American Economy (with Daniel Smith), University of Chicago Press, 1983.
  • Get What’s Yours: The Secrets to Maxing Out Your Social Security (with Philip Moeller and Paul Solman), Simon and Schuster, 2015.[30]

References

Notes

  1. Jump up to:a b Gaylican, Christine (January 9, 2012). “Will an Economist Make a Difference as the next American President?”International Business Times. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  2. ^ Kotlikoff, Laurence J.; Spivak, Avia (1981). “The Family as an Incomplete Annuties Market”. Journal of Political Economy89 (2): 372–391. doi:10.1086/260970.
  3. Jump up to:a b Kotlikoff, Laurence J.; Summers, Lawrence H. (1981). “The Role of Intergenerational Transfers in Aggregate Capital Accumulation”. Journal of Political Economy89 (4): 706–732. doi:10.1086/260999.
  4. ^ Kessler, Denis; Masson, Andre (1989). “Bequest and Wealth Accumulation: Are Some Pieces of the Puzzle Missing?”. Journal of Economic Perspectives3 (3): 141–152. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.511.4342doi:10.1257/jep.3.3.141.
  5. ^ Generational Accounting, The Free Press, 1992. Kotlikoff
  6. ^ Dynamic Fiscal Policy (with Alan Auerbach), Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  7. ^ On the General Relativity of Fiscal Language
  8. ^ Gokhale, Jagadeesh; Kotlikoff, Laurence J.; Sabelhaus, John (May 1996). “Understanding the Postwar Decline in U.S. Saving: A Cohort Analysis”. NBER Working Paper No. 5571doi:10.3386/w5571.
  9. ^ The Coming Generational Storm: What You Need to Know about America’s Economic Future Archived 2006-08-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Kotlikoff, Laurence (2005-03-07). “The Case for the ‘FairTax (PDF). The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-23.
  11. ^ Coy, Peter (2011-10-19). “Herman Cain’s Other Tax Plan”. Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  12. ^ Kotlikoff, Laurence. “The Purple Tax Plan”. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  13. ^ Purple Tax Plan
  14. ^ Niall Ferguson; Laurence Kotlikoff (December 2, 2009). “How to take moral hazard out of banking”The Financial Times. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  15. ^ Martin Wolf (April 27, 2010). “Why cautious reform is the risky option”The Financial Times. Retrieved 23 August2011.
  16. ^ Laurence J. Kotlikoff (March 17, 2010). “Jimmy Stewart Is Dead”http://www.huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  17. Jump up to:a b c d Kotlikoff, Laurence (April 5, 2011). Jimmy Stewart Is Dead: Ending the World’s Ongoing Financial Plague with Limited Purpose Banking. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118011331.
  18. Jump up to:a b c d e The Purple Health Plan
  19. Jump up to:a b c d e Kotlikoff, Laurence (September 7, 2007). The Healthcare Fix. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262113144.
  20. ^ Kotlikoff, Laurence (June 15, 2011). Vouchercare’ Is the Right Name for Medicare: Laurence Kotlikoff”Bloomberg.
  21. ^ Obama Might Trade Parties With Paul Ryan: Laurence Kotlikoff, Business Week
  22. ^ Kotlikoff, Laurence (July 19, 2011). “A Third-Party Candidate Is Coming: Laurence Kotlikoff”Bloomberg.
  23. ^ Censky, Annalyn (January 5, 2012). “Econ professor to run for president”CNNMoney. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  24. ^ Palmer, Kimberly (January 10, 2012). “Economist Laurence Kotlikoff Announces Presidential Bid”U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  25. ^ “Kotlikoff to Seek Reform Party Presidential Nomination”Independent Political Report. May 11, 2012. Retrieved May 12,2012.
  26. ^ “Kotlikoff ends Reform Party presidential bid”Independent Political Report. June 5, 2012. Retrieved June 9,2012.
  27. ^ ESPlanner
  28. ^ Basic ESPlanner
  29. ^ Maximize My Social Security
  30. ^ Kotlikoff, Laurence; Moeller, Philip; Solman, Paul (2015). “Get What’s Yours”Simon and Schuster.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurence_Kotlikoff

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Victor D. Hanson — Mexifornia: A State of Becoming and The Case for Trump — Videos

Posted on December 17, 2018. Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , |

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Historian Victor Davis Hanson on why he supports Trump

Victor Davis Hanson – Mexifornia: A State of Becoming

May 31, 2003 – Mr. Hanson was interviewed about his book Mexifornia: A State of Becoming, published by Encounter Books. The book looks at the hybrid culture emerging in California and who benefits from different political stances. He responded to telephone calls from viewers.

Victor D. Hanson on Obama’s Last Year & the Problem w/ Elites in Society

Victor Davis Hanson — The New Old World Order

Victor Davis Hanson – Postmodern Ideologies Dismanteled

Victor Davis Hanson: How the left elite cheats the public

Victor Davis Hanson – Immigration Rhetoric vs Reality

Victor Davis Hanson – The 4 Groups that Benefit from Illegal Immigration

Victor Davis Hansen- Keynote Address: California at the Crossroads

 

The Case for Trump Hardcover – March 5, 2019

From an award-winning historian and regular Fox contributor, the true story of how Donald Trump has become one of the most successful presidents in history — and why America needs him now more than ever
 
In The Case for Trump, award-winning historian and political commentator Victor Davis Hanson explains how a celebrity businessman with no political or military experience triumphed over sixteen well-qualified Republican rivals, a Democrat with a quarter-billion-dollar war chest, and a hostile media and Washington establishment to become president of the United States — and an extremely successful president.
Trump alone saw a political opportunity in defending the working people of America’s interior whom the coastal elite of both parties had come to scorn, Hanson argues. And Trump alone had the instincts and energy to pursue this opening to victory, dismantle a corrupt old order, and bring long-overdue policy changes at home and abroad. We could not survive a series of presidencies as volatile as Trump’s. But after decades of drift, America needs the outsider Trump to do what normal politicians would not and could not do.

 

Victor Davis Hanson

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Victor Davis Hanson
Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College in May 2005

Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College in May 2005
Born September 5, 1953 (age 65)
Fowler, California, U.S.
Occupation Writer, historian, farmer
Subject Military history, history of ancient warfare, ancient agrarianismclassics

Victor Davis Hanson (born September 5, 1953) is an American classicistmilitary historian, columnist, and farmer. He has been a commentator on modern and ancient warfare and contemporary politics for National ReviewThe Washington Times and other media outlets. He is a professor emeritus of classics at California State University, Fresno, and is currently the Martin and Illie Anderson Senior Fellow in classics and military history at Stanford University‘s Hoover Institution. He chairs the Hoover working group on Military History and Contemporary Conflict as well as being the general editor of the Hoover online journal, Strategika. He has been a visiting professor at Hillsdale College where he teaches an intensive course on world, ancient or military history in the autumn semester, as the Wayne and Marcia Buske Distinguished Fellow in History since 2004.[1] Hanson is the author of Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power (2001), a New York Times best-selling book.

Hanson was awarded the National Humanities Medal in 2007 by President George W. Bush, and was a presidential appointee in 2007–2008 on the American Battle Monuments Commission that oversees the cemeteries and monuments of U.S. war dead abroad. Hanson is a student of current affairs, particularly regarding the U.S. in the Middle East, national defense issues and illegal immigration. He is also a fifth-generation landowner, growing raisin plants on a family farm in Selma, California, where he resides, and is a commentator on social trends related to farming and agrarianism.

Early life, education and today

Hanson, who is of Swedish and Welsh descent, grew up on a family farm outside of Selma, California in the San Joaquin Valley and has worked there most of his life. His mother, Pauline Davis Hanson, was a lawyer and a California superior court and state appeals court justice, his father was a farmer, educator and junior college administrator. Along with his older brother Nels, a writer, and fraternal twin Alfred, a farmer and biologist, Hanson attended public schools and graduated from Selma High School. Hanson received his BA with highest honors in classics and general college honors, Cowell College, from the University of California, Santa Cruz, in 1975[2] and his PhD in classics from Stanford University in 1980. He is a Protestant Christian.[3] He also won the Raphael Demos scholarship at the College Year in Athens (1973–74) and was a regular member of the American School of Classical Studies, Athens, 1978–79.

Hanson is currently a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution and professor emeritus at California State University, Fresno,[4] where he began teaching in 1984, having created the classical studies program at that institution.

In 1991, Hanson was awarded an American Philological Association‘s Excellence in Teaching Award, which is given annually to the nation’s top undergraduate teachers of Greek and Latin, and he was named distinguished alumnus of the year (2006) at University of California, Santa Cruz.[4] He has been a visiting professor of classics at Stanford University (1991–92), a National Endowment for the Humanities fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California (1992–93), an Alexander Onassistraveling fellowship to Greece (1999), as well as Nimitz Fellow at UC Berkeley (2006) and held the visiting Shifrin Chair of Military History at the U.S. Naval AcademyAnnapolis, Maryland (2002–03), and often the William Simon visiting professorship at the School of Public Policy at Pepperdine University (2009–15), and was awarded in 2015 an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from the graduate school at Pepperdine. He gave the Wriston Lecture in 2004 for the Manhattan Institute. He has been a board member of the Bradley Foundationsince 2015, and served on the HF Guggenheim Foundation board for over a decade.

Since 2004, Hanson has written a weekly column syndicated by Tribune Content Agency,[5] as well as a weekly column for National Review Online since 2001, and has not missed a weekly column for either venue since he began. He has been published in The New York TimesWall Street JournalThe Times Literary SupplementThe Daily TelegraphAmerican Heritage, and The New Criterion, among other publications. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal (2007) by President George W. Bush, as well as the Eric Breindel Prize for opinion journalism (2002), and the William F. Buckley Prize (2015). Hanson was also awarded the Claremont Institute’s Statesmanship Award at its annual Churchill Dinner, and the Bradley Prize from the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation in 2008.[4]

Writing

Hanson’s Warfare and Agriculture (Giardini 1983), his PhD thesis, argued that Greek warfare could not be understood apart from agrarian life in general, and suggested that the modern assumption that agriculture was irrevocably harmed during classical wars was vastly overestimated. The Western Way of War (Alfred Knopf 1989), for which John Keegan wrote the introduction, explored the combatants’ experiences of ancient Greek battle and detailed the Hellenic foundations of later Western military practice.

The Other Greeks (The Free Press 1995) argued that the emergence of a unique middling agrarian class explains the ascendance of the Greek city-state, and its singular values of consensual government, sanctity of private property, civic militarism and individualism. In Fields Without Dreams (The Free Press 1996, winner of the Bay Area Book Reviewers Award) and The Land Was Everything (The Free Press 2000, a Los Angeles Times notable book of the year), Hanson lamented the decline of family farming and rural communities, and the loss of agrarian voices in American democracy. The Soul of Battle (The Free Press 1999) traced the careers of Epaminondas, the Theban liberator, William Tecumseh Sherman, and George S. Patton, in arguing that democratic warfare’s strengths are best illustrated in short, intense and spirited marches to promote consensual rule, but bog down otherwise during long occupations or more conventional static battle.

In Mexifornia (Encounter 2003)—a personal memoir about growing up in rural California and an account of immigration from Mexico—Hanson predicted that illegal immigration would soon reach crisis proportions, unless legal, measured, and diverse immigration was restored, as well as the traditional melting-pot values of integration, assimilation, and intermarriage.

Ripples of Battle (Doubleday 2003) chronicled how the cauldron of battle affects combatants’ later literary and artistic work, as its larger influence ripples for generations, affecting art, literature, culture, and government. In A War Like No Other (Random House 2005, a New York Times notable book of the year), a history of the Peloponnesian War, Hanson offered an alternative history, arranged by methods of fighting—triremes, hoplites, cavalry, sieges, etc.) in concluding that the conflict marked a brutal watershed event for the Greek city-states. The Savior Generals (Bloomsbury 2013) followed the careers of five great generals, arguing that rare qualities in leadership emerge during hopeless predicaments that only rare individuals can salvage.

The End of Sparta (Bloomsbury 2011) is a novel about a small community of Thespian farmers who join the great march of Epaminondas (369/70 BC) into the heart of the Peloponnese to destroy Spartan hegemony, free the Messenian helots, and spread democracy in the Peloponnese.

In addition, Hanson has edited several collected essays (Hoplites, Routledge 1991), Bonfire of the Humanities (with B. Thornton and J. Heath, ISI 2001), and Makers of Ancient Strategy (Princeton 2010), as well as a number of his own collected articles (An Autumn of War [2002 Anchor], Between War and Peace [Anchor 2004], and The Father of Us All [Bloomsbury 2010]). He has written a number of chapters for scholarly works such as the Cambridge History of War, and the Cambridge History of Ancient Warfare.

Carnage and Culture

Hanson is the author of the 2001 book Carnage and Culture (Doubleday), published in Great Britain and the Commonwealth countries as Why the West Has Won, in which he argued that the military dominance of Western civilization, beginning with the ancient Greeks, results from certain fundamental aspects of Western culture, such as consensual government, a tradition of self-critique, secular rationalism, religious tolerance, individual freedom, free expression, free markets, and individualism. Hanson’s emphasis on cultural exception rejects racial explanations for Western military preeminence and disagrees as well with environmental or geographical determinist explanations such as those put forth by Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997).[6]

According to Hanson, Western values such as political freedomcapitalismindividualismdemocracyscientific inquiryrationalism, and open debate form an especially lethal combination when applied to warfare. Non-Western societies can win occasional victories when warring against a society with these Western values, writes Hanson, but the “Western way of war” will likely prevail in the long run. Hanson emphasizes that Western warfare is not necessarily more (or less) moral than war as practiced by other cultures; his argument is simply that the “Western way of war” is unequaled in its emphases on devastation and decisiveness, fueled by superior technology and logistics.

Carnage and Culture examines nine battles throughout history, each of which is used to illustrate a particular aspect of Western culture that Hanson believes contributes to the dominance of Western warfare. The battles or campaigns recounted (with themes in parenthesis) are the Battle of Salamis (480 BC; free citizens), the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC; the decisive battle of annihilation), the Battle of Cannae (216 BC; civic militarism), the Battle of Tours/Poitiers (732; infantry), the Battle of Tenochtitlan (1521; technology and reason), the Battle of Lepanto (1571; capitalism), the Battle of Rorke’s Drift (1879; discipline), the Battle of Midway (1942; individualism), and the Tet Offensive (1968; dissent).

Though Carnage and Culture appeared before the September 11 attacks of 2001, its message that the “Western way of war” will ultimately prevail made the book a bestseller in the wake of those events. Immediately after 9/11, Carnage and Culture was re-issued with a new afterword by Hanson in which he explicitly stated that the United States government would win its “War on Terror” for the reasons stated in the book.

The American military officer Robert Bateman in a 2007 article on the Media Matters for America website criticized the Hanson thesis, arguing if Hanson’s point about Western armies preferring to seek out a decisive battle of annihilation is rebutted by the Second Punic War, where the Roman attempts to annihilate the Carthaginians instead led to the Carthaginians annihilating the Romans at the Battle of Cannae.[7] Bateman argued that Hanson was wrong about Western armies’ common preferences in seeking out a battle of annihilation, arguing that the Romans only defeated the Carthaginians via the Fabian Strategy of keeping their armies in being and not engaging Hannibal in battle.[7] In his first response, Hanson argued that Bateman was engaged in a “puerile, politically correct” attack on him, and accused Bateman of being motivated by current left-wing politics rather a genuine interest in history.[8] In a second response, Hanson called Bateman’s use of personal, adolescent invectives such as “pervert”, “feces”, and “devil”, as unprofessional and “unhinged”, and had no role in scholarly disagreements, accusing Bateman of being poorly informed of history and geography, as well as engaging in conduct unbecoming a U.S. Army officer.[9] Hanson declared that Bateman was incorrect about the Battle of Yarmoukarguing that the Golan Heights were at the edge of the Eastern Roman Empire, instead of being in the center as Bateman argued, and claimed that the Romans lost because of divided leadership rather than as a result of superior Islamic generalship as Bateman had contended.[9]

In his final responses, Hanson argued that Bateman was unfamiliar with any foreign language, did not understand the practice of translation or scholarly citation, and was utterly confused by basic issues of geography and history.

United States education and classical studies

Hanson co-authored the book Who Killed Homer?: The Demise of Classical Education and the Recovery of Greek Wisdom with John Heath. This book explores the issue of how classical education has declined in the US and what might be done to restore it to its former prominence. This is important, according to Hanson and Heath, because knowledge of the classical Greeks and Romans is necessary to fully understand Western culture. To begin a discussion along these lines the authors state, “The answer to why the world is becoming Westernized goes all the way back to the wisdom of the Greeks—reason enough why we must not abandon the study of our heritage”.[10]

Hanson and Heath, in their populist argument for a return to undergraduate teaching, fault the academic classicists themselves for the decline, accusing them of becoming so infected with political correctness and postmodern thinking, not to mention egoism and money-grubbing (grants, visiting professorships, conference-hopping, promotion based on unreadable publications), that they have lost sight of what Hanson and Heath feel the classics truly represent. They say it this way, “the study of Greek in the last twenty years became a profession, a tiny world—but a world of sorts nonetheless—of jets, conferences, publicity, jargon, and perks.”[11]

The political scientist Francis Fukuyama, reviewing Who Killed Homer? favorably in Foreign Affairs, noted,

The classicists Victoria Cech and Joy Connolly have found Who Killed Homer? to have considerable pitfalls. Reviews of the book have noted several problems with the authors’ perception of classical culture.

Per Victoria Cech, Director of Grants & Program Development,[13]

Per Joy Connolly, Professor of Classics at New York University,[15]

Political views

Hanson is a traditional conservative who voted for George W. Bush in the 2000 and 2004 elections.[17]

He has been described as a neoconservative by some commentators, for his support of maintaining U.S. troops to rebuild society after successful military interventions,[18][19] and has stated, “I came to support neocon approaches first in the wars against the Taliban and Saddam, largely because I saw little alternative.”[20] In 2005, Hanson wrote of why he did not find the Democratic Party populist or reflective of its prior concerns: “The Democratic Party reminds me of the Republicans circa 1965 or so—impotent, shrill, no ideas, conspiratorial, reactive, out-of-touch with most Americans, isolationist, and full of embarrassing spokesmen.”[21]

More recently, Hanson has appeared to reject the term neoconservative, writing in a 2016 column “Hillary’s Neoliberals” that the term neoconservative was coined in the 1970s to describe liberals who moved right on social issues and on maintaining deterrence during the Cold War.[22] Hanson has critiqued the decision of several neoconservatives to declare their support for Hillary Clinton as preferable to Donald Trump on grounds that Clinton has a long history of abuse of office, and is mired in scandal over violations of national security statutes as well as influence peddling between the Clinton Foundation and the State Department. Hanson has attacked these neoconservatives as “neoliberals” who were never entirely proper conservative, arguing that these people had joined the Republican Party out of distaste for the Democratic Party, which had nominated as the presidential candidates George McGovern in 1972 and Jimmy Carter in 1976 as opposed to converting to conservatism.[22] Hanson ended his column that there were now two emerging factions in America—the proverbial ordinary Americans supporting Trump vs. the elites of both the Democratic and Republican parties supporting Clinton.[22] Hanson wrote: “A mostly urban, highly educated, and high-income globalized elite often shares more cultural and political affinities with their counterparts on the other side of the aisle than they do with the lower-middle and working classes of their own parties. Just as Hillary Clinton may feel more comfortable with the old neoconservatives, Trump supporters have little in common with either Clintonites or neocons. Clinton versus Trump is a war of NPRCBS, and the New York Times against the National Enquirerconservative talk radio, and the Drudge Report. Clinton supporters such as former New York mayor Michael Bloomberg, onetime Bush officials Hank Paulsonand Brent Scowcroft, and billionaire Meg Whitman certainly have nothing in common with Republican Trump supporters such as Mike Huckabee and Rush Limbaugh. Culture, not just politics, is rapidly destroying—but also rebuilding—traditional political parties.”[22]

Hanson was a defender of George W. Bush and his policies,[23] especially the Iraq War.[24] He was also a vocal supporter of Bush’s Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. Hanson wrote of Rumsfeld that he was: “a rare sort of secretary of the caliber of George Marshall” and a “proud and honest-speaking visionary” whose “hard work and insight are bringing us ever closer to victory”.[25]

On the issues pertaining to the constant political turmoil in the Middle East, Hanson emphasizes the lack of individual and political freedom, as well as transparency and self-critique, in many Middle Eastern nations as a major factor retarding economic, technological and cultural progress. He further relates the root cause of radical Islamic terrorism to insecurities resulting from a failure to achieve parity with the West, and a reactionary need to regain honor and pride.[26]

Iraq War

Hanson believed that the Iraq War, given the repeated serial violations by Iraq of UN sanctions, congressional mandates, and the threats that Saddam Hussein posed, in a post-9/11 climate, to the long-term security of the Middle East, was a necessary and worthwhile undertaking—and was, after a flawed occupation, eventually a laudable success that had led to a workable government in 2009 and relative calm in Iraq: analogous to the foundations of the successful American occupation of South Korea in the latter 1950s that led to the democratic society of today. However, he stated in 2008 that he, “… disagreed with many of the decisions made about the Iraq war,” such as the dissolution of the old Iraqi army.[20]

Hanson argued that the “surge” of 2007 had largely won the Iraq War by the beginning of 2009, and that rise of the Islamic State terrorist group which seized control of much of Iraq in mid-2014 was the result of what Hanson sees as the unwise withdrawal of all American troops from Iraq in December 2011, which he blames on the Obama administration.[27] Hanson argued that if only American troops had stayed in Iraq after December 2011, then the government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki would have been less sectarian and the Islamic State group would have never emerged.[28] Hanson argued that the December 2011 withdrawal from Iraq was motivated to help improve Obama’s chances of reelection in 2012, an act that he compared to being equivalent to the United States pulling its troops out of South Korea in 1955, arguing if only the Americans had stayed in Iraq, then that nation would have evolved into a Near Eastern version of South Korea.[29]

The U.S. and the world

In 2004, Hanson gave a mostly favorable review to the book Colossus by the British historian Niall Ferguson, where Ferguson argued that the United States should be an imperial power in the sense of preserving the post war order of global free trade, communications, and commerce, and the principal problem with Americans was that they were unwilling to embrace global leadership in the same way that people in 19th century Britain did.[30] Hanson found much to approve of in Ferguson’s book, writing: “In reality, we should be natural imperialists, given our wealth and expertise. Americans are also endowed with an exceptional moral sense. We are a generous people, whose checkered imperial interventions in the past rarely proved profitable or exploitive.”[30] Hanson agreed with Ferguson that the principal problem with Americans was an unease at playing the role of an imperialistic power, argued that post-1945 histories of Germany and Japan proved the beneficial results of American occupation and predicted that Iraq under American occupation would become just as much a prosperous and democratic society as Germany and Japan are.[30] Hanson praised Ferguson for his defense of the British Empire as a benevolent force and his thesis that the United States should play the same role in the world as the British Empire, writing: “Does Ferguson propose a new American liberal empire? In fact, he does almost, but not before noting that the British Victorians themselves got a bad rap as exploitive colonialists. In fact, the record of the 18th and 19th centuries prove exactly the opposite: Former and once-prosperous colonies, following autonomy, quickly turned into self-induced miseries, while Britain itself thrived as never before once free of these costly obligations. Empire turns out not to be a means of making money, but instead an idealist pursuit to keep sea lanes open, bullies at bay and nations trading rather than fighting. The world has been lucky to have the Americans fill this vacuum, inasmuch as the British once did a pretty good job of it as well.”[30] Hanson, well before the immigration and financial crises of the EU, also praised Ferguson for his very negative picture of the European Union as being both “busy triangulating with our enemies” and “running huge trade deficits with us as we supply their own security needs.” He appears to agree with Ferguson that Europe is undemocratic, and statist, but that with a population in decline and even worse entitlement overspending than the U.S., a more broken melting pot, and socialist response to these issues ensuring Europe will be unable generate the unity or idealism required to supplant the U.S.[30]

Israeli–Arab conflict

In his article Israel did it, Hanson asked why Israel, during the 2006 Lebanon war, was being blamed for responding to attacks by Hezbollah.[31] Hanson was critical of the Middle East policies of the administration of Barack Obama and accused the Obama administration of distancing itself from Israel, despite its exceptional position as a tolerant Western nation in the Middle East, and of preferring the Palestinian Authority and Hamas despite their being anti-Western.[32]

Race relations

Hanson has often argued that in a 21st-century multiracial America there is little overt racism on the part of whites, and that generic complaints of racism too often are automatic from an often privileged African-American elite that uses such charges of racism to advance careerist concerns not often synonymous with those in the inner city.[33] In reference to the Gates affair in which the Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates was arrested in his home when a white policeman responded to a report of a possible break-in, Hanson argued that the policeman’s actions were understandable given that “… African-American males commit crimes at rates both higher than the general population’s, and at levels higher than other minority groups that likewise struggle with poverty and systemic unfairness.”[34]

In a 2012 column titled “The New Racial Derangement Syndrome”, Hanson argued again that class considerations now more often trump racial differences, and that racism in modern America is not confined to any one particular group, citing various statements by prominent African-Americans such as Morgan FreemanSamuel L. JacksonJamie FoxxChris Rock and Rob Parker that he saw as racially chauvinistic and often blatantly anti-white, and thus as signs of a new “racialist derangement” sweeping across black America that had set back considerable progress in making racial considerations prior to 2009 incidental rather than essential to an American citizen’s identity.[35] In a 2015 column titled “The Weariness of the Whiners”, Hanson illustrated the paradoxes of race and class, by citing the talk show hostess Oprah Winfrey‘s claim that she was a victim of racism when a clerk at the Trois Pommes boutique refused to show a $38,000 handbag to her.[33] In a 2016 column, “The New Segregationism”, Hanson lamented growing racial polarization, mostly on the part of elites who take refuge in racial chauvinism when their own careerist concerns are unmet. He used as an example of what he sees as the unlikelihood of the claim that there is anti-black racism in modern America in the complaint by the actor Will Smith that he was not nominated for an Oscar.[36]

Hanson has been critical of the group Black Lives Matter, which he maintains is a group based on “racial chauvinism” and “whining” which has told a “series of lies”—beginning with the “hands up don’t shoot” untruth in the Ferguson shooting of Michael Brown—about the supposedly statistically-proven epidemic of police killings of black men, the majority of which Hanson argued were found to be justified on the basis of current police practice and protocols.[37] Hanson claimed that responsibility for declining racial relations often rested with Barack Obama, whom Hanson suggested had deliberately inflamed racial tensions between whites and blacks, with a series of gratuitous and racially charged commentaries, dating from the 2008 campaign to editorializing about the Trayvon Martin killing case, as a way of securing the votes of black Americans for the Democrats.[38] Hanson faulted Obama for having “…systematically adopted a rhetoric and an agenda that is predicated on dividing up the country according to tribal grievances, in hopes of recalibrating various factions into a majority grievance culture. In large part, he has succeeded politically. But in doing so he has nearly torn the country apart. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to suggest that no other recent president has offered such a level of polarizing and divisive racial bombast.”[39]

Hanson has also been consistently critical of unchecked and unmonitored illegal immigration into the United States from Mexico and the Central American republics, which he sees as threatening to overwhelm the United States with millions of Spanish-speakers who make assimilation difficult and some of whom he charges have criminal records and do not establish a record of work history. In a 2014 column “1984 Redux: Orwellian Illegal Immigration” Hanson wrote that Hispanic groups that use the name La Raza are racialists who have “hijacked” America’s immigration policy to permit non-diverse, illegal, and unrestricted illegal immigration into the United States to further demographically-based political agendas, and who have made often false claims of suffering continual racial prejudice from a supposed prejudiced white majority, while arguing that Latinos as members of La Raza should keep themselves separate from the rest of Americans.[40] Hanson has condemned groups such as the National Council of La Raza as he argued that term La Raza has an unfortunate history as a “racialist term,” whose origins he claims go back to Francoist Spain of Francisco Franco and Benito Mussolini‘s fascist Italy, and those Mexican-American leaders who self-identify with the Francoist term La Raza are themselves guilty of operating as racial separatists.[41] In this regard, Hanson has voiced qualified support for Donald Trump‘s plans to deport illegal immigrants from the United States, after offering a chance for green card residence to those who were vetted and found to have no criminal record, no history of public support, and residence of some duration. Blanket deportation policy, Hanson argued, would be as “unworkable”, as is the present open-borders status quo.[42]

Hanson is also opposed to the unvetted, and often illegal mass influx of mostly young male refugees from the war-torn Middle East into Europe, alluding to the resulting tensions in EU society by using premodern/postmodern allusions to H.G. Well’s 1895 novel The Time Machine that the millions of Muslims fleeing to Europe are the “Morlocks” (i.e. a fierce underclass) who will devour the Europeans who are “Eloi” (i.e. largely defenseless and overly refined creatures).[43] Hanson wrote that: “Europe’s immigration policy is a disaster—and for reasons that transcend the idiocy of allowing the free influx of young male Muslims from a premodern, war-torn Middle East into a postmodern, pacifist, and post-Christian Europe.”[43] Hanson has called the German Chancellor Angela Merkel “unhinged” for welcoming about a million refugees fleeing from the Syrian Civil War into her nation without plans to assimilate or integrate such numbers, instead of sending them to their countries of origin. Hanson has denied that all Syrians fleeing into Europe are refugees from the civil war, writing that uncharacteristically most refugees are “…young, single men from the Middle East who pour into Europe not as political refugees but as opportunists eager for European social largesse”.[44] Hanson wrote “Merkel’s disastrous decision to open the borders of Germany—and with them Europe’s as well—is proving both selfish and suicidal.”[44] Wether Hanson was talking about the continued uninterrupted traveling within the Schengen Area or the lack of enforcement of the external European Union border was unclear.

Along the same lines, Hanson has argued that history proves that multi-cultural societies have too often proved disastrous failures, and that only way of preventing a society from collapsing into tribal bloodbaths is a “common culture, one that artificially suppresses the natural instinct of humans to identify first with their particular tribe”.[39] As an example of what he sees as a law of history, Hanson wrote: “The Italian Roman Republic lasted about 500 years. In contrast, the multiracial Roman Empire that after the Edict of Caracalla in AD 212 made all its diverse peoples equal citizens endured little more than two (often violent) centuries.”[45] Along the same lines Hanson wrote in the 2016 column “Diversity: History’s Pathway to Chaos” that: “Emphasizing diversity has been the pitfall, not the strength, of nations throughout history”.[46] Hanson charged that the current celebration of diversity was destroying America and ended with the statement if the celebration of diversity did not end: “Otherwise, we will end up as 50 separate and rival nations—just like other failed states in history whose diverse tribes and races destroyed themselves in a Hobbesian dog-eat-dog war with one another.”[46] In a 2013 column titled “Western Cultural Suicide”, Hanson wrote: “Multiculturalism—as opposed to the notion of a multiracial society united by a single culture—has become an abject contradiction in the modern Western world… Western hosts lost confidence in the very society that gives us the wealth and leisure to ignore or caricature its foundations. The result is that millions of immigrants flock to the West, enjoy its material security, and yet feel little need to bond with their adopted culture, given that their hosts themselves are ambiguous about what others desperately seek out.”[47]

Writing about the murder of a British soldier by two Nigerian Muslims on the streets of London in May 2013, Hanson wrote the murder reflected what he viewed as cultural decline, stating: “In Britain, as in the West in general, deportation is a fossilized concept. Unity is passé. Patriotism is long suspect. The hip metrosexual cultures of the urban West strain to find fault in their inheritance, and seem to appreciate those who do that in the most cool fashion—but always with the expectation that there will be some poor blokes who, in terms of clean water, medical care, free speech, and dependable electricity, ensure that London is not Lagos, that Stockholm is not Damascus, and that Los Angeles is not Nuevo Laredo.”[47] Through acknowledging that in the early years of the American republic that to be American was to be white, Hanson argued that the “ultimate logic” of the American constitution led to the United States becoming a society where “multiracialism under one common culture” was the norm, but unfortunately in the late 20th century “multiculturalism, in which each particular ethnic group retained its tribal chauvinism and saw itself as separate from the whole” become the new norm.[45]

In July 2013, the Attorney General Eric Holder gave a speech when he mentioned that as a black man the need to deliver “the Talk” to his children, namely he would have to inform his children that some, mostly white people who were going to hate them not because what they did, but simply because of their skin color. In response to Holder’s speech, Hanson wrote a column titled “Facing Facts about Race” where he offered up his own version (and others’) of “the Talk”, namely the need to inform his children to be careful of young black men when venturing into the inner city, who Hanson argued were statistically more likely to commit violent crimes than young men of other races, and that therefore it was understandable for the police to focus on groups with the highest statistical crime rates, which turn out to be young black males.[48]

Hanson wrote his father once had been robbed by young black men, and had given him “the Talk” warning his son to exercise caution in known crime-ridden areas and to note that African-American male youth have a far higher incidence of assault than other groups; and Hanson added that having been robbed himself by black men, he had given “the Talk” warning his children to avoid situations when in dangerous areas and to exercise caution there when encountering groups of young African-American men when alone, whom Hanson argue were statistically more likely to have had criminal records.[48] Hanson therefore criticized Holder and Obama for suggesting that racism may have been a factor in the trial of Hispanic George Zimmerman who had been charged and acquitted of murder with the shooting death of Trayvon Martin—and especially for intruding in an ongoing criminal case before a jury had even been selected.[48] Hanson argued that Zimmerman was later found by a jury of his peers to be justified in shooting Martin in self-defense, and he suggested that Obama was alluding to racism being a factor in the case, to distract attention from his then unpopular presidency.[48]

Referring to the concurrent case at the time of two Vietnamese-Americans killed by a black convicted felon, Hanson wrote: “The world will long remember Trayvon Martin, but few people—and certainly not Barack Obama or Eric Holder, who have a bad habit, in an increasingly multiracial country, of claiming solidarity on the basis of race—will care that Khin Min and Lina Lim were torn to pieces by bullets and a knife. Few will care that they died in a vicious assault that had nothing to do with stereotyping, Stand Your Ground self-defense, weak gun laws, insufficient federal civil-rights legislation, or any of the other causes of interracial violence falsely advanced by the attorney general—but quite a lot to do with an urban culture that for unspoken reasons has spawned an epidemic of disproportionate violent crime on the part of young African-American males.”[48]

Criticism for his views on race relations

In response to “Facing Facts About Race”, the American writer Ta-Nehisi Coates accused Hanson of racism and stupidity.[49] Referring to Hanson’s “Talk”, Coates wrote: “Let us be direct—in any other context we would automatically recognize this “talk” as stupid advice. If I were to tell you that I only employ Asian-Americans to do my taxes because “Asian-Americans do better on the Math SAT,” you would not simply question my sensitivity, but my mental faculties. That is because you would understand that in making an individual decision, employing an ancestral class of millions is not very intelligent. Moreover, were I to tell you I wanted my son to marry a Jewish woman because “Jews are really successful,” you would understand that statement for the stupidity which it is … There is no difference between my argument above and the notion that black boys should be avoided because they are overrepresented in the violent crime stats. But one of the effects of racism is its tendency to justify stupidity.”[49]

The Anglo-American journalist Andrew Sullivan called Hanson’s column “spectacularly stupid”, writing: “Treating random strangers as inherently dangerous because of their age, gender and skin color is a choice to champion fear over reason, a decision to embrace easy racism over any attempt to overcome it”.[50] The American journalist Arthur Stern called “Facing Facts About Race” an “inflammatory” column based upon crime statistics that Hanson never cited, writing: “His presentation of this controversial opinion as undeniable fact without exhaustive statistical proof is undeniably racist.”[51] The Anglo-American journalist Kelefa Sanneh in response to “Facing Facts About Race” wrote that Hanson was wrong to claim that white and Asian-Americans were all victims of black criminals, writing: “It’s strange, then, to read Hanson writing as if the fear of violent crime were mainly a “white or Asian” problem, about which African-Americans might be uninformed, or unconcerned—as if African-American parents weren’t already giving their children more detailed and nuanced versions of Hanson’s “sermon,” sharing his earnest and absurd hope that the right words might keep trouble at bay.”[52]

The Anglo-American journalist John Derbyshire, who was fired from the National Review for writing a similar column in 2012 titled “The Talk: Nonblack Version”, came to Hanson’s defense, praising him for “spot-on observations” about race relations in modern America, through he argued that his column was much superior.[53] In “The Talk: Nonblack Version”, Derbyshire, who had earlier been criticized by Hanson on his advocacy for racial stereotyping well beyond the context of traveling in high crime areas, went well beyond what Hanson had advocated, telling his children not to live in cities with black mayors, never to help a black person in distress, to avoid all public gatherings with large numbers of black people and only have a few black people as friends to avoid allegations of prejudice.[54]Contra Coates, Derbyshire argued in support of Hanson that the best way to avoid being a victim of crime was: “..stay well clear of crowds of unfamiliar blacks. Might application of those rules leave someone with hurt feelings? Probably. So in this pan we have some stranger’s hurt feelings. In the other pan, we have our kids’ safety. What’s the beam doing, Ta-Nehisi?”.[53] Hanson in response to Sanneh’s essay accused him of a “McCarthyite character assassination” and “infantile, if not racialist, logic”.[55]

Confrontation with Iran

Hanson has argued that the U.S. may be forced to take a much more confrontational stance towards Iranian violation of prior nuclear enrichment prohibitions, advocating, if necessary, unilateral responses to the country should it continue its aggressive acts of war. On the Hugh Hewitt show in August 2007, Hanson stated, “We really need to start doing some things beyond talking, and if that is going into Iranian airspace, or buzzing Iranians, or even starting to forget where the border is and taking out some of these training camps, we need to do that and send a message, because they’re a paper tiger. They really are.”[56] In a 2014 column Hanson faulted the Obama administration for engaging in “appeasement” of Iran and of fruitlessly attempting to negotiate an end to the Iranian program to acquire nuclear weapons, predicating if Iran continued enrichment unchecked that: “Accordingly, it is more than likely that in the next two years Iran will become a nuclear power.”[57] As of November 2018, Iran is still not a nuclear power.

China

Hanson has argued that China is an increasingly aggressive power that is set upon eventually dominating East Asia. In a 2014 column titled “Is China copying the Old Imperial Japan?”, Hanson answered his question in the affirmative.[58] Hanson maintained that economically successful Asian nations without the deterrent power of the United States are naturally inclined to expansionism.[58] Hanson claimed that Japan, as a result of late nineteenth-century Meiji era reforms, had become powerful at the same time the United States had temporarily retreated into isolationism which allowed Japan to embark upon an imperialistic foreign policy; that the same thing was happening today with China and the United States under the leadership of Barack Obama.[58] Along these lines, Hanson has cited China for attempting to create its version of “Greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere”, which would incorporate all of East Asia.[59]

Russia

Hanson repeatedly accused President Barack Obama of engaging in “appeasement” of Russia. Hanson argues that Vladimir Putin is the embodiment of “eternal Russia”, an aggressively expansionist and anti-Western nation whose people are innately anti-democratic. In a 2012 column titled “History Never Quite Ends”, Hanson wrote: “From the czars to the Soviet Communists to Vladimir Putin’s cronies, there is something about constitutional government and liberal rule that bothers Mother Russia. The more that progressive outsiders seek to lecture or reform Russians, the more likely they are to bristle and push back with left-wing or right-wing nationalist strongmen. At present, we do not know whether there will be a Czar Vladimir, Comrade Putin, or Putin Inc. in charge, but we fear it does not matter much”.[60] Hanson depicts modern Russia in unflattering terms as “…a disaster of a declining population, corruption, authoritarianism, a warped economy, and a high rate of alcoholism.”[61] Precisely because Russia is so weak, Hanson claims that Putin is driven to aggression against his neighbors with the overwhelmingly support of the Russian people out of a sense of hurt pride and a desire to make Russia great again.[61] In 2014, Hanson called Putin “evil”, writing: “Putin is almost Milton’s Satan—as if, in his seductive evil, he yearns for clarity, perhaps even a smackdown, if not just for himself, for us as well. He is not the better man than Obama but, again like Milton’s Satan, the more interesting, if only because he reminds of us of our own limitations.”[62] In a 2015 column, Hanson wrote about what he views as the aims of Russian foreign policy that:

Hanson stated that Obama’s much heralded “reset” of relations with Russia in 2009 had “empowered” Putin and, in this way, Obama was responsible for the outbreak of the war in Ukraine in 2014.[28][62][63][64] In 2009, Hanson wrote about the “reset”: “…former Soviet republics understand that Russia’s Putin has a de facto green light to “readjust” their present-day, “ad hoc” borders—with President Obama about as clear on any future dispute as candidate Obama was about Georgia.”[65] In 2014, Hanson predicted that Russia might very well invade Estonia in the near future, stating: “Future targeted states, perhaps like Estonia, should understand that they are slated to play the 1939 role of Poland after the earlier Anschluss and dismemberment of Czechoslovakia.”[66] In 2014, Hanson predicted that the Russian-dominated Eurasian Economic Union, which Hanson calls the “Russian Union” would continue to grow, writing: “Soon the Russian Union could dwarf the European Union, as the former consolidates and the latter threatens to fragment.”[67]

In 2015, Hanson wrote:

In another 2015 column, Hanson wrote about he sees as Putin’s mindset that:

Hanson is opposed to the Russian intervention in the Syrian civil war, which he argues is a part of a bid by Putin to construct an anti-American Russian-Syrian-Iranian-Iraqi alliance that will dominate the Middle East and intimidate the Gulf states.[70] Hanson has made the claim that the primary responsibility for the outbreak of the Second World War was not due to Adolf Hitler, but was rather due to the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and the French Premier Édouard Daladier who failed to maintain credible threats of deterrence.[71] Hanson has argued Obama has likewise failed to maintain a credible threat of deterrence, and as such, the world is on the verge of another war comparable to the Second World War.[71] Hanson has predicted that Putin will sometime in the near-future invade one or more of the Baltic states if the United States does not provide more deterrence to Russia.[72]

In 2017, Hanson wrote about the Russia–United States relations:

Works

References …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Davis_Hanson

 

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Story 1: President Trump’s National Security Strategy — Videos

WATCH: President Trump Speech: Unveils ‘America First’ National Security Strategy 12/18/17

Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center

Washington, D.C.

2:03 P.M. EST

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you very much.  Thank you.  Please.  I want to thank Vice President Pence, along with the many members of my Cabinet here with us today.

I also want to thank all of the dedicated professionals — military, civilian, and law enforcement — who devote their lives to serving our nation.  In particular, I want to recognize General Dunford and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Thank you, thank you, thank you.  (Applause.)

In addition, we are honored to be joined by House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, Homeland Security Chairman Mike McCaul, and Senate Majority Whip John Cornyn.  Thank you very much.  Thank you for being here.  Thank you.  Thank you.  (Applause.)

Let me begin by expressing our deepest sympathies and most heartfelt prayers for the victims of the train derailment in Washington State.  We are closely monitoring the situation and coordinating with local authorities.  It is all the more reason why we must start immediately fixing the infrastructure of the United States.

We’re here today to discuss matters of vital importance to us all:  America’s security, prosperity, and standing in the world.  I want to talk about where we’ve been, where we are now, and, finally, our strategy for where we are going in the years ahead.

Over the past 11 months, I have traveled tens of thousands of miles to visit 13 countries.  I have met with more than 100 world leaders.  I have carried America’s message to a grand hall in Saudi Arabia, a great square in Warsaw, to the General Assembly of the United Nations, and to the seat of democracy on the Korean Peninsula.  Everywhere I traveled, it was my highest privilege and greatest honor to represent the American people.

Throughout our history, the American people have always been the true source of American greatness.  Our people have promoted our culture and promoted our values.  Americans have fought and sacrificed on the battlefields all over the world.  We have liberated captive nations, transformed former enemies into the best of friends, and lifted entire regions of the planet from poverty to prosperity.

Because of our people, America has been among the greatest forces for peace and justice in the history of the world.  The American people are generous.  You are determined, you are brave, you are strong, and you are wise.

When the American people speak, all of us should listen.  And just over one year ago, you spoke loud and you spoke clear.  On November 8, 2016, you voted to make America great again.  (Applause.)  You embraced new leadership and very new strategies, and also a glorious new hope.  That is why we are here today.

But to seize the opportunities of the future, we must first understand the failures of the past.  For many years, our citizens watched as Washington politicians presided over one disappointment after another.  To many of our leaders — so many who forgot whose voices they were to respect and whose interests they were supposed to defend — our leaders in Washington negotiated disastrous trade deals that brought massive profits to many foreign nations, but sent thousands of American factories, and millions of American jobs, to those other countries.

Our leaders engaged in nation-building abroad, while they failed to build up and replenish our nation at home.  They undercut and shortchanged our men and women in uniform with inadequate resources, unstable funding, and unclear missions.  They failed to insist that our often very wealthy allies pay their fair share for defense, putting a massive and unfair burden on the U.S. taxpayer and our great U.S. military.

They neglected a nuclear menace in North Korea; made a disastrous, weak, and incomprehensibly bad deal with Iran; and allowed terrorists such as ISIS to gain control of vast parts of territory all across the Middle East.

They put American energy under lock and key.  They imposed punishing regulations and crippling taxes.  They surrendered our sovereignty to foreign bureaucrats in faraway and distant capitals.

And over the profound objections of the American people, our politicians left our borders wide open.  Millions of immigrants entered illegally.  Millions more were admitted into our country without the proper vetting needed to protect our security and our economy.  Leaders in Washington imposed on the country an immigration policy that Americans never voted for, never asked for, and never approved — a policy where the wrong people are allowed into our country and the right people are rejected.  American citizens, as usual, have been left to bear the cost and to pick up the tab.

On top of everything else, our leaders drifted from American principles.  They lost sight of America’s destiny.  And they lost their belief in American greatness.  As a result, our citizens lost something as well.  The people lost confidence in their government and, eventually, even lost confidence in their future.

But last year, all of that began to change.  The American people rejected the failures of the past.  You rediscovered your voice and reclaimed ownership of this nation and its destiny.

On January 20th, 2017, I stood on the steps of the Capitol to herald the day the people became the rulers of their nation again.  (Applause.)  Thank you.  Now, less than one year later, I am proud to report that the entire world has heard the news and has already seen the signs.  America is coming back, and America is coming back strong.

Upon my inauguration, I announced that the United States would return to a simple principle:  The first duty of our government is to serve its citizens, many of whom have been forgotten.  But they are not forgotten anymore.  With every decision and every action, we are now putting America first.

We are rebuilding our nation, our confidence, and our standing in the world.  We have moved swiftly to confront our challenges, and we have confronted them head-on.

We are once again investing in our defense — almost $700 billion, a record, this coming year.  We are demanding extraordinary strength, which will hopefully lead to long and extraordinary peace.  We are giving our courageous military men and women the support they need and so dearly deserve.

We have withdrawn the United States from job-killing deals such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the very expensive and unfair Paris Climate Accord.  And on our trip to Asia last month, I announced that we will no longer tolerate trading abuse.

We have established strict new vetting procedures to keep terrorists out of the United States, and our vetting is getting tougher each month.

To counter Iran and block its path to a nuclear weapon, I sanctioned the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps for its support of terrorism, and I declined to certify the Iran Deal to Congress.

Following my trip to the Middle East, the Gulf states and other Muslim-majority nations joined together to fight radical Islamist ideology and terrorist financing.  We have dealt ISIS one devastating defeat after another.  The coalition to defeat ISIS has now recaptured almost 100 percent of the land once held by these terrorists in Iraq and Syria.  Great job.  (Applause.)  Great job.  Really good.  Thank you.  Thank you.  We have a great military.  We’re now chasing them wherever they flee, and we will not let them into the United States.

In Afghanistan, our troops are no longer undermined by artificial timelines, and we no longer tell our enemies of our plans.  We are beginning to see results on the battlefield.  And we have made clear to Pakistan that while we desire continued partnership, we must see decisive action against terrorist groups operating on their territory.  And we make massive payments every year to Pakistan.  They have to help.

Our efforts to strengthen the NATO Alliance set the stage for significant increases in member contributions, with tens of billions of dollars more pouring in because I would not allow member states to be delinquent in the payment while we guarantee their safety and are willing to fight wars for them.  We have made clear that countries that are immensely wealthy should reimburse the United States for the cost of defending them.  This is a major departure from the past, but a fair and necessary one — necessary for our country, necessary for our taxpayer, necessary for our own thought process.

Our campaign of maximum pressure on the North Korean regime has resulted in the toughest-ever sanctions.  We have united our allies in an unprecedented effort to isolate North Korea.  However, there is much more work to do.  America and its allies will take all necessary steps to achieve a denuclearization and ensure that this regime cannot threaten the world.  (Applause.)  Thank you.  This situation should have been taken care of long before I got into office, when it was much easier to handle.  But it will be taken care of.  We have no choice.

At home, we are keeping our promises and liberating the American economy.  We have created more than 2 million jobs since the election.  Unemployment is at a 17-year-low.  The stock market is at an all-time high and, just a little while ago, hit yet another all-time high — the 85th time since my election.  (Applause.)

We have cut 22 regulations for every one new regulation, the most in the history of our country.  We have unlocked America’s vast energy resources.

As the world watches — and the world is indeed watching — we are days away from passing historic tax cuts for American families and businesses.  It will be the biggest tax cut and tax reform in the history of our country.  (Applause.)  Thank you.  Thank you.  Thank you.

And we are seeing the response we fully expected.  Economic growth has topped 3 percent for two quarters in a row.  GDP growth, which is way ahead of schedule under my administration, will be one of America’s truly greatest weapons.

Optimism has surged.  Confidence has returned.  With this new confidence, we are also bringing back clarity to our thinking.  We are reasserting these fundamental truths:

A nation without borders is not a nation.  (Applause.)

A nation that does not protect prosperity at home cannot protect its interests abroad.

A nation that is not prepared to win a war is a nation not capable of preventing a war.

A nation that is not proud of its history cannot be confident in its future.

And a nation that is not certain of its values cannot summon the will to defend them.

Today, grounded in these truths, we are presenting to the world our new National Security Strategy.  Based on my direction, this document has been in development for over a year.  It has the endorsement of my entire Cabinet.

Our new strategy is based on a principled realism, guided by our vital national interests, and rooted in our timeless values.

This strategy recognizes that, whether we like it or not, we are engaged in a new era of competition.  We accept that vigorous military, economic, and political contests are now playing out all around the world.

We face rogue regimes that threaten the United States and our allies.  We face terrorist organizations, transnational criminal networks, and others who spread violence and evil around the globe.

We also face rival powers, Russia and China, that seek to challenge American influence, values, and wealth.  We will attempt to build a great partnership with those and other countries, but in a manner that always protects our national interest.

As an example, yesterday I received a call from President Putin of Russia thanking our country for the intelligence that our CIA was able to provide them concerning a major terrorist attack planned in St. Petersburg, where many people, perhaps in the thousands, could have been killed.  They were able to apprehend these terrorists before the event, with no loss of life.  And that’s a great thing, and the way it’s supposed to work.  That is the way it’s supposed to work.

But while we seek such opportunities of cooperation, we will stand up for ourselves, and we will stand up for our country like we have never stood up before.  (Applause.)  Thank you.  Thank you.  Thank you.

We know that American success is not a forgone conclusion.  It must be earned and it must be won.  Our rivals are tough, they’re tenacious, and committed to the long term.  But so are we.

To succeed, we must integrate every dimension of our national strength, and we must compete with every instrument of our national power.

Under the Trump administration, America is gaining wealth, leading to enhanced power — faster than anyone thought — with $6 trillion more in the stock market alone since the election — $6 trillion.

With the strategy I am announcing today, we are declaring that America is in the game and America is going to win.  (Applause.)  Thank you.

Our strategy advances four vital national interests.  First, we must protect the American people, the homeland, and our great American way of life.  This strategy recognizes that we cannot secure our nation if we do not secure our borders.  So for the first time ever, American strategy now includes a serious plan to defend our homeland.  It calls for the construction of a wall on our southern border; ending chain migration and the horrible visa and lottery programs; closing loopholes that undermine enforcement; and strongly supporting our Border Patrol agents, ICE officers, and Homeland Security personnel.  (Applause.)

In addition, our strategy calls for us to confront, discredit, and defeat radical Islamic terrorism and ideology and to prevent it from spreading into the United States.  And we will develop new ways to counter those who use new domains, such as cyber and social media, to attack our nation or threaten our society.

The second pillar of our strategy is to promote American prosperity.  For the first time, American strategy recognizes that economic security is national security.  Economic vitality, growth, and prosperity at home is absolutely necessary for American power and influence abroad.  Any nation that trades away its prosperity for security will end up losing both.

That is why this National Security Strategy emphasizes, more than any before, the critical steps we must take to ensure the prosperity of our nation for a long, long time to come.

It calls for cutting taxes and rolling back unnecessary regulations.  It calls for trade based on the principles of fairness and reciprocity.  It calls for firm action against unfair trade practices and intellectual property theft.  And it calls for new steps to protect our national security industrial and innovation base.

The strategy proposes a complete rebuilding of American infrastructure — our roads, bridges, airports, waterways, and communications infrastructure.  And it embraces a future of American energy dominance and self-sufficiency.

The third pillar of our strategy is to preserve peace through strength.  (Applause.)  We recognize that weakness is the surest path to conflict, and unrivaled power is the most certain means of defense.  For this reason, our strategy breaks from the damaging defense sequester.  We’re going to get rid of that.  (Applause.)

It calls for a total modernization of our military, and reversing previous decisions to shrink our armed forces — even as threats to national security grew.  It calls for streamlining acquisition, eliminating bloated bureaucracy, and massively building up our military, which has the fundamental side benefit of creating millions and millions of jobs.

This strategy includes plans to counter modern threats, such as cyber and electromagnetic attacks.  It recognizes space as a competitive domain and calls for multi-layered missile defense.  (Applause.)  This strategy outlines important steps to address new forms of conflict such as economic and political aggression.

And our strategy emphasizes strengthening alliances to cope with these threats.  It recognizes that our strength is magnified by allies who share principles — and our principles — and shoulder their fair share of responsibility for our common security.

Fourth and finally, our strategy is to advance American influence in the world, but this begins with building up our wealth and power at home.

America will lead again.  We do not seek to impose our way of life on anyone, but we will champion the values without apology.  We want strong alliances and partnerships based on cooperation and reciprocity.  We will make new partnerships with those who share our goals, and make common interests into a common cause.  We will not allow inflexible ideology to become an obsolete and obstacle to peace.

We will pursue the vision we have carried around the world over this past year — a vision of strong, sovereign, and independent nations that respect their citizens and respect their neighbors; nations that thrive in commerce and cooperation, rooted in their histories and branching out toward their destinies.

That is the future we wish for this world, and that is the future we seek in America.  (Applause.)

With this strategy, we are calling for a great reawakening of America, a resurgence of confidence, and a rebirth of patriotism, prosperity, and pride.

And we are returning to the wisdom of our founders.  In America, the people govern, the people rule, and the people are sovereign.  What we have built here in America is precious and unique.  In all of history, never before has freedom reigned, the rule of law prevailed, and the people thrived as we have here for nearly 250 years.

We must love and defend it.  We must guard it with vigilance and spirit, and, if necessary, like so many before us, with our very lives.  And we declare that our will is renewed, our future is regained, and our dreams are restored.

Every American has a role to play in this grand national effort.  And today, I invite every citizen to take their part in our vital mission.  Together, our task is to strengthen our families, to build up our communities, to serve our citizens, and to celebrate American greatness as a shining example to the world.

As long as we are proud — and very proud — of who we are, how we got here, and what we are fighting for to preserve, we will not fail.

If we do all of this, if we rediscover our resolve and commit ourselves to compete and win again, then together we will leave our children and our grandchildren a nation that is stronger, better, freer, prouder, and, yes, an America that is greater than ever before.

God Bless You.  Thank you very much.  Thank you.  (Applause.)

END

2:32 P.M. EST

https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-administrations-national-security-strategy/

National security official on President Trump’s strategy

[youtubre=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uTbXP36iYJ4]

Blitzer presses Trump adviser: Has he read security document?

President Donald Trump Unveils National Security Strategy | CNBC

Pres Trump to Unveil National Security Strategy Today

 

National Security Strategy of United States of America December 2017

 

President Trump’s New National Security Strategy

By Anthony H. Cordesman

December 18, 2017

President Trump’s new National Security Strategy (NSS) deserves careful attention, particularly by America’s allies and strategic partners and by those who deal with everything the President says or issues in terms of knee jerk criticism. It is a document that President Trump reviewed and altered in some depth and that represents his views—rather than a bureaucratic compromise. At the same time, it both expands on the classic themes of U.S. strategy—rather than rejects them—and commits the U.S. to playing its traditional role in leading the free world.

“America First” Means International, Not Isolation

One of the most critical aspects of the document is its definition of “America First”—one which clearly rejects the isolationism of those who first used the term, and rejects the denial of America’s overseas role that some around the President advocated before he appointed his present national security team. It directly addresses both America’s need to remain committed overseas and deal with competition from Russia and China:

An America that is safe, prosperous, and free at home is an America with the strength, confidence, and will to lead abroad. It is an America that can preserve peace, uphold liberty, and create enduring advantages for the American people. Putting America first is the duty of our government and the foundation for U.S. leadership in the world.

A strong America is in the vital interests of not only the American people, but also those around the world who want to partner with the United States in pursuit of shared interests, values, and aspirations…

This National Security Strategy puts America first.

…Our founding principles have made the United States among the greatest forces for good in the world. But we are also aware that we must protect and build upon our accomplishments, always conscious of the fact that the interests of the American people constitute our true North Star.

America’s achievements and standing in the world were neither inevitable nor accidental. On many occasions, Americans have had to compete with adversarial forces to preserve and advance our security, prosperity, and the principles we hold dear.

The United States consolidated these military victories with political and economic triumphs built on market economies and fair trade, democratic principles, and shared security partnerships.

…The United States will respond to the growing political, economic, and military competitions we face around the world.

China and Russia challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity. They are determined to make economies less free and less fair, to grow their militaries, and to control information and data to repress their societies and expand their influence…

These competitions require the United States to rethink the policies of the past two decades—policies based on the assumption that engagement with rivals and their inclusion in international institutions and global commerce would turn them into benign actors and trustworthy partners. For the most part, this premise turned out to be false.

…The United States will respond to the growing political, economic, and military competitions we face around the world.

China and Russia challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity. They are determined to make economies less free and less fair, to grow their militaries, and to control information and data to repress their societies and expand their influence…

These competitions require the United States to rethink the policies of the past two decades—policies based on the assumption that engagement with rivals and their inclusion in international institutions and global commerce would turn them into benign actors and trustworthy partners. For the most part, this premise turned out to be false.

This wording is not the same as in the documents issued by past administrations, but it clearly addresses the need for the U.S. to keep playing the key elements of its current role in the world, as do the relevant portions of the rest of the document. It also reflects the fact that President Trump may swing from position to position at times in his tweets and short statements, but so far has ended up closer to the center in shaping his national security positions than many of his critics take fully into account.

Redefining U.S. National Security in Terms of Both Domestic and International “Pillars”

At the same, this is an innovative strategy as well. The new National Security Strategy centers around four pillars. The first two pillars add new sets of domestic goals to the more traditional international and military ones, and the remaining two pick up new domestic priorities as well:

America possesses unmatched political, economic, military, and technological advantages. But to maintain these advantages, build upon our strengths, and unleash the talents of the American people, we must protect four vital national interests in this competitive world.

First, our fundamental responsibility is to protect the American people, the homeland, and the American way of life . We will strengthen control of our borders and reform our immigration system. We will protect our critical infrastructure and go after malicious cyber actors. A layered missile defense system will defend our homeland from missile attack. And we will pursue threats to their source, so that jihadist terrorists are stopped before they ever reach our borders.

Second, we will promote American prosperity. We will rejuvenate the American economy for the benefit of American workers and companies. We will insist upon fair and reciprocal economic relationships to address trade imbalances. The United States must preserve its lead in research and technology and protect our economy from competitors who unfairly acquire our intellectual property. And we will embrace America’s energy dominance because unleashing abundant energy resources stimulates our economy.

Third, we will preserve peace through strength by rebuilding our military so that it remains preeminent, deters our adversaries, and if necessary, is able to fight and win. We will compete to ensure that regions of the world are not dominated by one power and to strengthen America’s capabilities—including in space and cyberspace —and revitalize others that have been neglected. Allies and partners magnify our power, and we expect them to shoulder a fair share of the burden of responsibility to protect against common threats.

Fourth, we will advance American influence because a world that supports American interests and reflects our values makes America more secure and prosperous. We will compete and lead in multilateral organizations so that American interests and principles are protected. America’s commitment to liberty, democracy, and the rule of law serves as an inspiration for those living under tyranny. We can play a catalytic role in promoting private-sector-led economic growth, helping aspiring partners become future trading and security partners. And we will remain a generous nation, even as we expect others to share responsibility.

The first two pillars clearly tie domestic strength to military security and make it clear that making “America first” is critically dependent on allies and strategic partners. The next two pillars make these points even more clearly, and the fourth provides a new commitment to playing a key role in international organizations—both those that affect national security directly like NATO, and the wide range of civil organizations that some on the far right disregard or see as hostile.

The strategy presents a conservative view of America’s role, but it is also a very international one, and one that clearly ties the President’s domestic priorities to American action and leadership overseas.

t operating below the threshold of open military conflict and at the edges of international law…They are patient and content to accrue strategic gains over time – making it harder for the United States and our allies to respond…

China, Russia, and other state and non-state actors recognize that the United States often views the world in binary terms, with states being either “at peace” or “at war,” when it is actually an arena of continuous competition…

The new National Security Strategy does, however, mirror past National Security Strategy documents, and America’s vacuous Quadrennial Defense Reviews, in one key respect. The sections on the “Military and Intelligence,” “Strengthening the Defense Industrial Base,” “Nuclear Forces,” “Space,” “Cyberspace,” “Intelligence,” “preserve peace through strength,” and “advance American influence,” all set good goals, but they do not even begin to hint at a strategy. There are no specifics, no broad plans, no summary indications of costs and resource, and no timeframes for action. About the only specific—early in the new strategy document—is an unexplained call: “layered missile defense system will defend our homeland from missile attack.”

To quote Gertrude Stein, America’s primary critical thinker about military strategy, “there is no there there.” Like the President’s campaign goals for increasing U.S. military forces, and calls for further increases in defense spending, it is not enough to set broad goals when they are not tied to specific missions and specific plans.

This is especially true when the U.S. is still bound by the Budget Control Act, may soon pass a tax bill that will put more strain on the federal budget, and a President has only a guarantee of three more years in office. A meaningful National Security Strategy must be far more specific, and give a far clearer lead to the executive branch and the military, the Congress, the American people and our allies. Having the right goals and good intentions is meaningless unless they produce results.

The subsection on “Diplomacy and Statecraft” also presents key problems. Calling for “competitive diplomacy” and the best use of “Tools of Economic Diplomacy” rings hollow when there is still no clear picture of how the State Department and diplomatic service are being reorganized, or even when the current studies and reorganization efforts are schedule to be completed and implemented.

The section on “Information Statecraft” recognizes that, “America’s competitors weaponize information to attack the values and institutions that underpin free societies, while shielding themselves from outside information. They exploit marketing techniques to target individuals based upon their activities, interests, opinions, and values. They disseminate misinformation and propaganda, but it again gives no specifics on how the U.S. will actually meet this challenge.

Pillar IV: Advance American Influence

The section on the final pillar again makes it clear that “America First” is a call for joint international action with America’s allies and strategic partners throughout the world—not a retreat from the world or form of isolationism:

Our America First foreign policy celebrates America’s influence in the world as a positive force that can help set the conditions for peace and prosperity and for developing successful societies.

There is no arc of history that ensures that America’s free political and economic system will automatically prevail… Around the world, nations and individuals admire what America stands for. We treat people equally and value and uphold the rule of law…

The United States offers partnership to those who share our aspirations for freedom and prosperity…We are not going to impose our values on others. Our alliances, partnerships, and coalitions are built on free will and shared interests…Allies and partners are a great strength of the United States. They add directly to U.S. political, economic, military, intelligence, and other capabilities…

By modernizing U.S. instruments of diplomacy and development, we will catalyze conditions to help them achieve that goal…These aspiring partners include states that are fragile, recovering from conflict, and seeking a path forward to sustainable security and economic growth. Stable, prosperous, and friendly states enhance American security and boost U.S. economic opportunities.

Some of the greatest triumphs of American statecraft resulted from helping fragile and developing countries become successful societies. These successes, in turn, created profitable markets for American businesses, allies to help achieve favorable regional balances of power, and coalition partners to share burdens and address a variety of problems around the world…

Today, the United States must compete for positive relationships around the world. China and Russia target their investments in the developing world to expand influence and gain competitive advantages against the United States.

The strategy raises an interesting challenge to the issue of nation building, and dealing with the impact of war in states like Afghanistan and Iraq in saying that, “the United States will promote a development model that partners with countries that want progress, consistent with their culture, based on free market principles, fair and reciprocal trade, private sector activity, and rule of law. The United States will shift away from a reliance on assistance based on grants to approaches that attract private capital and catalyze private sector activity”

It also firmly commits the United States to active participation in a wide range of international forums like the United Nations,

The United States must lead and engage in the multinational arrangements that shape many of the rules that affect U.S. interests and values. A competition for influence exists in these institutions. As we participate in them, we must protect American sovereignty and advance American interests and values…

Authoritarian actors have long recognized the power of multilateral bodies and have used them to advance their interests and limit the freedom of their own citizens…If the United States cedes leadership of these bodies to adversaries, opportunities to shape developments that are positive for the United States will be lost… Where existing institutions and rules need modernizing, the United States will lead to update them

And, it sets the right broad goals for shaping U.S. regional strategy,

The United States must tailor its approaches to different regions of the world to protect our national interests. We require integrated regional strategies that appreciate the nature and magnitude of threats, the intensity of competitions, and the promise of available opportunities, all in context of local political, economic, social, and historical realities.

Changes in a regional balance of power can have global consequences and threaten U.S. interests. Markets, raw materials, lines of communication, and human capital are located within, or move among, key regions of the world…

The United States must marshal the will and capabilities to compete and prevent unfavorable shifts in the Indo-Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East. Sustaining favorable balances of power will require a strong commitment and close cooperation with allies and partners because allies and partners magnify U.S. power and extend U.S. influence…

But once again, when it comes to each region, there are virtually no specifics even in terms of goals—much less plans for action. The sections on the “Indo-Pacific,” “Europe,” “The Middle East,” “South and Central Asia,” “Western Hemisphere,” and “Africa” say almost nothing about strategy and sometimes seem so anodyne as to be nearly meaningless. For example, what kind of strategy is it to say that,

For years, the interconnected problems of Iranian expansion, state collapse, jihadist ideology, socio-economic stagnation, and regional rivalries have convulsed the Middle East. The United States has learned that neither aspirations for democratic transformation nor disengagement can insulate us from the region’s problems. We must be realistic about our expectations for the region without allowing pessimism to obscure our interests or vision for a modern Middle East.

National Security, But Where Is the Strategy?

In many ways, this is a reassuring and innovative effort, and it is striking that President Trump has issued one during his first year in office. President Obama did not, and only issued two in eight years in office, and President George W. Bush did not, and only issued a total of one. The new strategy also is no vaguer or lacking in specifics than almost all of its predecessors since the current legislation calling for an annual National Security Strategy was passed as part of the Goldwater-Nichols Act in 1986.

In fairness, the President has tasked a whole range of more specific strategy studies, and these may address such specifics in the future. But surely, we could have done more to reassure our strategic partners and explain our intentions, talked about continued U.S. military and national security commitments, and highlighted key areas where deterrence and containment are being strengthened or need to be.

It is not enough to set national security goals. In an unstable and threatening world, at a time we cannot seem to manage our national budgets, and at a time when we face a growing deficit crisis driven by rising entitlement costs, we really need an actual strategy.

Note: The original legislative requirement passed in 1947. ( 50 U.S. Code § 3043 – Annual national security strategy report.)

https://www.csis.org/analysis/president-trumps-new-national-security-strategy

Story 2: U.S. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Third Quarter Grew at 3.1%

See the source image

U.S. Third-Quarter GDP Revised Down to 3.2% Pace

What Has Trump Accomplished So Far?

EMBARGOED UNTIL RELEASE AT 8:30 A.M. EST, Thursday, December 21, 2017
BEA 17—69

* See the navigation bar at the right side of the news release text for links to data tables, contact personnel and their telephone numbers, and supplementary materials.

Lisa Mataloni: (301) 278-9083 (GDP) gdpniwd@bea.gov
Kate Pinard: (301) 278-9417 (Corporate Profits) cpniwd@bea.gov
Jeannine Aversa: (301) 278-9003 (News Media) Jeannine.Aversa@bea.gov
National Income and Product Accounts
Gross Domestic Product: Third Quarter 2017 (Third Estimate)
Corporate Profits: Third Quarter 2017 (Revised Estimate)
Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 3.2 percent in the third quarter of
2017 (table 1), according to the "third" estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the
second quarter, real GDP increased 3.1 percent.

The GDP estimate released today is based on more complete source data than were available for the
"second" estimate issued last month.  In the second estimate, the increase in real GDP was 3.3 percent.
With this third estimate for the third quarter, personal consumption expenditures increased less than
previously estimated, but the general picture of economic growth remains the same (see "Updates to
GDP" on page 2).
Real GDP: Percent Change from Preceding Quarter
Real gross domestic income (GDI) increased 2.0 percent in the third quarter, compared with an increase
of 2.3 percent in the second. The average of real GDP and real GDI, a supplemental measure of U.S.
economic activity that equally weights GDP and GDI, increased 2.6 percent in the third quarter,
compared with an increase of 2.7 percent in the second quarter (table 1).

The increase in real GDP in the third quarter reflected positive contributions from personal consumption
expenditures (PCE), private inventory investment, nonresidential fixed investment, exports, federal
government spending, and state and local government spending that were partly offset by a negative
contribution from residential fixed investment. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of
GDP, decreased.

The slight acceleration in real GDP in the third quarter primarily reflected an acceleration in private
inventory investment and an upturn in state and local government spending that were partly offset by
decelerations in PCE, nonresidential fixed investment, and exports.

Current-dollar GDP increased 5.3 percent, or $250.6 billion, in the third quarter to a level of $19,500.6
billion. In the second quarter, current-dollar GDP increased 4.1 percent, or $192.3 billion (table 1 and
table 3).

The price index for gross domestic purchases increased 1.7 percent in the third quarter, compared with
an increase of 0.9 percent in the second quarter (table 4). The PCE price index increased 1.5 percent,
compared with an increase of 0.3 percent. Excluding food and energy prices, the PCE price index
increased 1.3 percent, compared with an increase of 0.9 percent (appendix table A).


Updates to GDP

The downward revision to the percent change in real GDP primarily reflected a downward revision to
PCE that was partly offset by an upward revision to state and local government spending.

For more information, see the Technical Note. A detailed "Key Source Data and Assumptions" file is also
posted for each release. For information on updates to GDP, see the “Additional Information” section
that follows.


                                           Advance Estimate     Second Estimate     Third Estimate
                                                   (Percent change from preceding quarter)
Real GDP                                         3.0                 3.3                3.2
Current-dollar GDP                               5.2                 5.5                5.3
Real GDI                                          …                  2.5                2.0
Average of Real GDP and Real GDI                  …                  2.9                2.6
Gross domestic purchases price index             1.8                 1.8                1.7
PCE price index                                  1.5                 1.5                1.5



Corporate Profits (table 12)

Profits from current production (corporate profits with inventory valuation adjustment and capital
consumption adjustment) increased $90.2 billion in the third quarter, compared with an increase of
$14.4 billion in the second quarter.

Profits of domestic financial corporations increased $47.8 billion in the third quarter, in contrast to a
decrease of $33.8 billion in the second. Profits of domestic nonfinancial corporations increased $10.4
billion, compared with an increase of $59.1 billion. Rest-of-the-world  profits increased $32.0 billion, in
contrast to a decrease of $10.8 billion. In the third quarter, receipts increased $26.9 billion, and
payments decreased $5.2 billion.



                                       *          *          *

                          Next release:  January 26, 2018 at 8:30 A.M. EST
               Gross Domestic Product:  Fourth Quarter and Annual 2017 (Advance Estimate)

                                       *          *          *



                                        Release Dates in 2018


      Estimate                   2017: IV and annual    2018: I           2018: II           2018: III
Gross Domestic Product
 Advance                         January 26             April 27          July 27            October 26
 Second                          February 28            May 30            August 29          November 28
 Third                           March 28               June 28           September 27       December 21

Corporate Profits
 Preliminary                     …                      May 30            August 29          November 28
 Revised                         March 28               June 28           September 27       December 21



                                       Additional Information

Resources

Additional resources available at www.bea.gov:
•	Stay informed about BEA developments by reading the BEA blog, signing up for BEA’s email
        subscription service, or following BEA on Twitter @BEA_News.
•	Historical time series for these estimates can be accessed in BEA’s Interactive Data Application.
•	Access BEA data by registering for BEA’s Data Application Programming Interface (API).
•	For more on BEA’s statistics, see our monthly online journal, the Survey of Current Business.
•	BEA's news release schedule
•	NIPA Handbook:  Concepts and Methods of the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts

Definitions

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the value of the goods and services produced by the nation’s economy
less the value of the goods and services used up in production. GDP is also equal to the sum of personal
consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports of goods and services, and
government consumption expenditures and gross investment.

Gross domestic income (GDI) is the sum of incomes earned and costs incurred in the production of GDP.
In national economic accounting, GDP and GDI are conceptually equal. In practice, GDP and GDI differ
because they are constructed using largely independent source data. Real GDI is calculated by deflating
gross domestic income using the GDP price index as the deflator, and is therefore conceptually
equivalent to real GDP.

Current-dollar estimates are valued in the prices of the period when the transactions occurred—that is,
at “market value.” Also referred to as “nominal estimates” or as “current-price estimates.”
Real values are inflation-adjusted estimates—that is, estimates that exclude the effects of price changes.
The gross domestic purchases price index measures the prices of final goods and services purchased by
U.S. residents.

The personal consumption expenditure price index measures the prices paid for the goods and services
purchased by, or on the behalf of, “persons.”

Profits from current production, referred to as corporate profits with inventory valuation adjustment
(IVA) and capital consumption adjustment (CCAdj) in the NIPAs, is a measure of the net income of
corporations before deducting income taxes that is consistent with the value of goods and services
measured in GDP. The IVA and CCAdj are adjustments that convert inventory withdrawals and depreciation
of fixed assets reported on a tax-return, historical-cost basis to the current-cost economic measures
used in the national income and product accounts. Profits for domestic industries reflect profits for
all corporations located within the within the geographic borders of the United States. The rest-of-
the-world (ROW) component of profits is measured as the difference between profits received from ROW
and profits paid to ROW.


For more definitions, see the Glossary: National Income and Product Accounts.


Statistical conventions

Annual rates. Quarterly values are expressed at seasonally-adjusted annual rates (SAAR), unless
otherwise specified. Dollar changes are calculated as the difference between these SAAR values. For
detail, see the FAQ “Why does BEA publish estimates at annual rates?”

Percent changes in quarterly series are calculated from unrounded data and are displayed at annual
rates, unless otherwise specified. For details, see the FAQ “How is average annual growth calculated?”

Quantities and prices. Quantities, or “real” volume measures, and prices are expressed as index
numbers with a specified reference year equal to 100 (currently 2009). Quantity and price indexes are
calculated using a Fisher-chained weighted formula that incorporates weights from two adjacent
periods (quarters for quarterly data and annuals for annual data). “Real” dollar series are calculated by
multiplying the published quantity index by the current dollar value in the reference year (2009) and
then dividing by 100. Percent changes calculated from real quantity indexes and chained-dollar levels
are conceptually the same; any differences are due to rounding.

Chained-dollar values are not additive because the relative weights for a given period differ from those
of the reference year. In tables that display chained-dollar values, a “residual” line shows the difference
between the sum of detailed chained-dollar series and its corresponding aggregate.


Updates to GDP

BEA releases three vintages of the current quarterly estimate for GDP:  "Advance" estimates are
released near the end of the first month following the end of the quarter and are based on source data
that are incomplete or subject to further revision by the source agency; “second” and “third” estimates
are released near the end of the second and third months, respectively, and are based on more detailed
and more comprehensive data as they become available.

Annual and comprehensive updates are typically released in late July. Annual updates generally cover at
least the 3 most recent calendar years (and their associated quarters) and incorporate newly available
major annual source data as well as some changes in methods and definitions to improve the accounts.
Comprehensive (or benchmark) updates are carried out at about 5-year intervals and incorporate major
periodic source data, as well as major conceptual improvements.
The table below shows the average revisions to the quarterly percent changes in real GDP between
different estimate vintages, without regard to sign.

Vintage                               Average Revision Without Regard to Sign
                                         (percentage points, annual rates)
Advance to second                                     0.5
Advance to third                                      0.6
Second to third                                       0.2
Advance to latest                                     1.3
Note - Based on estimates from 1993 through 2016. For more information on GDP
updates, see Revision Information on the BEA Web site.

The larger average revision from the advance to the latest estimate reflects the fact that periodic
comprehensive updates include major statistical and methodological improvements.

Unlike GDP, an advance current quarterly estimate of GDI is not released because data on domestic
profits and on net interest of domestic industries are not available. For fourth quarter estimates, these
data are not available until the third estimate.
https://bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm

Final reading on US Q3 GDP is up 3.2%, vs 3.3% growth expected

  • The U.S. economy grew at its fastest pace in more than two years in the third quarter.
  • Growth was powered by robust business spending, and is poised for what could be a modest lift next year from sweeping tax cuts passed by Congress this week.
  • Gross domestic product expanded at a 3.2 percent annual rate last quarter, the Commerce Department said.

 

A job seeker waits to be interviewed during a job fair at California's Great America theme park in Santa Clara, Calif.

Initial jobless claims up 20K to 245,000, Q3 GDP 3.2% vs. 3.3% est.  

The U.S. economy grew at its fastest pace in more than two years in the third quarter, powered by robust business spending, and is poised for what could be a modest lift next year from sweeping tax cuts passed by Congress this week.

Gross domestic product expanded at a 3.2 percent annual rate last quarter, the Commerce Department said in its third GDP estimate on Thursday. While that was slightly down from the 3.3 percent rate reported last month, it was the quickest pace since the first quarter of 2015 and was a pickup from the second quarter’s 3.1 percent rate.

It also marked the first time since 2014 that the economy experienced growth of 3 percent or more for two straight quarters. But the growth pace for the July-September period likely overstates the health of the economy.

An alternate measure of growth, gross domestic income, rose at a 2.0 percent rate in the third quarter. GDI was previously reported to have increased at a 2.5 percent rate.

The average of GDP and GDI, also referred to as gross domestic output and considered a better measure of economic growth, increased at a 2.6 percent rate instead of the previously reported 2.9 percent pace.

Republicans in the U.S. Congress this week approved a broad package of tax cuts in what was the largest overhaul of the tax code in 30 years, handing President Donald Trump a major legislative victory. Trump is expected to soon sign the legislation, which has $1.5 trillion in tax cuts.

Economists are forecasting a modest economic boost from the tax cuts, which includes slashing the corporate income tax rate to 21 percent from 35 percent. The fiscal stimulus will come while the economy is at full employment, which raises the risk of it overheating.

Economists had expected that third-quarter GDP growth would be unrevised at a 3.3 percent rate. Growth in the third quarter was also boosted by an accumulation of unsold goods and a rebound in government investment.

Growth in business investment in equipment was raised to a 10.8 percent pace, the fastest in three years, from the previously reported 10.4 percent rate.

Businesses accumulated inventories at a pace of $38.5 billion in the third quarter, instead of the previously reported rate of $39.0 billion. Inventory investment contributed 0.79 percentage point to third-quarter GDP growth, little changed from the previously reported 0.80 percentage point.

Growth in consumer spending, which accounts for more than two-thirds of the U.S. economy, was revised down by one-tenth of a percentage point to a 2.2 percent rate in the third quarter. Consumer spending increased at a robust 3.3 percent rate in the second quarter.

Data on retail sales suggests consumer spending accelerated in October and November. Spending is being supported by steady wage gains and household savings.

The government said after-tax corporate profits surged at a 5.7 percent rate last quarter instead of the previously reported 5.8 percent rate. Profits rose at only a 0.1 percent pace in the second quarter. Undistributed profits jumped at a 13.9 percent rate after declining for two straight quarters, suggesting that companies were anticipating deep tax cuts.

Story 3: Trump Is Winning and Junk Journalism Is Losing — Videos 

Kurtz: Trump’s tax win forces a media reassessment

Anti-Trump Hatred & Fake News Distortions Disallow Americans’ Ability to Analyze and Assess Issues

Hell freezes over: Media start admitting that Trump’s first year isn’t a flop

I have sensed for weeks now that some in the media were on the verge of rolling out a contrary take on President Trump’s first year in office.

And in the wake of yesterday’s final passage of massive tax cuts, that moment has arrived.

The dominant media narrative, of course, is that Trump hasn’t gotten much done, that he’s in over his head, that he doesn’t understand government, that he keeps picking petty fights rather than winning big battles.

But the thing about the pundits is that they get tired of pushing the same line, week after week, month after month. Some inevitably want to seize credit for a new insight, for getting ahead of the pack with a burst of contrarian wisdom.

And that hot take is, hey, maybe Trump has gotten some important things done after all.

It’s true that the president had not gotten much from the Republican Congress this year. But a new law that cuts taxes for businesses and individuals—even though the measure polls poorly and is not mainly aimed at the middle class—puts an end to the verdict that Trump doesn’t know how to work the Hill. Like it or not, this is a sprawling piece of legislation that was quickly pushed through the House and Senate in a show of party-line muscle.

Trump hasn’t gotten much credit for the record-breaking stock market, but there is now some recognition that Dow-Almost-25,000 can’t be completely divorced from his policies. And there’s starting to be a greater appreciation for the president’s progress on slashing regulations and appointing judges (even though three nominees recently had to withdraw, one because he couldn’t answer a Senate panel’s questions about basic court procedures).

On Axios, Jim VandeHei and Mike Allen stake out the new ground:

“The media often appraises presidencies and politics through liberal-tinted glasses. But the vast majority of the Republican Party like, even love, these policies …

“We have been saying all year: Watch what he does, not what he says. Until recently, he hasn’t done much. But these wins are substantial, with consequences for millions of people and many years to come.”

They note that Trump has won approval not just for Neil Gorsuch but for a dozen Circuit Court judges.

And while Trump failed in repeated attempts to scrap ObamaCare, he boasted yesterday abolishing the individual mandate—a provision added to the tax bill—amounts to repealing the health care program. That’s an overstatement, but letting people wait until they get sick to buy insurance could well undermine the exchanges created by Barack Obama.

On foreign policy, there is a telling New York Times piece by conservative columnist Ross Douthat, a harsh critic of Trump. He says the decimation of ISIS has drawn scant media attention:

“There is nothing more characteristic of the Trump era, with its fire hose of misinformation, scandal and hyperbole, than that America and its allies recently managed to win a war that just two years ago consumed headlines and dominated political debate and helped Donald Trump himself get elected president — and somehow nobody seemed to notice.”

It’s true there was no surrender ceremony and ISIS still exists, but it has lost physical stronghold in Iraq.

Says Douthat: “This is also a press failure, a case where the media is not adequately reporting an important success because it does not fit into the narrative of Trumpian disaster in which our journalistic entities are all invested.”

But the narrative is changing a bit. While Trump remains quite unpopular, at least according to the polls, the media are reluctantly starting to acknowledge that his presidency is having a significant impact.

Howard Kurtz is a Fox News analyst and the host of “MediaBuzz” (Sundays 11 a.m.). He is the author of five books and is based in Washington. Follow him at @HowardKurtz. Click here for more information on Howard Kurtz. 

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The Pronk Pops Show — Week in Review — September 23-30, 2017 — Videos

Posted on October 1, 2017. Filed under: Uncategorized |

Project_1

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 975, September 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 974, September 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 973, September 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 972, September 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 971, September 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 970, September 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 969, September 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 968, September 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 967, September 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 966, September 18, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 965, September 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 964, September 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 963, September 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 962, September 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 961, September 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 960, September 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 959, September 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 958, September 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 957, September 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 956, August 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 955, August 30, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 954, August 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 953, August 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 952, August 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 951, August 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 950, August 23, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 949, August 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 948, August 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 947, August 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 946, August 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 945, August 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 944, August 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 943, August 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 942, August 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 941, August 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 940, August 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 939, August 2, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 938, August 1, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 937, July 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 936, July 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 935, July 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 933, July 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 932, July 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 931, July 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 930, July 18, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 929, July 17, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 928, July 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 927, July 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 926, July 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 925, July 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 924, July 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 923, July 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 922, July 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 921, June 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 920, June 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 919, June 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 918, June 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 917, June 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 916, June 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 915, June 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 914, June 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 913, June 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 912, June 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 911, June 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 910, June 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 909, June 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 908, June 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 907, June 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 906, June 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 905, June 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 904, June 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 903, June 1, 2017

Corporations paying fewer taxes

Image result for trump's tax frameworkImage result for fairtax Tax Freedom Day Over Time

 

 

The Pronk Pops Show 975

September 29, 2017

Part 3 of 3

Story 1: The Tiny Timid Trump Tax Reform Resembles Liberal Democratic Party Proposals vs. Fair Tax Less Would Replace All Federal Taxes With A Single Consumption Tax On What You Buy Not What You Earn With A Generous Tax Prebate and Future Government Spending Limited To 90% of Fair Tax Less Revenues — Affordable, Effective, Efficient, Fair, Reasonable, Simple, and Transparent With Progressive Effective Rates Due To A Generous Monthly $1,000 Per Month or $12,000 Per Year Tax Prebate For All Adult American Citizens — American Friendly Not Revenue Neutral — Balanced Budgets With Real Spending Cuts and No More Budget Deficits — Booming Economy With Jobs, Jobs, and Jobs — The Time Is Now or Never For Fair Tax Less — Videos —

Story 2: Secretary of Health and Human Resources Thomas Price Resigns and President Trump Accepts After Trump Outraged Over Use Expensive Private Chartered Jet Flight To Conduct Government Business — Don Wright to serve as acting secretary of the HHS — Videos —

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/30/the-pronk-pops-show-975-september-29-2017-part-3-of-3-story-1-the-tiny-timid-trump-tax-reform-resembles-liberal-democratic-party-proposals-vs-fair-tax-less-would-replace-all-federal-taxes/

September 30, 2017 11:18 AM PDT

The Pronk Pops Show 974

September 28, 2017

Part 2 of 3

Story 1: The Tiny Timid Trump Tax Reform Resembles Liberal Democratic Party Proposals vs. Fair Tax Less Would Replace All Federal Taxes With A Single Consumption Tax On What You Buy Not What You Earn With A Generous Tax Prebate and Future Government Spending Limited To 90% of Fair Tax Less Revenues — Affordable, Effective, Efficient, Fair, Reasonable, Simple, and Transparent With Progressive Effective Rates Due To A Generous Monthly $1,000 Per Month or $12,000 Per Year Tax Prebate For All Adult American Citizens — American Friendly Not Revenue Neutral — Balanced Budgets With Real Spending Cuts and No More Budget Deficits — Booming Economy With Jobs, Jobs, and Jobs — The Time Is Now or Never For Fair Tax Less — Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/29/the-pronk-pops-show-974-september-28-2017-part-2-of-3-story-1-the-tiny-timid-trump-tax-reform-resembles-liberal-democratic-party-proposals-vs-fair-tax-less-would-replace-all-federal-taxes-with-a/

September 30, 2017 10:46 AM PDT

The Pronk Pops Show 973

September 27, 2017

Part 1 of 3
Story 1: The Tiny Timid Trump Tax Reform Resembles Liberal Democratic Party Proposals vs. Fair Tax Less Would Replace All Federal Taxes With A Single Consumption Tax On What You Buy Not What You Earn With A Generous Tax Prebate and Future Government Spending Limited To 90% of Fair Tax Less Revenues — Affordable, Effective, Efficient, Fair, Reasonable, Simple, and Transparent With Progressive Effective Rates Due To A Generous Monthly $1,000 Per Month or $12,000 Per Year Tax Prebate For All Adult American Citizens — American Friendly Not Revenue Neutral — Balanced Budgets With Real Spending Cuts and No More Budget Deficits — Booming Economy With Jobs, Jobs, and Jobs — The Time Is Now or Never For Fair Tax Less —  Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/the-pronk-pops-show-973-september-27-2017-story-1-the-tiny-timid-trump-tax-reform-resembles-liberal-democratic-party-proposals-vs-fair-tax-less-would-replace-all-federal-taxes-with-a-single-consu/

September 28, 2017 08:30 PM PDT

The Pronk Pops Show 972

Story 1: Economy Slowing Down As Consumer Confidence and Spending Decline — Videos —

Story 2: Latest Senate Repeal of Obamacare Fails — Time For Replacing Senate Majority Leader Mitchell McConnell With A New Conservative Leader — Videos —

Story 3: Trump Supports Republican Establishment Candidate Luther Strange vs. Trump Supporters of Judge Roy Moore For Senator From Alabama– Who Will Win? — The Winner Is Moore! — Moore Out Trumps Trump — Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/26/the-pronk-pops-show-972-september-26-2017-story-1-economy-slowing-down-as-consumer-confidence-and-spending-decline-videos-story-3-trump-supports-republican-establishment-candidate-luther-st/

September 26, 2017 01:06 PM PDT

The Pronk Pops Show 971

September 25, 2017

Story 1: American Sport Fans Vs. National Football League and Players — Not Respecting The American People, National Anthem, American Flag and United States By Kneeling During National Anthem Should Not Be Tolerated by Team Owners or League –NFL Not Enforcing Their Own Rule About National Anthem — Public Relations Disaster Destroying Brand and Team Franchises — — Political Correctness Collectivist Conformity Is Not Unity or Equality — Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/26/the-pronk-pops-show-971-september-25-2017-story-1-american-sport-fans-vs-national-football-league-and-players-not-respecting-the-american-people-national-anthem-american-flag-and-united-stat/

September 25, 2017 01:16 PM PDT

The Pronk Pops Show 970

September 22, 2017

Breaking Story 1: Rocket Man Kim Jong-Un Promises To Explode Hydrogen Bomb Over Pacific Ocean —

Story 2: The Democratic and Republican Party Failure To Completely Repeal Obamacare Including Repealing The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and All Related Mandates, Regulations, Taxes, Spending and Subsidies — Obamacare Collapsing — Replace Obamacare With Free Enterprise Market Capitalism Health Insurance — Keep The Federal Government Out Of The Health Insurance and Health Care Business — Videos —

Story 3: Obama’s Secret Surveillance Spy State Scandal — Misuse of Intelligence Community For Political Purposes — Gross Abuse of Power and Political Conspiracy — Violation of Fourth Amendment — Videos —

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/22/the-pronk-pops-show-970-september-22-2017-breaking-story-1-rocket-man-kim-jong-un-promises-to-explode-hydrogen-bomb-over-pacific-ocean-story-2-the-democratic-and-republican-party-failure-to-co/

 

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The Pronk Pops Show — Week in Review — September 8-15, 2017

Posted on September 25, 2017. Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 965, September 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 964, September 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 963, September 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 962, September 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 961, September 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 960, September 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 959, September 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 958, September 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 957, September 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 956, August 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 955, August 30, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 954, August 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 953, August 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 952, August 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 951, August 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 950, August 23, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 949, August 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 948, August 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 947, August 16, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 946, August 15, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 945, August 14, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 944, August 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 943, August 9, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 942, August 8, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 941, August 7, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 940, August 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 939, August 2, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 938, August 1, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 937, July 31, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 936, July 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 935, July 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 934, July 25, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 933, July 24, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 932, July 20, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 931, July 19, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 930, July 18, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 929, July 17, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 928, July 13, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 927, July 12, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 926, July 11, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 925, July 10, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 924, July 6, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 923, July 5, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 922, July 3, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 921, June 29, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 920, June 28, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 919, June 27, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 918, June 26, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 917, June 22, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 916, June 21, 2017

Pronk Pops Show 915, June 20, 2017

Image result for u.s. Border patroll statistic on apprehensions thourght 1990-2015

Image result for fairtax

The Pronk Pops Show 965

September 15, 2017

Breaking Story 1: Radical Islamic Terrorist Attack — Improvised Bucket Bomb Device Explodes In United Kingdom Parson Green Tube Train Station in West London During Morning Rush Hour — 29 Injured None Seriously including Children — Threat Level Raised From Severe To Critical By Prime Minister May — Videos —

Story 2: North Korea Fires Another Ballistic Missile Over Japan — Videos —

Story 3: Conservative Commentator Ben Shapiro Allowed To Speak At University of California, Berkeley, Police Arrested Nine of The Protesters –Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/15/the-pronk-pops-show-965-september-15-2017-breaking-story-1-radical-islamic-terrorist-attack-bucket-bomb-device-explodes-in-united-kingdom-parson-green-tube-train-station-in-west-london-during-rush/

September 16, 2017 01:45 PM PDT

The Pronk Pops Show 964

September 14, 2017

Story 1: Did President Trump Betray His Supporters By Promising Citizenship or Pathway To Citizenship For Illegal Alien “Dreamers”? — Big Lie Media and Lying Lunatic Left Losers (Senate Democratic Leader Chuck Schumer and House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi ) Say They Have A Deal or Understanding and Rollover Republicans Support Trump (Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and House Speaker Paul Ryan) — No Wall and No Deportation For 30-60 Million Illegal Aliens Including “Dreamers” — You Were Warned Not To Trust Trump — Rollover Republicans Want Touch-back Amnesty For Illegal Aliens — Hell No — Illegal Aliens Must Go — Trump Has 48 Hours To Confirm or Deny! — Political Suicide Watch Countdown — Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/14/the-pronk-pops-show-964-september-14-2017-story-1-did-president-trump-betray-his-supporters-by-promising-citizenship-or-pathway-to-citizenship-for-illegal-alien-dreamers-big-lie-media-and/

September 14, 2017 08:25 PM PDT

The Pronk Pops Show 963

September 13, 2017

Story 1: American Collectivism (Resistance Is Futile) Vs. American Individualism (I Have Not Yet Begun To Fight!) — Federal Income, Capital Gains, Payroll,Estate And Gift Taxes, Budget Deficits, National Debt, Unfunded Liabilities, Democratic And Republican Parties, Two Party Tyranny Of The Warfare And Welfare State And American Empire Are The Past — The Future Is Fair Tax Less, Surplus Budgets, No Debts, No Unfunded Liabilities, And American Independence Party With A Peace And Prosperity Economy, Representative Constitutional American Republic Are The Future — Lead, Follow Or Get Out Of The Way — Those Without Power Cannot Defend Freedom — Videos

For additional information and videos:

https://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2017/09/13/the-pronk-pops-show-963-september-13-2017-story-1-american-collectivism-resistance-is-futile-vs-american-individualism-i-have-not-yet-begun-to-fight-federal-income-capital-gains-payrol/

The Pronk Pops Show 960

September 8, 2017

The Breaking and Developing Story 1: Category 4 Hurricane Irma Over 500 Miles Wide Bigger Than Texas with 150 MPH Sustained Winds Slows Down Turns Toward West and Tracks Directly Over All of South Florida — Evacuate Now — Hurricane Irma Will Hit Landfall Sunday Morning With Storm Surge  Up To 12 Feet and Rain Fall 10-18 Inches — Over Florida For 24 Hours — All Day Sunday —  Mass Mandatory Evacuation For South Florida — Videos

For additional information and videos:

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Brian Haig — The Capitol Game — Videos

Posted on December 22, 2016. Filed under: Uncategorized |

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Brian Haig

The Hunted by Brian Haig

Top 10 Most Popular Modern Authors

ublished on Jul 9, 2015

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The Capitol Game – A New York Times Best Seller!
New York Times bestselling author Brian Haig returns with a riveting new thriller about a man caught between the politics of big government and the corruption of big business.

Overview
It was the deal of the decade, if not the century. A small, insignificant company on the edge of bankruptcy had discovered an alchemist’s dream; a miraculous polymer, that when coated on any vehicle, was the equivalent of 30 inches of steel. With bloody conflicts surging in Iraq and Afghanistan, the polymer promises to save thousands of lives and change the course of both wars.

Jack Wiley, a successful Wall Street banker, believes he has a found a dream come true when he mysteriously learns of this miraculous polymer. His plan: enlist the help of the Capitol Group, one of the country’s largest and most powerful corporations in a quick, bloodless takeover of the small company that developed the polymer. It seems like a partnership made in heaven…until the Pentagon’s investigative service begins nosing around, and the deal turns into a nightmare. Now, Jack’s back is up against the wall and he and the Capitol Group find themselves embroiled in the greatest scandal the government and corporate America have ever seen…”

Review by Publisher’s Weekly
“In Haig’s exciting financial thriller, young hotshot Jack Wiley, a partner and senior v-p at an elite Wall Street private equity firm, approaches the Capitol Group, a large privately held corporation with a golden opportunity—to acquire the troubled Arvan Chemicals company. Arvan has invented a polymer coating that when painted onto combat vehicles makes them virtually impenetrable to firepower, a product that will be worth billions to the military. With Jack’s aid, the Capitol Group launches a successful takeover of Arvan. Haig leads the reader step-by-step through a believable scenario that details the making of the deal through the polymer’s production and implementation. While the rewards are potentially enormous for all involved, as even the least astute will anticipate, the scheme must eventually go awry. Haig keeps the suspense boiling until the final twists as he reveals why and how everything unravels. Readers will be pleased by an ending that suggests clever Jack Wiley will return.”

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http://www.brianhaig.net/thecapitolgame

Brian Haig

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brian Haig
Born Brian F. Haig
March 15, 1953 (age 63)
Occupation thriller author, Fox News military analyst
Parent(s) Alexander Haig
Patricia Fox Haig
Relatives Alexander Patrick Haig, Jr. (brother)
Barbara Haig (sister)
Regina Murphy Anne Haig (grandmother)
Alexander Meigs Haig Sr. (grandfather)

Brian F. Haig (born March 15, 1953)[1] is an American thriller author and Fox News military analyst.

Early life and family

Haig’s father was former U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig (1924–2010); his mother is Patricia (née Fox). He has a brother Alexander and a sister Barbara.[2]

Military life

Haig graduated from West Point in 1975 and was commissioned an infantry lieutenant. He served as a platoon leader in Germany, three years as an infantry company commander at Fort Carson, Colorado, before he was selected as an intern at the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff where he worked in the Current Operations Directorate on the Lebanon peacekeeping operation. After graduating from Harvard with a master’s degree and a specialty in military strategy, he worked for three years as a global strategist on the Army staff where he was responsible for helping formulate the regional warplan for Southwest Asia and the global war plans against the Soviet Union. He spent three years as the Special Assistant to the Commander-in-Chief of the United Nations Command and Combined Forces Command in Seoul. Haig ended his military career as the Special Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of StaffJohn M. Shalikashvili, where his duties lay with the preparation of all speeches, briefings, public statements, and congressional testimonies. He retired from active duty as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1997.

After the military

Haig retired into civilian life in 1997 to become a Director and later President of Erickson Air-Crane and then spent a year as President of International Business Communications. He has written articles for the New York Times, USA Today and Vanity Fair. He is now a full-time author, and works as a Fox News military contributor.

He has a Bachelor of Science from the United States Military Academy, a Masters in Public Administration from Harvard, and a Masters in Government from Georgetown University. His military awards include Airborne wings and the Ranger tab, two Legions of Merit, and the Distinguished Service Medal.

Sean Drummond books

Many of his books involve special forces officer turned Army JAG lawyer Major/Lieutenant Colonel Sean Drummond:

  1. Secret Sanction, Warner Books (2001), ISBN 0-446-52743-2
  2. Mortal Allies, Warner Books (2002), ISBN 0-446-53026-3
  3. The Kingmaker, Warner Books (2003), ISBN 0-446-53055-7
  4. Private Sector, Warner Books (2004), ISBN 0-446-53178-2
  5. The President’s Assassin, Warner Books (2005), ISBN 0-446-57667-0
  6. Man In The Middle, Warner Books (2007), ISBN 0-446-53056-5
  7. The Night Crew, Thomas & Mercer (2015), ISBN 1-477-82748-X

Other books

References

  1. Jump up^ U.S. Public Records Index Vol 1 (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc.), 2010.
  2. Jump up^ Alexander M. Haig Jr., 85, forceful aide to 2 Presidents, dies

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_Haig

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Carl R. Rogers — On Becoming A Person — A Way of Being — Client -Centered Therapy — Videos

Posted on December 16, 2016. Filed under: Articles, Blogroll, Books, Education, Law, liberty, Life, Love, media, Non-Fiction, People, Philosophy, Photos, Press, Psychology, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Television, Uncategorized, Video, Wealth, Welfare, Wisdom, Work | Tags: , , , , |

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Recollections A Celebration of the Life of Carl Rogers

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Carl Rogers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other people named Carl Rogers, see Carl Rogers (disambiguation).
Carl Rogers
Carlrogers.jpg
Born January 8, 1902
Oak Park, Illinois, U.S.
Died February 4, 1987 (aged 85)
San Diego, California, U.S.
Nationality American
Fields Psychology
Institutions Ohio State University
University of Chicago
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Western Behavioral Sciences Institute
Center for Studies of the Person
Alma mater University of Wisconsin–Madison
Teachers College, Columbia University
Known for The Person-centered approach (e.g., Client-centered therapy, Student-centered learning, Rogerian argument)
Influences Otto Rank, Kurt Goldstein, Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, B.F. Skinner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Alfred Adler
Notable awards Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Psychology (1956, APA); Award for Distinguished Contributions to Applied Psychology as a Professional Practice (1972, APA); 1964 Humanist of the Year (American Humanist Association)

Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1956.

The person-centered approach, his own unique approach to understanding personality and human relationships, found wide application in various domains such as psychotherapy and counseling (client-centered therapy), education (student-centered learning), organizations, and other group settings. For his professional work he was bestowed the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Psychology by the APA in 1972. In a study by Haggbloom et al. (2002) using six criteria such as citations and recognition, Rogers was found to be the sixth most eminent psychologist of the 20th century and second, among clinicians, only to Sigmund Freud.[1]

Biography

Rogers was born on January 8, 1902, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. His father, Walter A. Rogers, was a civil engineer and his mother, Julia M. Cushing,[2][3]was a homemaker and devout PentecostalChristian. Carl was the fourth of their six children.[4]

Rogers was intelligent and could read well before kindergarten. Following an education in a strict religious and ethical environment as an altar boy at the vicarage of Jimpley, he became a rather isolated, independent and disciplined person, and acquired a knowledge and an appreciation for the scientific method in a practical world. His first career choice was agriculture, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he was a part of the fraternity of Alpha Kappa Lambda, followed by history and then religion. At age 20, following his 1922 trip to Peking, China, for an international Christian conference, he started to doubt his religious convictions. To help him clarify his career choice, he attended a seminar entitled Why am I entering the Ministry?, after which he decided to change his career. In 1924, he graduated from University of Wisconsin and enrolled at Union Theological Seminary. He later became an atheist.[5]

After two years he left the seminary to attend Teachers College, Columbia University, obtaining an MA in 1928 and a PhD in 1931. While completing his doctoral work, he engaged in child study. In 1930, Rogers served as director of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New York. From 1935 to 1940 he lectured at the University of Rochester and wrote The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (1939), based on his experience in working with troubled children. He was strongly influenced in constructing his client-centered approach by the post-Freudian psychotherapeutic practice of Otto Rank.[6] In 1940 Rogers became professor of clinical psychology at Ohio State University, where he wrote his second book, Counseling and Psychotherapy (1942). In it, Rogers suggested that the client, by establishing a relationship with an understanding, accepting therapist, can resolve difficulties and gain the insight necessary to restructure their life.

In 1945, he was invited to set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. In 1947 he was elected President of the American Psychological Association.[7] While a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago (1945–57), Rogers helped to establish a counseling center connected with the university and there conducted studies to determine the effectiveness of his methods. His findings and theories appeared in Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954). One of his graduate students at the University of Chicago, Thomas Gordon, established the Parent Effectiveness Training (P.E.T.) movement. Another student, Eugene T. Gendlin, who was getting his Ph.D. in philosophy, developed the practice of Focusing based on Rogerian listening. In 1956, Rogers became the first President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists.[8] He taught psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (1957–63), during which time he wrote one of his best-known books, On Becoming a Person (1961). Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (1908–70) pioneered a movement called humanistic psychology which reached its peak in the 1960s. In 1961, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[9] Carl Rogers was also one of the people who questioned the rise of McCarthyism in 1950s. Through articles, he criticized society for its backward-looking affinities.[10]

Rogers continued teaching at University of Wisconsin until 1963, when he became a resident at the new Western Behavioral Sciences Institute (WBSI) in La Jolla, California. Rogers left the WBSI to help found the Center for Studies of the Person in 1968. His later books include Carl Rogers on Personal Power (1977) and Freedom to Learn for the 80’s (1983). He remained a resident of La Jolla for the rest of his life, doing therapy, giving speeches and writing until his sudden death in 1987. In 1987, Rogers suffered a fall that resulted in a fractured pelvis: he had life alert and was able to contact paramedics. He had a successful operation, but his pancreas failed the next night and he died a few days later.

Rogers’s last years were devoted to applying his theories in situations of political oppression and national social conflict, traveling worldwide to do so. In Belfast, Northern Ireland, he brought together influential Protestants and Catholics; in South Africa, blacks and whites; in Brazil people emerging from dictatorship to democracy; in the United States, consumers and providers in the health field. His last trip, at age 85, was to the Soviet Union, where he lectured and facilitated intensive experiential workshops fostering communication and creativity. He was astonished at the numbers of Russians who knew of his work.

Together with his daughter, Natalie Rogers, and psychologists Maria Bowen, Maureen O’Hara, and John K. Wood, between 1974 and 1984, Rogers convened a series of residential programs in the US, Europe, Brazil and Japan, the Person-Centered Approach Workshops, which focused on cross-cultural communications, personal growth, self-empowerment, and learning for social change.

Theory

Rogers’ theory of the self is considered to be humanistic, existential, and phenomenological.[11] His theory is based directly on the “phenomenal field” personality theory of Combs and Snygg (1949).[12] Rogers’ elaboration of his own theory is extensive. He wrote 16 books and many more journal articles describing it. Prochaska and Norcross (2003) states Rogers “consistently stood for an empirical evaluation of psychotherapy. He and his followers have demonstrated a humanistic approach to conducting therapy and a scientific approach to evaluating therapy need not be incompatible.”

Nineteen propositions

His theory (as of 1953) was based on 19 propositions:[13]

  1. All individuals (organisms) exist in a continually changing world of experience (phenomenal field) of which they are the center.
  2. The organism reacts to the field as it is experienced and perceived. This perceptual field is “reality” for the individual.
  3. The organism reacts as an organized whole to this phenomenal field.
  4. A portion of the total perceptual field gradually becomes differentiated as the self.
  5. As a result of interaction with the environment, and particularly as a result of evaluational interaction with others, the structure of the self is formed – an organized, fluid but consistent conceptual pattern of perceptions of characteristics and relationships of the “I” or the “me”, together with values attached to these concepts.
  6. The organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism.
  7. The best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual.
  8. Behavior is basically the goal-directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experienced, in the field as perceived.
  9. Emotion accompanies, and in general facilitates, such goal directed behavior, the kind of emotion being related to the perceived significance of the behavior for the maintenance and enhancement of the organism.
  10. The values attached to experiences, and the values that are a part of the self-structure, in some instances, are values experienced directly by the organism, and in some instances are values introjected or taken over from others, but perceived in distorted fashion, as if they had been experienced directly.
  11. As experiences occur in the life of the individual, they are either, a) symbolized, perceived and organized into some relation to the self, b) ignored because there is no perceived relationship to the self structure, c) denied symbolization or given distorted symbolization because the experience is inconsistent with the structure of the self.
  12. Most of the ways of behaving that are adopted by the organism are those that are consistent with the concept of self.
  13. In some instances, behavior may be brought about by organic experiences and needs which have not been symbolized. Such behavior may be inconsistent with the structure of the self but in such instances the behavior is not “owned” by the individual.
  14. Psychological adjustment exists when the concept of the self is such that all the sensory and visceral experiences of the organism are, or may be, assimilated on a symbolic level into a consistent relationship with the concept of self.
  15. Psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self structure. When this situation exists, there is a basic or potential psychological tension.
  16. Any experience which is inconsistent with the organization of the structure of the self may be perceived as a threat, and the more of these perceptions there are, the more rigidly the self structure is organized to maintain itself.
  17. Under certain conditions, involving primarily complete absence of threat to the self structure, experiences which are inconsistent with it may be perceived and examined, and the structure of self revised to assimilate and include such experiences.
  18. When the individual perceives and accepts into one consistent and integrated system all her sensory and visceral experiences, then she is necessarily more understanding of others and is more accepting of others as separate individuals.
  19. As the individual perceives and accepts into his self structure more of his organic experiences, he finds that he is replacing his present value system – based extensively on introjections which have been distortedly symbolized – with a continuing organismic valuing process.

In relation to No. 17, Rogers is known for practicing “unconditional positive regard,” which is defined as accepting a person “without negative judgment of …. [a person’s] basic worth.”[14]

Development of the personality

With regard to development, Rogers described principles rather than stages. The main issue is the development of a self-concept and the progress from an undifferentiated self to being fully differentiated.

Self Concept… the organized consistent conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of ‘I’ or ‘me’ and the perceptions of the relationships of the ‘I’ or ‘me’ to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached to these perceptions. It is a gestalt which is available to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. It is a fluid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given moment it is a specific entity. (Rogers, 1959)[15]

In the development of the self-concept, he saw conditional and unconditional positive regard as key. Those raised in an environment of unconditional positive regard have the opportunity to fully actualize themselves. Those raised in an environment of conditional positive regard feel worthy only if they match conditions (what Rogers describes as conditions of worth) that have been laid down for them by others.

Fully functioning person

Optimal development, as referred to in proposition 14, results in a certain process rather than static state. He describes this as the good life, where the organism continually aims to fulfill its full potential. He listed the characteristics of a fully functioning person (Rogers 1961):[16]

  1. A growing openness to experience – they move away from defensiveness and have no need for subception (a perceptual defense that involves unconsciously applying strategies to prevent a troubling stimulus from entering consciousness).
  2. An increasingly existential lifestyle – living each moment fully – not distorting the moment to fit personality or self-concept but allowing personality and self-concept to emanate from the experience. This results in excitement, daring, adaptability, tolerance, spontaneity, and a lack of rigidity and suggests a foundation of trust. “To open one’s spirit to what is going on now, and discover in that present process whatever structure it appears to have” (Rogers 1961)[16]
  3. Increasing organismic trust – they trust their own judgment and their ability to choose behavior that is appropriate for each moment. They do not rely on existing codes and social norms but trust that as they are open to experiences they will be able to trust their own sense of right and wrong.
  4. Freedom of choice – not being shackled by the restrictions that influence an incongruent individual, they are able to make a wider range of choices more fluently. They believe that they play a role in determining their own behavior and so feel responsible for their own behavior.
  5. Creativity – it follows that they will feel more free to be creative. They will also be more creative in the way they adapt to their own circumstances without feeling a need to conform.
  6. Reliability and constructiveness – they can be trusted to act constructively. An individual who is open to all their needs will be able to maintain a balance between them. Even aggressive needs will be matched and balanced by intrinsic goodness in congruent individuals.
  7. A rich full life – he describes the life of the fully functioning individual as rich, full and exciting and suggests that they experience joy and pain, love and heartbreak, fear and courage more intensely. Rogers’ description of the good life:

    This process of the good life is not, I am convinced, a life for the faint-hearted. It involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one’s potentialities. It involves the courage to be. It means launching oneself fully into the stream of life. (Rogers 1961)[16]

Incongruence

Rogers identified the “real self” as the aspect of one’s being that is founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and receives positive regard and self-regard. It is the “you” that, if all goes well, you will become. On the other hand, to the extent that our society is out of sync with the actualizing tendency, and we are forced to live with conditions of worth that are out of step with organismic valuing, and receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an “ideal self”. By ideal, Rogers is suggesting something not real, something that is always out of our reach, the standard we cannot meet. This gap between the real self and the ideal self, the “I am” and the “I should” is called incongruity.

Psychopathology

Rogers described the concepts of congruence and incongruence as important ideas in his theory. In proposition #6, he refers to the actualizing tendency. At the same time, he recognized the need for positive regard. In a fully congruent person realizing their potential is not at the expense of experiencing positive regard. They are able to lead lives that are authentic and genuine. Incongruent individuals, in their pursuit of positive regard, lead lives that include falseness and do not realize their potential. Conditions put on them by those around them make it necessary for them to forgo their genuine, authentic lives to meet with the approval of others. They live lives that are not true to themselves, to who they are on the inside out.

Rogers suggested that the incongruent individual, who is always on the defensive and cannot be open to all experiences, is not functioning ideally and may even be malfunctioning. They work hard at maintaining/protecting their self-concept. Because their lives are not authentic this is a difficult task and they are under constant threat. They deploy defense mechanisms to achieve this. He describes two mechanisms: distortion and denial. Distortion occurs when the individual perceives a threat to their self-concept. They distort the perception until it fits their self-concept.

This defensive behavior reduces the consciousness of the threat but not the threat itself. And so, as the threats mount, the work of protecting the self-concept becomes more difficult and the individual becomes more defensive and rigid in their self structure. If the incongruence is immoderate this process may lead the individual to a state that would typically be described as neurotic. Their functioning becomes precarious and psychologically vulnerable. If the situation worsens it is possible that the defenses cease to function altogether and the individual becomes aware of the incongruence of their situation. Their personality becomes disorganised and bizarre; irrational behavior, associated with earlier denied aspects of self, may erupt uncontrollably.

Applications

Person-centered therapy

Rogers originally developed his theory to be the foundation for a system of therapy. He initially called this “non-directive therapy” but later replaced the term “non-directive” with the term “client-centered” and then later used the term “person-centered”. Even before the publication of Client-Centered Therapy in 1951, Rogers believed that the principles he was describing could be applied in a variety of contexts and not just in the therapy situation. As a result, he started to use the term person-centered approach later in his life to describe his overall theory. Person-centered therapy is the application of the person-centered approach to the therapy situation. Other applications include a theory of personality, interpersonal relations, education, nursing, cross-cultural relations and other “helping” professions and situations. In 1946 Rogers co-authored “Counseling with Returned Servicemen,” with John L. Wallen (the creator of the behavioral model known as The Interpersonal Gap),[17] documenting the application of person-centered approach to counseling military personnel returning from the second world war.

The first empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the client-centered approach was published in 1941 at the Ohio State University by Elias Porter, using the recordings of therapeutic sessions between Carl Rogers and his clients.[18] Porter used Rogers’ transcripts to devise a system to measure the degree of directiveness or non-directiveness a counselor employed.[19] The attitude and orientation of the counselor were demonstrated to be instrumental in the decisions made by the client.[20][21]

Learner-centered teaching

The application to education has a large robust research tradition similar to that of therapy with studies having begun in the late 1930s and continuing today (Cornelius-White, 2007). Rogers described the approach to education in Client-Centered Therapy and wrote Freedom to Learn devoted exclusively to the subject in 1969. Freedom to Learn was revised two times. The new Learner-Centered Model is similar in many regards to this classical person-centered approach to education. Rogers and Harold Lyon began a book prior to Rogers death, entitled On Becoming an Effective Teacher — Person-centered Teaching, Psychology, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon, which was completed by Lyon and Reinhard Tausch and published in 2013 containing Rogers last unpublished writings on person-centered teaching.[22] Rogers had the following five hypotheses regarding learner-centered education:

  1. “A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another’s learning” (Rogers, 1951). This is a result of his personality theory, which states that everyone exists in a constantly changing world of experience in which he or she is the center. Each person reacts and responds based on perception and experience. The belief is that what the student does is more important than what the teacher does. The focus is on the student (Rogers, 1951). Therefore, the background and experiences of the learner are essential to how and what is learned. Each student will process what he or she learns differently depending on what he or she brings to the classroom.
  2. “A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self” (Rogers, 1951). Therefore, relevancy to the student is essential for learning. The students’ experiences become the core of the course.
  3. “Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism” (Rogers, 1951). If the content or presentation of a course is inconsistent with preconceived information, the student will learn if he or she is open to varying concepts. Being open to consider concepts that vary from one’s own is vital to learning. Therefore, gently encouraging open-mindedness is helpful in engaging the student in learning. Also, it is important, for this reason, that new information be relevant and related to existing experience.
  4. “The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat” (Rogers, 1951). If students believe that concepts are being forced upon them, they might become uncomfortable and fearful. A barrier is created by a tone of threat in the classroom. Therefore, an open, friendly environment in which trust is developed is essential in the classroom. Fear of retribution for not agreeing with a concept should be eliminated. A classroom tone of support helps to alleviate fears and encourages students to have the courage to explore concepts and beliefs that vary from those they bring to the classroom. Also, new information might threaten the student’s concept of him- or herself; therefore, the less vulnerable the student feels, the more likely he or she will be able to open up to the learning process.
  5. “The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated” (Rogers, 1951). The instructor should be open to learning from the students and also working to connect the students to the subject matter. Frequent interaction with the students will help achieve this goal. The instructor’s acceptance of being a mentor who guides rather than the expert who tells is instrumental to student-centered, nonthreatening, and unforced learning.

Rogerian rhetorical approach

In 1970, Richard Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth Pike published Rhetoric: Discovery and Change, a widely influential college writing textbook that used a Rogerian approach to communication to revise the traditional Aristotelian framework for rhetoric. The Rogerian method of argument involves each side restating the other’s position to the satisfaction of the other. In a paper, it can be expressed by carefully acknowledging and understanding the opposition, rather than dismissing them.[23]

Cross-cultural relations

The application to cross-cultural relations has involved workshops in highly stressful situations and global locations including conflicts and challenges in South Africa, Central America, and Ireland.[24] Along with Alberto Zucconi and Charles Devonshire, he co-founded the Istituto dell’Approccio Centrato sulla Persona (Person-Centered Approach Institute) in Rome, Italy.

His international work for peace culminated in the Rust Peace Workshop which took place in November 1985 in Rust, Austria. Leaders from 17 nations convened to discuss the topic “The Central America Challenge”. The meeting was notable for several reasons: it brought national figures together as people (not as their positions), it was a private event, and was an overwhelming positive experience where members heard one another and established real personal ties, as opposed to stiffly formal and regulated diplomatic meetings.[25]

Person-centered, dialogic politics

Some scholars believe there is a politics implicit in Rogers’s approach to psychotherapy.[26][27] Toward the end of his life, Rogers came to that view himself.[28] The central tenet of a Rogerian, person-centered politics is that public life does not have to consist of an endless series of winner-take-all battles among sworn opponents; rather, it can and should consist of an ongoing dialogue among all parties. Such dialogue would be characterized by respect among the parties, authentic speaking by each party, and – ultimately – empathic understanding among all parties. Out of such understanding, mutually acceptable solutions would (or at least could) flow.[26][29]

During his last decade, Rogers facilitated or participated in a wide variety of dialogic activities among politicians, activists, and other social leaders, often outside the U.S.[29] In addition, he lent his support to several non-traditional U.S. political initiatives, including the “12-Hour Political Party” of the Association for Humanistic Psychology[30] and the founding of a “transformational” political organization, the New World Alliance.[31]By the 21st century, interest in dialogic approaches to political engagement and change had become widespread, especially among academics and activists.[32] Theorists of a specifically Rogerian, person-centered approach to politics as dialogue have made substantial contributions to that project. [27][33]

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Carl Rogers served on the board of the Human Ecology Fund from the late 50s into the 60s, which was a CIA-funded organization that provided grants to researchers looking into personality. He received money as well. In addition, “he and other people in the field of personality and psychotherapy were given a lot of information about Khrushchev. ‘We were asked to figure out what we thought of him and what would be the best way of dealing with him. And that seemed to be an entirely principled and legitimate aspect. I don’t think we contributed very much, but, anyway, we tried.’ “.[34]

More on the Human Ecology Fund and Carl Rogers: [1], [2], [3]

Selected works by Carl Roger

  • Rogers, Carl. (1939). Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child
  • Rogers, Carl. (1942). Counseling and Psychotherapy: Newer Concepts in Practice.
  • Rogers, Carl. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable. ISBN 1-84119-840-4.
  • Rogers, C.R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 21: 95-103.
  • Rogers, Carl. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships as Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A Study of a Science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Rogers, Carl. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. London: Constable. ISBN 1-84529-057-7.Excerpts
  • Rogers, Carl. (1969). Freedom to Learn: A View of What Education Might Become. (1st ed.) Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merill. Excerpts
  • Rogers, Carl. (1970). On Encounter Groups. New York: Harrow Books, Harper and Row, ISBN 0-06-087045-1
  • Rogers, Carl. (1977). On Personal Power: Inner Strength and Its Revolutionary Impact.
  • Rogers, Carl. (nd, @1978). A personal message from Carl Rogers. In: N. J. Raskin. (2004). “Contributions to Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach.” (pp. v-vi). Herefordshire,United Kingdom: PCCS Books, Ross-on-the-Wye. ISBN 1-898059-57-8
  • Rogers, Carl. (1980). A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Rogers, Carl. & Stevens, B. (1967). “Person to Person: The Problem of Being Human”. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.
  • Rogers, Carl R. (1985). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. “Journal of Consulting Psychology”, 21(2):95-103.
  • Rogers, Carl, Lyon, Harold C., & Tausch, Reinhard (2013) On Becoming an Effective Teacher – Person-centered Teaching, Psychology, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon. London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-81698-4: http://www.routledge.com/9780415816984/

See als

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Rogers

Person-centered therapy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Person-centered therapy
Intervention
MeSH D009629

Person-centered therapy (PCT) is also known as person-centered psychotherapy, person-centered counseling, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy. PCT is a form of psychotherapy developed by psychologistCarl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal of PCT is to provide clients with an opportunity to realize how their attitudes and behavior are being affected.[1][further explanation needed]

Although this technique has been criticized by behaviorists for lacking structure and by psychoanalysts for actually providing a conditional relationship,[2] it has proven to be an effective and popular treatment.[3][4][5][6]

History and influences

Person-centered therapy, now considered a founding work in the humanistic school of psychotherapies, began formally with Carl Rogers.[7] “Rogerian” psychotherapy is identified as one of the major school groups, along with psychodynamic psychotherapy, psychoanalysis (most famously Sigmund Freud), classical Adlerian psychology, cognitive behavioral therapy, and existential therapy (such as that pioneered by Rollo May).[8]

Rogers affirmed[7] individual personal experience as the basis and standard for living and therapeutic effect. Rogers identified six conditions which are needed to produce personality changes in clients: relationship, vulnerability to anxiety (on the part of the client), genuineness (the therapist is truly himself or herself and incorporates some self-disclosure), the client’s perception of the therapist’s genuineness, the therapist’s unconditional positive regard for the client, and accurate empathy.[9] This emphasis contrasts with the dispassionate position which may be intended in other therapies, particularly the more extreme behavioral therapies. Living in the present rather than the past or future, with organismic trust, naturalistic faith in your own thoughts and the accuracy in your feelings, and a responsible acknowledgment of your freedom, with a view toward participating fully in our world, contributing to other peoples’ lives, are hallmarks of Roger’s Person-centered therapy. Rogers also claims that the therapeutic process is essentially the accomplishments made by the client. The client having already progressed further along in their growth and maturation development, only progresses further with the aid of a psychologically favored environment.[10]

The necessary and sufficient conditions

Rogers (1957; 1959) stated[9] that there are six necessary and sufficient conditions required for therapeutic change:

  1. Therapist–client psychological contact: a relationship between client and therapist must exist, and it must be a relationship in which each person’s perception of the other is important.
  2. Client incongruence: that incongruence exists between the client’s experience and awareness.
  3. Therapist congruence, or genuineness: the therapist is congruent within the therapeutic relationship. The therapist is deeply involved him or herself — they are not “acting”—and they can draw on their own experiences (self-disclosure) to facilitate the relationship.
  4. Therapist unconditional positive regard (UPR): the therapist accepts the client unconditionally, without judgment, disapproval or approval. This facilitates increased self-regard in the client, as they can begin to become aware of experiences in which their view of self-worth was distorted by others.
  5. Therapist empathic understanding: the therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference. Accurate empathy on the part of the therapist helps the client believe the therapist’s unconditional love for them.
  6. Client perception: that the client perceives, to at least a minimal degree, the therapist’s UPR and empathic understanding.

Three of these conditions have become known as the ‘Core Conditions’ 3, 4 and 5 (above).

Core conditions

Rogers asserted that the most important factor in successful therapy is the relational climate created by the therapist’s attitude to their client. He specified three interrelated core conditions:

  1. Congruence – the willingness to transparently relate to clients without hiding behind a professional or personal facade.
  2. Unconditional positive regard – the therapist offers an acceptance and prizing for their client for who he or she is without conveying disapproving feelings, actions or characteristics and demonstrating a willingness to attentively listen without interruption, judgement or giving advice.
  3. Empathy – the therapist communicates their desire to understand and appreciate their client’s perspective.

Processes

Rogers believed that a therapist who embodies the three critical and reflexive attitudes (the three ‘Core Conditions’) will help liberate their client to more confidently express their true feelings without fear of judgement. To achieve this, the client-centered therapist carefully avoids directly challenging their client’s way of communicating themselves in the session in order to enable a deeper exploration of the issues most intimate to them and free from external referencing.[11] Rogers was not prescriptive in telling his clients what to do, but believed that the answers to the patients’ questions were within the patient and not the therapist. Accordingly, the therapists’ role was to create a facilitative, empathic environment wherein the patient could discover the answers for him or herself. Reference: Rogers, Lyon, Tausch. On Becoming an Effective Teacher, Routledge 2013. p. 23.

See also

References

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Cepeda, Lisa M.; Davenport, Donna S. (2006). “Person-Centered Therapy and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: An Integration of Present and Future Awareness”. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. Educational Publishing Foundation. 43 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.43.1.1.
  2. Jump up^ Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
  3. Jump up^ Cooper, M., Watson, J. C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
  4. Jump up^ Ward, E., King, M., Lloyd, M., Bower, P., Sibbald, B., Farrelly, S., et al. (2000). Randomized controlled trial of non-directive counseling, cognitive-behavior therapy, and usual general practitioner care for patients with depression. I: Clinical effectiveness. British Medical Journal, 321, 1383-1388.
  5. Jump up^ Bower, P., Byford, S., Sibbald, B., Ward, E., King, M., Lloyd, R., et al. (2000). Randomized controlled trial of non-directive counseling, cognitive-behavior therapy, and usual general practitioner care for patients with depression. II: Cost effectiveness. British Medical Journal, 321, 1389-1392.
  6. Jump up^ Shechtman, Z., Pastor, R., 2005. Cognitive-behavioral and humanistic group treatment for children with learning disabilities: A comparison of outcomes and process. Journal of Counseling Psychology 52, 322-336.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Prochaska, J.O & Norcross, J.C. 2007. Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis. Thompson Books/Cole:New York, p.138
  8. Jump up^ Prochaska, J.O & Norcross, J.C. 2007. Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis. Thompson Books/Cole:New York, p.3
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Prochaska, J.O & Norcross, J.C. 2007. Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis. Thompson Books/Cole:New York, p. 142-143
  10. Jump up^ Rogers, Carl (1951). “Client-Centered Therapy” Cambridge Massachusetts: The Riverside Press.
  11. Jump up^ “Person-centered therapy” on the Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders website

Bibliography

  • Arnold, Kyle. (2014). Behind the Mirror: Reflective Listening and its Tain in the Work of Carl Rogers. The Humanistic Psychologist, 42:4 354-369.
  • Bruno, Frank J. (1977). Client-Centered Counseling: Becoming a Person. In Human Adjustment and Personal Growth: Seven Pathways, pp. 362–370. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Cooper, M., O’Hara, M, Schmid, P., and Wyatt, G. (2007). The Handbook of person-centered psychotherapy and counseling. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Rogers, Carl (1961). On Becoming a PersonISBN 0-395-75531-X
  • Rogers, C. (1957) ‘The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change’, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21 (2): 95-103
  • Rogers, Carl. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships as Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A Study of a Science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Rogers, Carl (1980). A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
  • Poyrazli, S. (2003, March). Validity of Rogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 42(1), 107-115. Retrieved October 7, 2008, from PsycINFO database.
  • Prochaska, J.O & Norcross, J.C. 2007. Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis. Thompson Books/Cole:New York.
  • Rogers, Carl (1951). “Client-Centered Therapy” Cambridge Massachusetts: The Riverside Press.
  • Rogers, Carl, Lyon, HC, Tausch, R. (2013). On Becoming an Effective Teacher – Person-centered teaching, Psychology, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon. London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-81698-4: http://www.routledge.com/9780415816984/

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Person-centered_therapy

 

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud‘s psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner‘s behaviorism.[1] With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals’ inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one’s own capabilities and creativity.

It helps the client gain the belief that all people are inherently good.[2] It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and positive human potential. It encourages viewing ourselves as a “whole person” greater than the sum of our parts and encourages self exploration rather than the study of behavior in other people. Humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the human psyche. It is linked to the emerging field of transpersonal psychology.[3][4]

Primarily, this type of therapy encourages a self-awareness and mindfulness that helps the client change their state of mind and behaviour from one set of reactions to a healthier one with more productive self-awareness and thoughtful actions. Essentially, this approach allows the merging of mindfulness and behavioural therapy, with positive social support.

In an article from the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the benefits of humanistic therapy are described as having a “crucial opportunity to lead our troubled culture back to its own healthy path. More than any other therapy, Humanistic-Existential therapy models democracy. It imposes ideologies of others upon the client less than other therapeutic practices. Freedom to choose is maximized. We validate our clients’ human potential.”.[2]

In the 20th century, humanistic psychology was referred to as the “third force” in psychology, distinct from earlier, even less humanistic approaches of psychoanalysis and behaviorism. In our post industrial society, humanistic psychology has become more significant; for example, neither psychoanalysis nor behaviorism could have birthed emotional intelligence.

Its principal professional organizations in the US are the Association for Humanistic Psychology and the Society for Humanistic Psychology (Division 32 of the American Psychological Association). In Britain, there is the UK Association for Humanistic Psychology Practitioners.

Origins[edit]

One of humanistic psychology’s early sources was the work of Carl Rogers, who was strongly influenced by Otto Rank, who broke with Freud in the mid-1920s. Rogers’ focus was to ensure that the developmental processes led to healthier, if not more creative, personality functioning. The term ‘actualizing tendency’ was also coined by Rogers, and was a concept that eventually led Abraham Maslow to study self-actualization as one of the needs of humans.[5][6] Rogers and Maslow introduced this positive, humanistic psychology in response to what they viewed as the overly pessimistic view of psychoanalysis.[7][8]

The other sources of inspiration include the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology.

Conceptual origins

The humanistic approach has its roots in phenomenological and existentialist thought[9] (see Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre). Eastern philosophy and psychology also play a central role in humanistic psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian philosophies of personalism, as each shares similar concerns about the nature of human existence and consciousness.[4]

Line drawing of Carl Rogers's head

Carl Rogers (1902–1987), one of the founders of humanistic psychology.

For further information on influential figures in personalism, see: Emmanuel Mounier, Gabriel Marcel, Denis de Rougemont, Jacques Maritain, Martin Buber, Emmanuel Levinas, Max Scheler and Karol Wojtyla

As behaviorism grew out of Ivan Pavlov‘s work with the conditioned reflex, and laid the foundations for academic psychology in the United States associated with the names of John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, Abraham Maslow gave behaviorism the name “the second force”. Historically “the first force” were psychologists like Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Melanie Klein, Harry Stack Sullivan, and others.[10]

In the late 1930s, psychologists, interested in the uniquely human issues, such as the self, self-actualization, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, being, becoming, individuality, and meaning—that is, a concrete understanding of human existence, included Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Clark Moustakas, who were interested in founding a professional association dedicated to a psychology focused on these features of human capital demanded by post-industrial society.

The humanistic psychology perspective is summarized by five core principles or postulates of humanistic psychology first articulated in an article written by James Bugental in 1964[11]and adapted by Tom Greening,[12] psychologist and long-time editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. The five basic principles of humanistic psychology are:

  1. Human beings, as human, supersede the sum of their parts. They cannot be reduced to components.
  2. Human beings have their existence in a uniquely human context, as well as in a cosmic ecology.
  3. Human beings are aware and are aware of being aware – i.e., they are conscious. Human consciousness always includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people.
  4. Human beings have the ability to make choices and therefore have responsibility.
  5. Human beings are intentional, aim at goals, are aware that they cause future events, and seek meaning, value, and creativity.

While humanistic psychology is a specific division within the American Psychological Association (Division 32), humanistic psychology is not so much a discipline within psychology as a perspective on the human condition that informs psychological research and practice.

Practical origins

WW II created practical pressures on military psychologists, they had more patients to see and care for than time or resources permitted. The origins of group therapy are here.[citation needed] Eric Berne’s progression of books shows this transition out of what we might call pragmatic psychology of WW II into his later innovation, Transactional Analysis,[citation needed] one of the most influential forms of humanistic Popular Psychology of the later 1960s-1970s.

Orientation to scientific research

Humanistic psychologists generally do not believe that we will understand human consciousness and behavior through Cartesian-Newtonian scientific research.[13] The objection that humanistic psychologists have to traditional research methods is that they are derived from and suited for the physical sciences[14] and not especially appropriate to studying the complexities and nuances of human meaning-making.[15][16][17]

However, humanistic psychology has involved scientific research of human behavior since its inception. For example:

  • Abraham Maslow proposed many of his theories of human growth in the form of testable hypotheses,[18][19][20] and he encouraged human scientists to put them to the test.
  • Shortly after the founding of the American Association of Humanistic Psychology, its president, psychologist Sidney Jourard, began his column by declaring that “research” is a priority. “Humanistic Psychology will be best served if it is undergirded with research that seeks to throw light on the qualities of man that are uniquely human” (emphasis added)[21]
  • In May 1966, the AAHP release a newsletter editorial that confirmed the humanistic psychologist’s “allegiance to meaningfulness in the selection of problems for study and of research procedures, and an opposition to a primary emphasis on objectivity at the expense of significance.”[22] This underscored the importance of research to humanistic psychologists as well as their interest in special forms of human science investigation.
  • Likewise, in 1980, the American Psychological Association’s publication for humanistic psychology (Division 32 of APA) ran an article titled, What makes research humanistic?[23] As Donald Polkinghorne notes, “Humanistic theory does not propose that human action is completely independent of the environment or the mechanical and organic orders of the body, but it does suggest that, within the limits of experienced meanings, persons as unities can choose to act in ways not determined by prior events…and this is the theory we seek to test through our research” (p. 3).

A human science view is not opposed to quantitative methods, but, following Edmund Husserl:

  1. favors letting the methods be derived from the subject matter and not uncritically adopting the methods of natural science,[24] and
  2. advocates for methodological pluralism. Consequently, much of the subject matter of psychology lends itself to qualitative approaches (e.g., the lived experience of grief), and quantitative methods are mainly appropriate when something can be counted without leveling the phenomena (e.g., the length of time spent crying).

Research has remained part of the humanistic psychology agenda, though with more of a holistic than reductionistic focus. Specific humanistic research methods evolved in the decades following the formation of the humanistic psychology movement.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]

Development of the field

These preliminary meetings eventually led to other developments, which culminated in the description of humanistic psychology as a recognizable “third force” in psychology (first force: psychoanalysis, second force: behaviorism). Significant developments included the formation of the Association for Humanistic Psychology (AHP) in 1961 and the launch of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (originally “The Phoenix”) in 1961.

Subsequently, graduate programs in Humanistic Psychology at institutions of higher learning grew in number and enrollment. In 1971, humanistic psychology as a field was recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) and granted its own division (Division 32) within the APA. Division 32 publishes its own academic journal called The Humanistic Psychologist.[4] In 1972, KOCE TV and the Coast Community College District, produced an award winning television series titled As Man Behaves with Carl Rogers as a primary consultant, working with Mathew Duncan as psychologist host and with Bernard Luskin executive producer. This was one of the most viewed television series in psychology ever produced and widely fostered the various aspects of humanistic psychology.[citation needed]

The major theorists considered to have prepared the ground for Humanistic Psychology are Otto Rank, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May. Maslow was heavily influenced by Kurt Goldstein during their years together at Brandeis University. Psychoanalytic writers also influenced humanistic psychology. Maslow himself famously acknowledged his “indebtedness to Freud” in Towards a Psychology of Being[35] Other psychoanalytic influences include the work of Wilhelm Reich, who discussed an essentially ‘good’, healthy core self and Character Analysis (1933), and Carl Gustav Jung‘s mythological and archetypal emphasis. Other noteworthy inspirations for, and leaders of the movement include Roberto Assagioli, Gordon Allport, Medard Boss, Martin Buber (close to Jacob L. Moreno), James Bugental, Viktor Frankl, Erich Fromm, Hans-Werner Gessmann, Amedeo Giorgi, Kurt Goldstein, Sidney Jourard, R. D. Laing, Clark Moustakas, Lewis Mumford, Fritz Perls, Anthony Sutich, Thomas Szasz, Kirk J. Schneider, and Ken Wilber.[4][36] Carl Rogers was trained in psychoanalysis before developing humanistic psychology.[5]

Counseling and therapy

Pyramid diagram illustrating Maslow's theory of needs

Diagram illustrating the “hierarchy of needs” theory of Abraham Maslow (1908–1970). Click to enlarge.

The aim of humanistic therapy is usually to help the client develop a stronger and healthier sense of self, also called self-actualization.[4][37] Humanistic therapy attempts to teach clients that they have potential for self-fulfillment. This type of therapy is insight-based, meaning that the therapist attempts to provide the client with insights about their inner conflicts.[38]

Approaches

Humanistic psychology includes several approaches to counseling and therapy. Among the earliest approaches we find the developmental theory of Abraham Maslow, emphazising a hierarchy of needs and motivations; the existential psychology of Rollo May acknowledging human choice and the tragic aspects of human existence; and the person-centered or client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers, which is centered on the client’s capacity for self-direction and understanding of his or her own development.[37] Client-centered therapy is non-directive; the therapist listens to the client without judgement, allowing the client to come to insights by themselves.[38] The therapist should ensure that all of the client’s feelings are being considered and that the therapist has a firm grasp on the concerns of the client while ensuring that there is an air of acceptance and warmth.[5] Client-centered therapist engages in active listening during therapy sessions.[38]

A therapist cannot be completely non-directive, however a nonjudgmental, accepting environment that provides unconditional positive regard will incite feelings of acceptance and value within the patients.[38]

Existential psychotherapies, an application of humanistic psychology, applies existential philosophy, which emphasizes the idea that humans have the freedom to make sense of their lives. They are free to define themselves and do whatever it is they want to do. This is a type of humanistic therapy that forces the client to explore the meaning of their life, as well as its purpose. There is a conflict between having freedoms and having limitations. Examples of limitations include genetics, culture, and many other factors. Existential therapy involves trying to resolve this conflict.[5]

Another approach to humanistic counseling and therapy is Gestalt therapy, which puts a focus on the here and now, especially as an opportunity to look past any preconceived notions and focus on how the present is affected by the past. Role playing also plays a large role in Gestalt therapy and allows for a true expression of feelings that may not have been shared in other circumstances. In Gestalt therapy, non-verbal cues are an important indicator of how the client may actually be feeling, despite the feelings expressed.

Also part of the range of humanistic psychotherapy are concepts from depth therapy, holistic health, encounter groups, sensitivity training, marital and family therapies, body work, the existential psychotherapy of Medard Boss,[4] and Positive Psychology.[39]

Most recently Compassionate Communication, the rebranding of Nonviolent Communication of Marshall Rosenberg seems to be the leading edge of innovation in this field because it is one of very few psychologies with both a simple and clear model of the human psyche and a simple and clear methodology, suitable for any two persons to address and resolve interpersonal conflict without expert intervention, a first in the field.[citation needed]

Empathy and self-help

Empathy is one of the most important aspects of humanistic therapy. This idea focuses on the therapist’s ability to see the world through the eyes of the client. Without this, therapists can be forced to apply an external frame of reference where the therapist is no longer understanding the actions and thoughts of the client as the client would, but strictly as a therapist which defeats the purpose of humanistic therapy. Included in empathizing, unconditional positive regard is one of the key elements of humanistic psychology. Unconditional positive regard refers to the care that the therapist needs to have for the client. This ensures that the therapist does not become the authority figure in the relationship allowing for a more open flow of information as well as a kinder relationship between the two. A therapist practicing humanistic therapy needs to show a willingness to listen and ensure the comfort of the patient where genuine feelings may be shared but are not forced upon someone.[5] Marshall Rosenberg, one of Carl Rogers’ students, emphasizes empathy in the relationship in his concept of Nonviolent Communication.

Self-help is also part of humanistic psychology: Sheila Ernst and Lucy Goodison have described using some of the main humanistic approaches in self-help groups.[40] Humanistic Psychology is applicable to self-help because it is oriented towards changing the way a person thinks. One can only improve once they decide to change their ways of thinking about themselves, once they decide to help themselves. Co-counselling, which is an approach based purely on self-help, is regarded as coming from humanistic psychology as well.[41] Humanistic theory has had a strong influence on other forms of popular therapy, including Harvey JackinsRe-evaluation Counselling and the work of Carl Rogers, including his student Eugene Gendlin; (see Focusing) as well as on the development of the Humanistic Psychodrama by Hans-Werner Gessmann since the 80s.[42]

The ideal self

The ideal self and real self involve understanding the issues that arise from having an idea of what you wish you were as a person, and having that not match with who you actually are as a person (incongruence). The ideal self is what a person believes should be done, as well as what their core values are. The real self is what is actually played out in life. Through humanistic therapy, an understanding of the present allows clients to add positive experiences to their real self-concept. The goal is to have the two concepts of self become congruent. Rogers believed that only when a therapist was able to be congruent, a real relationship occurs in therapy. It is much easier to trust someone who is willing to share feelings openly, even if it may not be what the client always wants; this allows the therapist to foster a strong relationship.[5]

Non-pathological

Humanistic psychology tends to look beyond the medical model of psychology in order to open up a nonpathologizing view of the person.[37] This usually implies that the therapist downplays the pathological aspects of a person’s life in favour of the healthy aspects. Humanistic psychology tries to be a science of human experience, focusing on the actual lived experience of persons.[4] Therefore, a key ingredient is the actual meeting of therapist and client and the possibilities for dialogue to ensue between them. The role of the therapist is to create an environment where the client can freely express any thoughts or feelings; he does not suggest topics for conversation nor does he guide the conversation in any way. The therapist also does not analyze or interpret the client’s behavior or any information the client shares. The role of the therapist is to provide empathy and to listen attentively to the client.[5]

Societal application

Social Change

While personal transformation may be the primary focus of most humanistic psychologists, many now investigate pressing social, cultural, and gender issues.[43] Even the earliest writers who were associated with and inspired by psychological humanism[4] explored topics as diverse as the political nature of “normal” and everyday experience (R. D. Laing), the disintegration of the capacity to love in modern consumerist society (Erich Fromm),[44] the growing technological dominance over human life (Medard Boss), and the question of evil (Rollo May and Carl Rogers).

In 1978, the Association for Humanistic Psychology (AHP) embarked on a three-year effort to explore how the principles of humanistic psychology could be used to further the process of positive social and political change.[45] The effort included a “12-Hour Political Party”, held in San Francisco in 1980, where nearly 1,400 attendees[46] discussed presentations by such non-traditional social thinkers as Ecotopia author Ernest Callenbach, Aquarian Conspiracy author Marilyn Ferguson, Person/Planet author Theodore Roszak, and New Age Politics author Mark Satin.[47] The emergent perspective was summarized in a manifesto by AHP President George Leonard. It proffered such ideas as moving to a slow-growth or no-growth economy, decentralizing and “deprofessionalizing” society, and teaching social and emotional competencies in order to provide a foundation for more humane public policies and a healthier culture.[48]

There have been many other attempts to articulate humanistic-psychology-oriented approaches to social change. For example, in 1979 California state legislator John Vasconcellos published a book calling for the integration of liberal politics and humanistic-psychological insight.[49] From 1979–1983 the New World Alliance, a U.S. political organization based in Washington, D.C., attempted to inject humanistic-psychology ideas into political thinking and processes;[50] sponsors of its newsletter included Vasconcellos and Carl Rogers.[51]

In 1989 Maureen O’Hara, who had worked with both Carl Rogers and Paolo Freire, pointed to a convergence between the two thinkers. According to O’Hara, both focus on developing critical consciousness of situations which oppress and dehumanize.[52] Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Institute of Noetic Sciences president Willis Harman argued that significant social change cannot occur without significant consciousness change.[53] In the 21st century, humanistic psychologists such as Edmund Bourne[54] and Joanna Macy[55] continue to apply psychological insights to social and political issues.

In addition to its uses in thinking about social change, humanistic psychology is considered to be the main theoretical and methodological source of humanistic social work.[56][57]

Creativity in corporations

Humanistic psychology’s emphasis on creativity and wholeness created a foundation for new approaches towards human capital in the workplace stressing creativity and the relevance of emotional interactions. Previously the connotations of “creativity” were reserved for and primarily restricted to, working artists. In the 1980s, with increasing numbers of people working in the cognitive-cultural economy, creativity came to be seen as a useful commodity and competitive edge for international brands. This led to corporate creativity training in-service trainings for employees, led pre-eminently by Ned Herrmann at G.E. in the late 1970s.

Humanistic psychology concepts were embraced in education and social work, peaking in the 1970s-1980s, particularly in North America. However, as with whole language theory, training practice were too superficial in most institutional settings. Though humanistic psychology raised the bar of insight and understanding of the whole person, professionally it is primarily practiced today by individual licensed counselors and therapists. Outside of that humanistic psychology provides the foundation for virtually every method of Energy Medicine; yet, too little coherence exists yet in this field to discuss it easily.

Humanistic social work

After psychotherapy, social work is the most important beneficiary of the humanistic psychology’s theory and methodology.[58] These have produced a deep reform of the modern social work theory and practice,[59]leading, among others, to the occurrence of a particular theory and methodology: the humanistic social work. Most values and principles of the humanistic social work practice, described by Malcolm Payne in his book Humanistic Social Work: Core Principles in Practice, namely creativity in human life and practice, developing self and spirituality, developing security and resilience, accountability, flexibility and complexity in human life and practice,[56] directly originate from the humanistic psychological theory and humanistic psychotherapy practice.

Also, the representation and approach of the client (as human being) and social issue (as human issue) in social work is made from the humanistic psychology position. According to Petru Stefaroi, the way humanistic representation and approach of the client and his personality is represented is, in fact, the theoretical-axiological and methodological foundation of humanistic social work.[60]

In setting goals and the intervention activities, in order to solve social/human problems, there prevail critical terms and categories of the humanistic psychology and psychotherapy, such as: self-actualization, human potential, holistic approach, human being, free will, subjectivity, human experience, self-determination/development, spirituality, creativity, positive thinking, client-centered and context-centered approach/intervention, empathy, personal growth, empowerment.[61]

See also

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I Chose Liberty: Autobiographies of Contemporary Libertarians — Compiled By Walter Block — Videos

Posted on December 11, 2016. Filed under: Uncategorized |

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I Chose Liberty: Autobiographies of Contemporary Libertarians

Walter Block leaned on 82 of the world’s most prominent libertarian thinkers and asked them to tell their life stories with an eye to intellectual development. The result is the most comprehensive collection of libertarian autobiographies ever published. Their stories are thrilling and fascinating. They reveal their main influences, their experiences, their choices, and their ambitions.

There are some very interesting lessons here for everyone. We learn what gives rise to serious thought about liberty and what causes a person to dedicate a professional career or vocation to the cause. We also discover some interesting empirical information about the most influential libertarian writers.

How people come to believe what they believe is a mysterious issue, but an important one to examine. The results have profound strategic implications for the future. If there is a theme that emerges here, it is that it is that the most powerful and effective message of liberty is the one that is both smart and truth telling, not the one that is evasive or consciously dumbed down. The two most influential libertarians that emerge from the contest here are Rothbard and Rand, and this is for a reason.

This volume bears close study by anyone who is considering strategic issues. So far as we know, it is the first book of its kind, one sure to play a larger role in the future crafting of the message and scholarship of human liberty.

Among those who contributed: James C.W. Ahiakpor, D.T. Armentano, Charles W. Baird, Norman Barry, Toby Baxendale, James T. Bennett, Bruce L. Benson, David Berglan,d Walter Block, Burton S. Blumer,t Peter Boettke, Sam Bostaph, Hardy Bouillon, Bryan Caplan, Alejandro Chafuen, Brooks Colburn, Dan Cristian Comanescu, Roy Cordato, Jim Cox Tyler Cowen, Dora de Ampuero, Karen De Coster, Thomas J. DiLorenzo, Michael Edelstein , Richard A. Epstein, Max Falque, Robert Formaini, Douglas E. French, Bettina Bien Greaves, James Gwartney, Roy Halliday, Ronald Hamowy, Ernest Hancock, John Hasnas, Randall G. Holcombe, John Hospers, Stephan Kinsella, Robert Klassen, Dan Klein, Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard, Robert Lawson, Leonard P. Liggio, Roderick T. Long, Alvin Lowi, Jr., Heath MacCallum, Daniel McCarthy, Tibor R. Machan, Eric Mack, Jude Chua Soo Meng, Roberta Adelaide Modugno, Andrew P. Napolitano, Jan Narveson, David F. Nolan, Gary North, James Ostrowski, E.C. Pasour, Jr., Ron Paul, Nando Pelusi, Lawrence W. Reed, George Reisman, Jeff Riggenbach, Llewellyn Rockwell, Jr., Mary Ruwart, Joseph T. Salerno, James V. Schall, Ken Schoolland, Chris Matthew Sciabarra, Larry J. Sechrest, Jeremy Shearmur, Joseph Sobran, Robert Stewart, Alexander Tabarrok, Mark Thornton, Jerome Tuccille, Gordon Tullock, e Frank van Dun, Marc J. Victor, Peter Walters, Richard W. Wilcke, Anne Wortham, Steven Yates, and Fernando Zanella

https://mises.org/library/i-chose-liberty-autobiographies-contemporary-libertarians

Libertarianism 101 — Prof. Walter Block

Walter Block – Libertarians are AWESOME!!!

The History of Classical Liberalism – Learn Liberty

The Decline and Triumph of Classical Liberalism (Pt. 1) – Learn Liberty

Classical Liberalism: The Decline and Triumph of Classical Liberalism (Pt. 2) – Learn Liberty

TAKE IT TO THE LIMITS: Milton Friedman on Libertarianism

TAKE IT TO THE LIMITS: Milton Friedman on Libertarianism

Milton Friedman on Libertarianism and Humility

Ron Paul Defines Libertarianism – Charlie Rose Interview (Full)

Libertarianism: An Introduction

Do We Need Government? | Learn Liberty

(Ron Paul Inspiration) The Ludwig von Mises Story

Bettina Greaves on Ludwig von Mises’s Life

How Murray Rothbard Became a Libertarian

Murray Rothbard as Academic Role Model | Gary North

Gordon Tullock: Oral History, April 2010

Gordon Tullock and James Buchanan: The Calculus of Consent After 25 Years

James Buchanan on Chicago School Thinking: Old and New

Lew Rockwell: The Truth About Trump

Lew Rockwell on Trump and the 2016 Elections

Andrew Napolitano – Fear of Libertarians

Judge Andrew Napolitano on Election 2016 and Being a Pro-Life Libertarian

Therapy and its Libertarian Implications – an interview with Michael Edelstein

The Death of Self-Esteem

The Classical Liberal Constitution by Richard Epstein: Book Discussion

The Moral and Economic Foundations of Capitalism by Richard Epstein

Richard Epstein | Simple Rules for Open Markets

Encyclopedia of Libertarianism

Of Psychopaths and Libertarians – an interview with James Fallon

Walter Block on Immigration

Open Borders: A Libertarian Reappraisal | Lew Rockwell

What is a Libertarian?

Ron Paul Flashback– Prepare for the Worst

LewRockwell.com

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David Ogilvy — Videos

Posted on August 16, 2016. Filed under: Uncategorized |

Search for the World’s Greatest Salesperson – David Ogilvy, Salesman: The Early Years

David Ogilvy: Essentials

David Ogilvy The View From Touffou

A conversation about advertising, with David Ogilvy

David Ogilvy: We Sell or Else

David Ogilvy on Letterman

David Ogilvy (businessman)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
David Ogilvy
David ogilvy.jpg
Born 23 June 1911
West Horsley, Surrey
Died 21 July 1999 (aged 88)
Château de Touffou, Bonnes, France
Occupation Advertising executive

David Mackenzie Ogilvy CBE (/ˈɡəlv/; 23 June 1911 – 21 July 1999) was an advertising executive who was widely hailed as “The Father of Advertising”.[1] In 1962, Time called him “the most sought-after wizard in today’s advertising industry”.[2] He founded Ogilvy & Mather.

Early life (1911–1938)

David Mackenzie Ogilvy was born on 23 June 1911 at West Horsley, Surrey in England.[3] His father, Francis John Longley Ogilvy (c. 1867 – 1943) was a Gaelic-speaking Highlander from Scotland who was a classics scholar and a financial broker. His mother was Dorothy Blew Fairfield (1881-1942), daughter of Arthur Rowan Fairfield, a civil servant from Ireland, and his wife Sophie Louise Blew Jones. He was a first cousin once removed of the writer Rebecca West and of Douglas Holden Blew Jones, who was the brother-in-law of Freda Dudley Ward and the father-in-law of Antony Lambton, 6th Earl of Durham.[4] Ogilvy attended St Cyprian’s School, Eastbourne, on reduced fees because of his father’s straitened circumstances and won a scholarship at age thirteen to Fettes College, in Edinburgh. In 1929, he again won a scholarship, this time in History to Christ Church, Oxford. Without the scholarships, Ogilvy would not have been able to attend Fettes or Oxford University because his father’s business was badly hit by the depression of the mid-1920s. His studies were not successful, however, and he left Oxford for Paris in 1931 where he became an apprentice chef in the Hotel Majestic. After a year, he returned to Scotland and started selling AGA cooking stoves, door-to-door. His success at this marked him out to his employer, who asked him to write an instruction manual, The Theory and Practice of Selling the AGA Cooker,[5] for the other salesmen. Thirty years later, Fortune magazine editors called it the finest sales instruction manual ever written.[citation needed]

After seeing the manual, Ogilvy’s older brother Francis Ogilvy—the father of actor Ian Ogilvy—showed the manual to management at the London advertising agency Mather & Crowther where he was working. They offered the younger Ogilvy a position as an account executive.[citation needed]

At Gallup (1938–1948)

In 1938, Ogilvy persuaded his agency to send him to the United States for a year, where he went to work for George Gallup‘s Audience Research Institute in New Jersey. Ogilvy cites Gallup as one of the major influences on his thinking, emphasizing meticulous research methods and adherence to reality.

During World War II, Ogilvy worked for the British Intelligence Service at the British embassy in Washington, DC. There he analyzed and made recommendations on matters of diplomacy and security. According to a biography produced by Ogilvy & Mather, “he extrapolated his knowledge of human behaviour from consumerism to nationalism in a report which suggested ‘applying the Gallup technique to fields of secret intelligence.'”[6] Eisenhower’s Psychological Warfare Board picked up the report and successfully put Ogilvy’s suggestions to work in Europe during the last year of the war.

Also during World War II David Ogilvy was a notable alumnus of the secret Camp X, located near the towns of Whitby and Oshawa in Ontario, Canada. According to an article on the:[7] “It was there he mastered the power of propaganda before becoming king of Madison Avenue. Although Ogilvy was trained in sabotage and close combat, he was ultimately tasked with projects that included successfully ruining the reputation of businessmen who were supplying the Nazis with industrial materials.”[8]

After the war, Ogilvy bought a farm in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and lived among the Amish. The atmosphere of “serenity, abundance, and contentment” kept Ogilvy and his wife in Pennsylvania for several years, but eventually he admitted his limitations as a farmer and moved to Manhattan.

The Ogilvy & Mather years (1949–1973)

Having worked as a chef, researcher, and farmer, Ogilvy now started his own advertising agency with the backing of Mather and Crowther, the London agency being run by his elder brother, Francis, which later acquired another London agency, S.H. Benson. The new agency in New York was called Ogilvy, Benson, and Mather. David Ogilvy had just $6,000 ($59,726.72 in 2016 dollars) in his account when he started the agency. He writes in Confessions of an Advertising Man that, initially, he struggled to get clients. Ogilvy also admitted (referring to the pioneer of British advertising Bobby Bevan, the chairman of Benson): “I was in awe of him but Bevan never took notice of me!” They would meet later, however.[9]

Ogilvy & Mather was built on David Ogilvy’s principles; in particular, that the function of advertising is to sell and that successful advertising for any product is based on information about its consumer. He disliked advertisements that had loud patronizing voices, and believed a customer should be treated as intelligent. In 1955, he coined the phrase, “The customer is not a moron, she’s your wife” based on these values.[10]

His entry into the company of giants started with several iconic advertising campaigns: former First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt, did a commercial for Good Luck Margarine in 1959. In his autobiography, Ogilvy On Advertising, ad mogul David Ogilvy considered it a mistake to persuade her to do the ad – not because it was undignified, but because he grew to realize that putting celebs in ads is a mistake.

“The man in the Hathaway shirt with his aristocratic eye patch which used George Wrangel as model; “The man from Schweppes is here” introduced Commander Edward Whitehead, the elegant bearded Brit, bringing Schweppes (and “Schweppervescence”) to the U.S.; a famous headline in the automobile business, “At 60 miles an hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock”; Pablo Casals is coming home – to Puerto Rico, a campaign which Ogilvy said helped change the image of a country, and was his proudest achievement.

One of his greatest successes was “Only Dove is one-quarter moisturizing cream”. This campaign helped Dove become the top selling soap in the U.S.

Ogilvy believed that the best way to get new clients was to do notable work for his existing clients. Success in his early campaigns helped Ogilvy get big clients such as Rolls-Royce and Shell. New clients followed and Ogilvy’s company grew quickly.

In 1973, Ogilvy retired as Chairman of Ogilvy & Mather and moved to Touffou, his estate in France. While no longer involved in the agency’s day-to-day operations, he stayed in touch with the company. His correspondence so dramatically increased the volume of mail handled in the nearby town of Bonnes that the post office was reclassified at a higher status and the postmaster’s salary raised.

Ogilvy & Mather linked with H.H.D Europe in 1972.[clarification needed]

Life with WPP and afterward (1989–1999)

Ogilvy came out of retirement in the 1980s to serve as chairman of Ogilvy, Benson, & Mather in India. He also spent a year acting as temporary chairman of the agency’s German office, commuting weekly between Touffou and Frankfurt. He visited branches of the company around the world, and continued to represent Ogilvy & Mather at gatherings of clients and business audiences.

In 1989, The Ogilvy Group was bought by WPP Group, a British parent company, for US$864 million in a hostile takeover made possible by the fact that the company group had made an IPO as the first company in marketing to do so.

During the takeover procedures, Sir Martin Sorrell, the founder of WPP, who already had a tarnished reputation in the advertising industry following a similar successful takeover of J. Walter Thompson, was described by Ogilvy as an “odious little shit”,[11] and he promised to never work again. (Reports softened it to “odious little jerk”, and when Martin Sorrell signed his next company report, he followed the signature with the letters OLJ.) Two events followed simultaneously, however: WPP became the largest marketing communications firm in the world, and David Ogilvy was named the company’s non-executive chairman (a position he held for three years). Eventually he became a fan of Sorrell. A letter of apology from Ogilvy adorns Sorrell’s office, which is said to be the only apology David Ogilvy ever offered in any form during his adult life. Only a year after his derogatory comments about Sorrell, he was quoted as saying, ‘When he tried to take over our company, I would liked to have killed him. But it was not legal. I wish I had known him 40 years ago. I like him enormously now.’

At age seventy-five, Ogilvy was asked if anything he’d always wanted had somehow eluded him. His reply was, “Knighthood. And a big family – ten children.” His only child, David Fairfield Ogilvy, was born during his first marriage, to Melinda Street. That marriage ended in divorce (1955) as did a second marriage to Anne Cabot. Ogilvy married Herta Lans in France during 1973.

He didn’t achieve knighthood, but he was made a Commander of the Order of British Empire (CBE) in 1967. He was elected to the U.S. Advertising Hall of Fame in 1977 and to France’s Order of Arts and Letters in 1990. He chaired the Public Participation Committee for Lincoln Center in Manhattan and served as a member of the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s 100th Anniversary Committee.[12] He was appointed Chairman of the United Negro College Fund in 1968, and trustee on the Executive Council of the World Wildlife Fundin 1975. Mr. Ogilvy was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1979.

David Ogilvy died on 21 July 1999 at his home, the Château de Touffou, in Bonnes, France. Ogilvy remains one of the most famous names in advertising and is considered one of its dominant thinkers.

Works

His book Ogilvy on Advertising is a general commentary on advertising and not all the ads shown in the book are his. In early 2004, Adweek magazine asked people in the business “Which individuals – alive or dead – made you consider pursuing a career in advertising?”, and Ogilvy topped the list. The same result came when students of advertising were surveyed. His best-selling book Confessions of an Advertising Man (ISBN 1-904915-01-9) is one of the most popular and famous books on advertising. Based on this book, there is a strong suspicion that Ogilvy is the inspiration for Don Draper in the popular series Mad Men.

Ogilvy’s advertising philosophy followed these four basic principles:

  • Creative brilliance: had a strong emphasis on the “BIG IDEA“.
  • Research: coming, as he did, from a background in research, he never underestimated its importance in advertising. In fact, in 1952, when he opened his own agency, he billed himself as research director.
  • Actual results for clients: “In the modern world of business, it is useless to be a creative, original thinker unless you can also sell what you create.”
  • Professional discipline: “I prefer the discipline of knowledge to the anarchy of ignorance.” He codified knowledge into slide and film presentations he called Magic Lanterns. He also instituted several training programs for young advertising professionals.

Notes

  1. Jump up^ “New York Times Tribute, 1999
  2. Jump up^ Time Magazine cover story, October 12, 1962
  3. Jump up^ “David Ogilvy Biography”. Ogilvy.com. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  4. Jump up^ Mosley, Charles, editor (2003). Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes. Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A. Cited at http://thepeerage.com/p8403.htm Retrieved 4 January 2016
  5. Jump up^ David Ogilvy (June 1935). The Theory and Practice of Selling the AGA Cooker (PDF). AGA Heat Limited.
  6. Jump up^ “Biography” (PDF). Ogilvy.com.
  7. Jump up^ CBC website
  8. Jump up^ “The Real Camp X: 10 Facts About Canada’s Elite Spy School”. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 29, 2015.
  9. Jump up^ Mani Ayer (July 26, 1999). “The Adman Who Hated Hype”. Rediff.com.
  10. Jump up^ Cracknell, Andrew (3 May 2012). “Ads From The Real Mad Men”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  11. Jump up^ Arif Durran (May 28, 2012). “Sorrell says Adam & Eve acquisition ‘shows DDB needed some help'”. Campaign.
  12. Jump up^ Finding aid for the George Trescher records related to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Centennial, 1949, 1960-1971 (bulk 1967-1970). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 5 August 2014.

References

  1. Ogilvy, D. (1983), Ogilvy on Advertising, John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, 1983 ISBN 0-517-55075-X (and Pan Books, London, 1983 ISBN 0-330-26985-2).
  2. Ogilvy, D. (1963), Confessions of an Advertising Man, Atheneum, Revised edition, 1988, ISBN 0-689-70800-9.
  3. Terry, Dan’l (1994), “David Ogilvy” in The Ad Men & Women, Edd Applegate, ed., Greenwood, Westport, CT, 1994 ISBN 0-313-27801-6
  4. Roman, Kenneth (2009) The King of Madison Avenue. Palgrave Macmillan. Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 6XS, England

Further reading

  • Conant, Jennet The Irregulars: Roald Dahl and the British Spy Ring in Wartime Washington (Simon and Schuster, 2008)

External links

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Solid State Drives — Videos

Posted on June 18, 2016. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Computers, External Hard Drives, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , |

 

Hard Drives VS SSD – is now the time to Upgrade?

SSDs vs Hard Drives as Fast As Possible

SSD vs Hard Drive Torture Test

Seagate 600 Desktop Solid State Hybrid Drives vs SSD vs HDD – Showdown

SSD prices plummet again, close in on HDDs

SSD vs. HDD: What’s the Difference?

Do you like your storage plentiful and cheap, or do you like it fast and safe? Here’s how to choose between a traditional hard drive and a solid-state drive in your next PC.
SSD vs. HDD: What's the Difference?

Until recently, PC buyers had very little choice about what kind of storage to get in a laptop or desktop. If you bought an ultraportable, you likely had a solid-state drive (SSD) as the primary drive (C: on Windows, Macintosh HD on a Mac). Every other desktop or laptop form factor had a hard disk drive (HDD). Now, you can configure your system with either an HDD or SSD, or in some cases both. But how do you choose? We explain the differences between SSDs and HDDs (or hard drives), and walk you through the advantages and disadvantage of both to help you decide.

HDD and SSD Explained
The traditional spinning hard drive is the basic nonvolatile storage on a computer. That is, information on it doesn’t “go away” when you turn off the system, as is true of data stored in RAM. A hard drives is essentially a metal platter with a magnetic coating that stores your data, whether weather reports from the last century, a high-definition copy of the Star Wars trilogy, or your digital music collection. A read/write head on an arm accesses the data while the platters are spinning.

An SSD does functionally everything a hard drive does, but data is instead stored on interconnected flash memory chips that retain the data even when there’s no power present. The chips can either be permanently installed on the system’s motherboard (as on some small laptops and ultrabooks), on a PCI Express (PCIe) card (in some high-end workstations), or in a box that’s sized, shaped, and wired to slot in for a laptop or desktop’s hard drive (common on everything else). These flash memory chips are of a different type than is used in USB thumb drives, and are typically faster and more reliable. SSDs are consequently more expensive than USB thumb drives of the same capacities.

Note: We’ll be talking primarily about internal drives in this story, but almost everything applies to external hard drives as well. External drives come in both large desktop and compact portable form factors, and SSDs are gradually becoming a larger part of the external market.

A History of HDDs and SSDs
Hard drive technology is relatively ancient (in terms of computer history, anyway). There are well-known pictures of the infamous IBM 350 RAMAC hard drive from 1956 that used 50 24-inch-wide platters to hold a whopping 3.75MB of storage space. This, of course, is the size of an average 128Kbps MP3 file today, in the physical space that could hold two commercial refrigerators. The IBM 350 was only utilized by government and industrial users, and was obsolete by 1969. Ain’t progress wonderful? The PC hard drive form factor standardized at 5.25 inches in the early 1980s, with the 3.5-inch desktop-class and 2.5-inch notebook-class drives coming soon thereafter. The internal cable interface has changed from serial to IDE (now frequently called parallel ATA, or PATA) to SCSI to serial ATA (SATA) over the years, but each essentially does the same thing: connect the hard drive to the PC’s motherboard so your data can be processed. Today’s 2.5- and 3.5-inch drives mainly use SATA interfaces (at least on most PCs and Macs), though some high-speed SSDs use the faster PCIe interface instead. Capacities have grown from multiple megabytes to multiple terabytes, more than a million-fold increase. Current 3.5-inch hard drives have capacities as high as 10TB, with 2.5-inch drives maxing out at 4TB.

275The SSD has a much shorter history. There was always an infatuation with nonmoving storage from the beginning of personal computing, with technologies like bubble memory flashing (pun intended) and dying in the 1970s and 1980s. Current flash memory is the logical extension of the same idea, as it doesn’t require constant power to retain the data you store on it. The first primary drives that we know as SSDs started during the rise of netbooks in the late 2000s. In 2007, the OLPC XO-1 used a 1GB SSD, and the Asus Eee PC 700 series used a 2GB SSD as primary storage. The SSD chips on low-end Eee PC units and the XO-1 were permanently soldered to the motherboard. As netbooks, ultrabooks, and other ultraportable laptop PCs became more capable, SSD capacities increased and eventually standardized on the 2.5-inch notebook form factor. This way, you could pop a 2.5-inch hard drive out of your laptop or desktop and replace it easily with an SSD. Other form factors emerged, like the mSATA Mini PCIe SSD card, M.2 SSD in SATA and PCIe variants, and the DIMM-like solid-state Flash Storage in the Apple MacBook Air and MacBook Pro, but today many SSDs still use the 2.5-inch form factor. The 2.5-inch SSD capacity currently tops out at 4TB, but a 16TB version was recently released by Samsung for enterprise devices like servers.

Advantages and Disadvantages
Both SSDs and hard drives do the same job: They boot your system, and store your applications and personal files. But each type of storage has its own unique feature set. How do they differ, and why would you want to get one over the other?

Price: SSDs are more expensive than hard drives in terms of dollar per gigabyte. A 1TB internal 2.5-inch hard drive costs about $50, but as of this writing, an SSD of the same capacity and form factor starts at $220. That translates into 5 cents per gigabyte for the hard drive and 22 cents per gigabyte for the SSD. Since hard drives use older, more established technology, they will remain less expensive for the near future. Those extra hundreds for the SSD may push your system price over budget.

Maximum and Common Capacity: Although SSD units top out at 4TB, those are still rare and expensive. You’re more likely to find 500GB to 1TB units as primary drives in systems. While 500GB is considered a “base” hard drive in 2016, pricing concerns can push that down to 128GB for lower-priced SSD-based systems. Multimedia users will require even more, with 1TB to 4TB drives common in high-end systems. Basically, the more storage capacity, the more stuff you can keep on your PC. Cloud-based (Internet) storage may be good for housing files you plan to share among your phone, tablet, and PC, but local storage is less expensive, and you only have to buy it once.

Solid State Drive

Speed: This is where SSDs shine. An SSD-equipped PC will boot in less than a minute, and often in seconds. A hard drive requires time to speed up to operating specs, and will continue to be slower than an SSD during normal use. A PC or Mac with an SSD boots faster, launches and runs apps faster, and transfers files faster. Whether it’s for fun, school, or business, the extra speed may be the difference between finishing on time and failing.

Fragmentation: Because of their rotary recording surfaces, hard drives work best with larger files that are laid down in contiguous blocks. That way, the drive head can start and end its read in one continuous motion. When hard drives start to fill up, large files can become scattered around the disk platter, causing the drive to suffer from what’s called fragmentation. While read/write algorithms have improved to the point that the effect is minimized, hard drives can still become fragmented. SSDs can’t, however, because the lack of a physical read head means data can be stored anywhere. Thus, SSDs are inherently faster.

Durability: An SSD has no moving parts, so it is more likely to keep your data safe in the event that you drop your laptop bag or your system is shaken about by an earthquake while it’s operating. Most hard drives park their read/write heads when the system is off, but they are flying over the drive platter at a distance of a few nanometers when they are in operation. Besides, even parking brakes have limits. If you’re rough on your equipment, an SSD is recommended.

Availability: Hard drives are more plentiful in budget and older systems, but SSDs are becoming more prevalent in recently released laptops. That said, the product lists from Western Digital, Toshiba, Seagate, Samsung, and Hitachi are still skewed in favor of hard drive models over SSDs. For PCs and Macs, internal hard drives won’t be going away completely, at least for the next couple of years. SSD model lines are growing in number: Witness the number of thin laptops with 256 to 512GB SSDs installed in place of hard drives.

Seagate 600 Pro: Angle

Form Factors: Because hard drives rely on spinning platters, there is a limit to how small they can be manufactured. There was an initiative to make smaller 1.8-inch spinning hard drives, but that’s stalled at about 320GB, since the phablet and smartphone manufacturers have settled on flash memory for their primary storage. SSDs have no such limitation, so they can continue to shrink as time goes on. SSDs are available in 2.5-inch laptop drive-sized boxes, but that’s only for convenience. As laptops become slimmer and tablets take over as primary Web surfing platforms, you’ll start to see the adoption of SSDs skyrocket.

Noise: Even the quietest hard drive will emit a bit of noise when it is in use from the drive spinning or the read arm moving back and forth, particularly if it’s in a system that’s been banged about or if it’s been improperly installed in an all-metal system. Faster hard drives will make more noise than slower ones. SSDs make virtually no noise at all, since they’re non-mechanical.

Overall: Hard drives win on price, capacity, and availability. SSDs work best if speed, ruggedness, form factor, noise, or fragmentation (technically part of speed) are important factors to you. If it weren’t for the price and capacity issues, SSDs would be the winner hands down.

As far as longevity, while it is true that SSDs wear out over time (each cell in a flash memory bank can be written and erased a limited number of times), thanks to TRIM command technology that dynamically optimizes these read/write cycles, you’re more likely to discard the system for obsolescence (after six years or so) before you start running into read/write errors with an SSD. If you’re really worried, there are several tools that monitor the S.M.A.R.T. status of your hard drive or SSD, and will let you know if you’re approaching the drive’s rated end of life. The possible exceptions are high-end multimedia users like video editors who read and write data constantly, but those users will need the larger capacities of hard drives anyway. Hard drives will eventually wear out from constant use as well, since they use physical recording methods. Longevity is a wash when it’s separated from travel and ruggedness concerns.

The Right Storage for You
So, does an SSD or HDD (or a hybrid of the two) fit your needs? Let’s break it down:

HDDs
Enthusiast multimedia users and heavy downloaders: Video collectors need space, and you can only get to 4TB of space cheaply with hard drives.
Budget buyers: Ditto. Plenty of cheap space. SSDs are too expensive for $500 PC buyers.
Graphic arts and engineering professionals: Video and photo editors wear out storage by overuse. Replacing a 1TB hard drive will be cheaper than replacing a 500GB SSD.
General users: General users are a toss-up. Folks who prefer to download their media files locally will still need a hard drive with more capacity. But if you mostly stream your music and videos online, then buying a smaller SSD for the same money will give you a better experience.

SSDs
Road warriors: People who shove their laptops into their bags indiscriminately will want the extra security of an SSD. That laptop may not be fully asleep when you violently shut it to catch your next flight. This also includes folks who work in the field, like utility workers and university researchers.
Speed demons: If you need things done now, spend the extra bucks for quick boot-ups and app launches. Supplement with a storage SSD or hard drive if you need extra space (see below).
Graphic arts and engineering professionals: Yes, I know I said they need hard drives, but the speed of an SSD may make the difference between completing two proposals for your client and completing five. These users are prime candidates for dual-drive systems (more on that below).
Audio engineers and musicians: If you’re recording music, you don’t want the scratchy sound from a hard drive intruding. Go for quieter SSDs.

Hybrid Drives and Dual-Drive SystemsBack in the mid 2000s, some hard drive manufacturers, like Samsung and Seagate, theorized that if you add a few gigabytes of flash chips to a spinning hard drive, you’d get a so-called “hybrid” drive combining the large storage capacity with the performance of an SSD, at a price only slightly higher than that of a typical hard drive. The flash memory acts as a buffer for frequently used files, so your system has the potential for booting and launching your most important apps faster, even though you can’t directly install anything in that space yourself. In practice, hybrid drives like the Seagate Momentus XT work, but they are still more expensive and more complex than regular hard drives. They work best for people like road warriors who need both lots of storage and fast boot times. Since they’re an in-between product, hybrid drives don’t necessarily replace dedicated hard drives or SSDs.

In a dual-drive system, the system manufacturer will install a small SSD primary drive (C:) for the operating system and apps, and add a larger spinning hard drive (D: or E:) for storing files. This works well in theory; in practice, manufacturers can go too small on the SSD. Windows itself takes up a lot of space on the primary drive, and some apps can’t be installed on other drives. Some capacities may also be too small. For example, you can install Windows on a SSD as small as 16GB, but there will be little room for anything else. In our opinion, 120 to 128GB is a practical size for the C: drive, with 256GB or more being even better. Space concerns are the same as with any multiple-drive system: You need physical space inside the PC chassis to hold two (or more) drives.

Western Digital Black2 Dual Drive

Last but not least, an SSD and a hard drive can be combined (like Voltron) on systems with technologies like Intel’s Smart Response Technology (SRT). SRT uses the SSD invisibly to act as a cache to help the system more speedily boot and launch programs. As on a hybrid drive, the SSD is not directly accessible by the end user. SRT requires true SSDs, like those in 2.5-inch form factors, but those drives can be as small as 8GB to 20GB in capacity and still boost performance; since the operating system isn’t being installed to the SSD directly, you avoid the drive space problems of the dual-drive configuration mentioned above. On the other hand, your PC will need space for two drives, a requirement that may exclude some laptops and small-form-factor desktops. You’ll also need the SSD and your system’s motherboard to support the caching technology for this scenario to work. All in all, however, it’s an interesting workaround.

It’s unclear whether SSDs will totally replace traditional spinning hard drives, especially with shared cloud storage waiting in the wings. The price of SSDs is coming down, but they’re still too expensive to totally replace the terabytes of data that some users have in their PCs and Macs. Cloud storage isn’t free, either: You’ll continue to pay as long as you want personal storage on the Internet. Local storage won’t go away until we have ubiquitous wireless Internet everywhere, including in planes and out in the wilderness. Of course, by that time, there may be something better.

Looking for some extra storage? Check out our list of the best external hard drives. Or if you want to protect or store your files online, check out our roundups of the best cloud storage and file-syncing services and the best online backup services.

http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2404258,00.asp

Advantages of SSD over HDD

SSDThe standard hard drive (HDD) has been the predominant storage device for computers, both desktops and laptops, for a long time. The main draw is the storage size and low cost. Computer manufacturers can include large hard drives at a small cost, so they’ve continued to use HDDs in their computers. The solid state drive (SSD) is available and can replace an HDD relatively easily. As you’ll find by reading the below pros and cons, the SSD is a clear winner, but because of the price it still doesn’t make sense to use SSDs for all uses. For most computer users, we suggest using SSD as the primary drive for your operating system and most important programs. We then recommend using one or more HDD inside the same computer, or an external HDD, to store documents, pictures and music, which don’t need the fast access times of SSD.

Topic SSD HDD
Access time An SSD has access speeds of 35 to 100 micro-seconds, which is nearly 100 times faster. This faster access speed means programs can run more quickly, which is very significant, especially for programs that access large amounts of data often like your operating system. A typical HDD takes about 5,000 to 10,000 micro-seconds to access data.
Price The price of a solid state drive is much more than an HDD, which is why most computers with an SSD only have a few hundred gigabytes of storage. Desktop computers with an SSD may also have one or more HDDs for additional storage. HDD is much cheaper than SSD, especially for drives over 500GB.
Reliability The SSD drive has no moving parts. It uses flash memory to store data, which provides better performance and reliability over an HDD. The HDD has moving parts and magnetic platters, meaning the more use they get, the faster they wear down and fail.
Capacity Although there are large SSDs realistically for most people’s budgets anything over 512GB SSD is beyond their price range. Several terabyte hard disk drives are available for very reasonable prices.
Power The SSD uses less power than a standard HDD, which means a lower energy bill over time and for laptops an increase of battery life. With all the parts and requirements to spin the platters the HDD uses more power than an SSD.
Noise With no moving parts SSD generates no noise. With the spinning platters and moving read/write heads an HDD can sometimes be one of the loudest components in your computer.
Size SSD is available in 2.5″, 1.8″, and 1.0″, increasing the available space available in a computer, especially a desktop or server. HDDs are usually 3.5″ and 2.5″ in size, for desktop and laptops respectively with no options for anything smaller.
Heat Because there are no moving parts and due to the nature of flash memory, the SSD generates less heat, helping to increase its lifespan and reliability. With moving parts comes added heat, which is why the HDD generates more heat. Heat can slowly damage electronics over time, so the higher the heat, the greater the potential of damage being done.
Magnetism SSD is not affected by magnetism. Because a hard drive relies off magnetism to write information to the platter information could be erased from an HDD using strong magnets.

http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001396.htm

How much faster is an SSD compared with HDD drives and is it worth the price?

A solid state drive or SSD can speed up the performance of a computer significantly, often more than what a faster processor (CPU) can. A hard disk drive or HDD is cheaper and offers more storage (500 GB to 1 TB are common) while SSD disks are more expensive and generally available in 64 GB to 256 GB configurations.

SSDs have several advantages over HDD drives.

Comparison chart

HDD versus SSD comparison chart
HDD SSD
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Stands for Hard Disk Drive Solid State Drive
Speed HDD has higher latency, longer read/write times, and supports fewer IOPs (input output operations per second) compared to SSD. SSD has lower latency, faster read/writes, and supports more IOPs (input output operations per second) compared to HDD.
Heat, Electricity, Noise Hard disk drives use more electricity to rotate the platters, generating heat and noise. Since no such rotation is needed in solid state drives, they use less power and do not generate heat or noise.
Defragmentation The performance of HDD drives worsens due to fragmentation; therefore, they need to be periodically defragmented. SSD drive performance is not impacted by fragmentation. So defragmentation is not necessary.
Components HDD contains moving parts – a motor-driven spindle that holds one or more flat circular disks (called platters) coated with a thin layer of magnetic material. Read-and-write heads are positioned on top of the disks; all this is encased in a metal cas SSD has no moving parts; it is essentially a memory chip. It is interconnected, integrated circuits (ICs) with an interface connector. There are three basic components – controller, cache and capacitor.
Weight HDDs are heavier than SSD drives. SSD drives are lighter than HDD drives because they do not have the rotating disks, spindle and motor.
Dealing with vibration The moving parts of HDDs make them susceptible to crashes and damage due to vibration. SSD drives can withstand vibration up to 2000Hz, which is much more than HDD.

Speed

HDD disks use spinning platters of magnetic drives and read/write heads for operation. So start-up speed is slower for HDDs than SSDs because a spin-up for the disk is needed. Intel claims their SSD is 8 times faster than an HDD, thereby offering faster boot up times.[1]

The following video compares HDD and SSD speeds in the real world and it’s no surprise that SSD storage comes out ahead in every test:

Benchmark statistics – small read/writes

  • HDDs: Small reads – 175 IOPs, Small writes – 280 IOPs
  • Flash SSDs: Small reads – 1075 IOPs (6x), Small writes – 21 IOPs (0.1x)
  • DRAM SSDs: Small reads – 4091 IOPs (23x), Small writes – 4184 IOPs (14x)

IOPs stand for Input/Output Operations Per Second

Data Transfer in an HDD vs. SSD

In an HDD, data transfer is sequential. The physical read/write head “seeks” an appropriate point in the hard drive to execute the operation. This seek time can be significant. The transfer rate can also be influenced by file system fragmentation and the layout of the files. Finally, the mechanical nature of hard disks also introduces certain performance limitations.

In an SSD, data transfer is not sequential; it is random access so it is faster. There is consistent read performance because the physical location of data is irrelevant. SSDs have no read/write heads and thus no delays due to head motion (seeking).

Reliability

Unlike HDD drives, SSD disks do not have moving parts. So SSD reliability is higher. Moving parts in an HDD increase the risk of mechanical failure. The rapid motion of the platters and heads inside the hard disk drive make it susceptible to “head crash”. Head crashes can be caused by electronic failure, a sudden power failure, physical shock, wear and tear, corrosion, or poorly manufactured platters and heads. Another factor impacting reliability is the presence of magnets. HDDs use magnetic storage so are susceptible to damage or data corruption when in close proximity with powerful magnets. SSDs are not at risk for such magnetic distortion.

Wear-out

When flash first started gaining momentum for long-term storage, there were concerns about wear-out, especially with some experts warning that because of the way SSDs work, there was a limited number of write cycles they could achieve. However, SSD manufacturers put a lot of effort in product architecture, drive controllers and read/write algorithms and in practice, wear-out has been a nonissue for SSDs in most practical applications.[2]

Price

http://www.diffen.com/difference/utils/amznWdgt.php?q=SSD

As of June 2015, SSDs are still more expensive per gigabyte than hard drives but prices for SSDs have fallen substantially in recent years. While external hard drives are around $0.04 per gigabyte, a typical flash SSD is about $0.50 per GB. This is down from about $2 per GB in early 2012.

In effect, this means you can buy a 1 TB external hard drive (HDD) for $55 on Amazon (see external hard drive best sellers) while a 1 TB SSD costs about $475. (see best sellers list for internal SSDs and external SSDs).

Price outlook

In an influential article for Network Computing in June 2015, storage consultant Jim O’Reilly wrote that prices for SSD storage are falling very fast and with 3D NAND technology, SSD will likely achieve price parity with HDD around the end of 2016.

There are two main reasons for falling SSD prices:

  1. Increasing density: 3D NAND technology was a breakthrough that allowed a quantum jump in SSD capacity because it allows for packing 32 or 64 times the capacity per die.
  2. Process efficiency: Flash storage manufacturing has become more efficient and die yields have increased significantly.

A December 2015 article for Computer World projected that 40% of new laptops sold in 2017, 31% in 2016 and 25% of laptops in 2015, will use SSD rather than HDD drives. The article also reported that while HDD prices have not dropped too much, SSD prices have consistently fallen month over month and are nearing parity with HDD.

Price projections for HDD and SSD storage, by DRAMeXchange. Prices are in US Dollars per gigabyte.

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Price projections for HDD and SSD storage, by DRAMeXchange. Prices are in US Dollars per gigabyte.

Storage capacity

Until recently, SSDs were too expensive and only available in smaller sizes. 128 GB and 256 GB laptops are common when using SSD drives while laptops with HDD internal drives are typically 500 GB to 1 TB. Some vendors — including Apple — offer “fusion” drives that combine 1 SSD and 1 HDD drive that work seamlessly together.

However, with 3D NAND, SSDs are likely to close the capacity gap with HDD drives by the end of 2016. In July 2015, Samsung announced it was releasing 2TB SSD drives that use SATA connectors.[3] While HDD technology is likely to cap out at about 10 TB, there is no such restriction for flash storage. In fact, in August 2015, Samsung unveiled the world’s largest hard drive — a 16TB SSD drive.

Defragmentation in HDDs

Due to the physical nature of HDDs and their magnetic platters that store data, IO operations (reading from or writing to the disk) work much faster when data is stored contiguously on the disk. When a file’s data is stored on different parts of the disk, IO speeds are reduced because the disk needs to spin for different regions of the disk to come in contact with the read/write heads. Often there is not enough contiguous space available to store all the data in a file. This results in fragmentation of the HDD. Periodic defragmentation is needed to keep the device from slowing down in performance.

With SSD disks, there are no such physical restrictions for the read/write head. So the physical location of the data on the disk does not matter as it does not impact performance. Therefore, defragmentation is not necessary for SSD.

Noise

HDD disks are audible because they spin. HDD drives in smaller form factors (e.g. 2.5 inch) are quieter. SSD drives are integrated circuits with no moving parts and therefore do not make noise when operating.

Components and Operation

A typical HDD consists of a spindle that holds one or more flat circular disks (calledplatters) onto which the data is recorded. The platters are made from a non-magnetic material and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material. Read-and-write heads are positioned on top of the disks. The platters are spun at very high speeds with a motor. A typical hard drive has two electric motors, one to spin the disks and one to position the read/write head assembly. Data is written to a platter as it rotates past the read/write heads. The read-and-write head can detect and modify the magnetization of the material immediately under it.

Disassembled components of HDD (left) and SSD (right) drives.

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Disassembled components of HDD (left) and SSD (right) drives.

In contrast, SSDs use microchips, and contain no moving parts. SSD components include a controller, which is an embedded processor that executes firmware-level software and is one of the most important factors of SSD performance; cache, where a directory of block placement and wear leveling data are also kept; and energy storage – a capacitor or batteries – so that data in the cache can be flushed to the drive when power is dropped. The primary storage component in an SSD has been DRAM volatile memory since they were first developed, but since 2009 it is more commonly NAND flash memory. The performance of the SSD can scale with the number of parallel NAND flash chips used in the device. A single NAND chip is relatively slow. When multiple NAND devices operate in parallel inside an SSD, the bandwidth scales, and the high latencies can be hidden, as long as enough outstanding operations are pending and the load is evenly distributed between devices.

References

The Advantages And Benefits Of Solid State Drive (SSD)

The advent of solid state drive (SSD) in the last few years as a viable alternative to the traditional hard drive (HDD) providing a much higher speed than the latter and other considerable advantages, has built up the reputation of this flash-based storage technology so quickly to the point that so many IT professionals were impelled to deeming it “the best performance upgrade” and recommending it to everyone looking forward to take their computer to the next level. That’s because, unlike solid state drives, no single hardware upgrade is capable of offering the kind of instantaneous and observable boost in system responsiveness, compared to a system based on traditional hard drive spinning media.

Yes, it’s true that a faster processor, additional memory, and a faster graphics card may notably better the overall system performance, but compared to what an SSD can do, all those upgrades fall behind.

But all the stated above traits don’t make SSDs free of disadvantages, they already undergo their own, and we’ll be outlining those disadvantages within this article after addressing the outstanding advantages they boast of.

The Advantages of SSDs

There are many advantages solid state drives (SSD) have over traditional mechanical hard disk drives (HDD). The majority of these advantages are resulted from the fact that SSDs don’t employ any moving part in their architecture. In contrast to mechanical hard drives that use drive motors to help spin up the magnetic platters as well as the drive heads, flash memory chips are the ones responsible for all the storage on a solid state drive. This feature offers faster data access, lower power requirements, and high reliability.

Reliability

Because SSDs don’t have any moving part, they are nearly invulnerable to fail in high shock and vibration environments and extreme temperatures. This trait, particularly the potential of operating in extreme temperatures between 0°C to +70°C, allows an SSD-based system to handle more applications in difficult situations where the traditional hard drives fail.

Also, for portable systems, reliability is an important factor. It’s very likely that traditional HDD is seriously affected when exposed to jarring movements from an impact. The advantage of SSD here explicitly appears, because an SSD stores all its data in memory chips, therefore in the event of an impact there are no moving parts to be damaged. The risk of mechanical failure is almost completely eliminated by this lack of moving parts. Table-1 compares the key features of reliability on SSD, standard HDD and an extended temperature HDD. Using these features helps specifying which particular hard drive will be suitable for a particular application environment.

Data Read & Write Rates

As far as measurement, testing and industrial applications are concerned, Data access rates are intensively important. Since the SSD does not need to move the drive heads or spin-up the drive platter as in the case of traditional HDD, data in an SSD can be accessed almost promptly. Due to the lack of these mechanical delays, SSD exhibit significant increase in the read/write rates. This performance boost adds to user productivity by enabling increased data read and write rates, faster loading of applications, and decreased system boot-up/shutdown time. Refer to table-2 for comparison of data transfer rates for the SSDs and regular HDDs.

Performance

It’s not only that SSDs have faster read and write rates than traditional hard drives, but also they have better deterministic performance. Unlike regular HDDs, the performance of an SLC SSD is almost constant and deterministic across the entire storage space. This is because of the constant seek times offered by a solid-state drive.

This performance advantage is due to two key reasons. The first of them is file fragmentation. Over time files become more fragmented, requiring a regular HDD to perform additional seeks to retrieve an entire file. This process decreases the effective performance of the drive as compared to the SSD, which has way lower seek times.

The second reason is the method in which data is stored on an HDD. When data gets first written to an HDD, it is stored in the sectors close to the outer edge of the spinning platters, which move faster as compared to the sectors nearer to the center of the platter. But when the HDD fills up, the situation differs and data is written to the slower-moving inner sectors, decreasing write and read speeds up to 50%. Here where SSDs have an advantage for not having moving parts. They are able to maintain the same level of read and write performance through the entire capacity of the drive.

Figure 1 compares the performance of the Seagate 2.5in SATA Extended Temp HDD and the Samsung 2.5in SATA SLC SSD reading data across the entire disk. As the graphs illustrate, as you move from the outermost rim to the inner rim of the traditional HDD there is a significant drop in read rates, whereas the rates remain fairly constant for the SSD.

Power Consumption

For portable systems, power consumption is an important factor. SSD uses far less energy than regular traditional HDDs as there is no power used to drive motors in a SSD. The traditional hard disk industry has taken steps to address power requirements of traditional drives by implementing idle drive spin down and the development of hybrid HDDs, but even with both of these implementations, regular HDDs consume more power than a SSD. Table 3 compares the power consumption for the SSD, standard HDD and an extended temperature HDD.

The Disadvantages of SSDs

Switching over from the current hard disk drive to a solid-state drive seems an appealing step. But before you take any action in this regard you should realize that SSDs are not free of downsides/disadvantages, such as their steep prices. Even after the dramatic price fall of NAND flash memory, SSD is still deemed expensive. See for example the price of the cheapest 1 TB SSD, which is Samsung 840 Evo, it costs on Amazon by the time of writing $431, that indicates $0.43 per GB, whereas the cost of Western Digital 4TB Black is almost $230, and that indicates $0.0575 per GB, a real vast difference.

Then there’s the issue of longevity. The NAND flash used in SSDs can only be used for a finite number of writes. Why? Because SSDs can’t write a single bit of information without first erasing and then rewriting very large blocks of data at one time. Each time a cell goes through an erase cycle, some charge is left in the floating-gate transistor, which changes its resistance. As the resistance builds, the amount of current required to change the gate increases. Eventually, the gate can’t be flipped at all, rendering it useless. This decaying process doesn’t affect the read capabilities of SSD, because reading only requires checking, not changing, the voltages of cells. As a result, NAND flash can “rot” into a read-only state.

Some manufacturers use something called wear-leveling to counteract the degradation of NAND flash. This technique distributes data writes across all blocks to make sure the flash memory wears evenly, but even with that, SSDs will decay over time. NAND flash memory of the single-level cell variety generally delivers 50,000 program/erase cycles. Flash of the multi-level cell variety — the kind used in consumer-level products — wears out after about 5,000 cycles.

Rest assured though, that was the situation of the first, old-fashioned solid-state drives, but modern ones, especially the top quality SSDs come with real high endurance that can handle the toughest cases, and for that reason their manufacturers provide a 5-year warranty on them.

But still, even though modern SSDs are very durable, the high price and low capacity poses a problem, and for that reason many data centers and techies use a combination of SSD and HDD. One approach is to use a solid-state drive in a laptop and a traditional hard drive as external storage holding music, photos and other files. This combines the best of both worlds — the ultrafast, random data access of SSD with the relatively inexpensive, high capacity of HDD. If this sounds good to you, you’ll want to start shopping for a suitable solid-state drive. Leading manufacturers include Samsung, Seagate, SanDisk, Corsair, Toshiba and OCZ Technology. And don’t forget about Intel, which offers a robust line of drives, as well as several tools to help you choose the right technology and calculate how much time and money you can save if you make the switch to SSD.

http://www.ryli.net/the-advantages-and-benefits-of-solid-state-drive-ssd/

SSD vs Hard Drive

Install an SSD for the Maximum Performance Gain

These days SSDs (Solid-State Drives) are getting more and more attention. Advanced computer users recommend switching to SSDs and a lot of manufacturers have already stopped installing conventional spinning disks on their latest models. They now offer lighter, thinner and faster laptops with SSD storage.  But should you upgrade to SSD, what’s in it for you and are there any drawbacks? Let’s find out!

What is an SSD?

Basically, a solid-state drive (SSD) is a data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store data. SSDs have the same purpose as conventional mechanical hard drives, but there is one crucial difference – they are electronic devices and don’t have any mechanical parts. Unlike HDDs, SSDs don’t store data on spinning platters, but use flash memory instead.

ssd vs hard drive

As of 2010, most SSDs use NAND flash memory. More expensive SSDs (such as the ones used by businesses) use single-level cell memory (SLC), which is faster, more reliable and more expensive. A 1TB SLC solid-state drive can cost as much as a good used car with low mileage. As for consumer-oriented SSDs, they use multi-level cell memory (MLC) that is cheaper, a bit slower and a bit less reliable. But in any case, even MLC disks are a lot faster than magnetic drives and a lot more reliable, too.

SSD benefits

SSDs have a lot of benefits, but the two most important ones are speed and reliability. Compared to conventional hard drives, solid-state drives are a lot faster. In fact, some people experience a whopping 1,000 MB/sec read speed. Today, the fastest SSDs are SATA 6.0 GB/sec.

ssd reliability

HDDs are the most common performance bottlenecks on any system. Why? Simply because unlike RAM and CPU, hard drives have mechanical moving parts. This means that every time you need to open, save, modify a file or do anything else, the disk needs to spin. Worse still, things like file fragmentation can dramatically reduce HDD speed. As for SSDs, fragmentation doesn’t affect their speed because they can simultaneously grab bits of information from anywhere on the drive. To cut a long story short, comparing an HDD and an SSD from the speed perspective is like comparing a bicycle and a Ferrari. So, if you want a big performance gain – switch to SSD storage.

Another major SSD benefit is reliability. Unlike HDDs, solid-state drives don’t suffer from shock or drop damage. This is especially important for people who travel frequently (like myself). The number of times my heart skipped a beat when my laptop bag got handled quite unceremoniously by airport security staff! Now that I’ve switched to SSD storage, I don’t have to worry so much.

Here are some additional benefits of switching to SSD:

Increased battery life
Less noise, heat and vibration
No need to run disk defrag using traditional HDD defragmenters ever again

However, SSDs have some disadvantages.

SSD disadvantages

Don’t get me wrong, I am an SSD fan. Nevertheless, there are some disadvantages that can’t be overlooked.

The most noticeable disadvantages of SSDs are limited storage capacity (compared to traditional hard drives) and high price per GB. You can buy a 1TB hard drive for something like $100, whereas a 128GB SATA 6GB/sec SSD drive costs around $200. A significant difference, isn’t it? Also keep in mind that the more storage space an SSD has, the more expensive it becomes because the price per GB never changes. That’s why a lot of people still prefer having traditional hard drives, especially if they store a lot of files.

Another disadvantage of SSD drives is that each flash memory cell on an SSD can endure only so many write cycles. This means that if you subject your SSD to heavy use, its data retention will be shorter than with conventional hard drive. That’s why you should think twice when writing to an SSD. And that’s one of the reasons why it’s not a good idea to defrag solid-state drives, as defragmentation means unnecessary data writes to the disk.

Luckily, SSD manufacturers are doing all they can to maximize SSD lifetime. They implement various firmware schemes to load-level SSDs and use TRIM technology to maximize the life of a solid-state drive. In any case, SSDs are not likely to become unusable on a typical home system any time earlier than an HDD will experience a fatal crash. So the nature of flash memory and the limited (in theory) amount of write cycles shouldn’t put you off buying an SSD.

How to maximize SSD performance

SSDs are very fast right out of the box, but there are a few things that you can do to make them perform even better and increase their lifetime:

Use the latest firmware – make sure you update your SSD’s firmware before you start using it. Updating the firmware will ensure top performance and support for the latest OS features. Updating firmware can require a drive format, so make sure your data is backed up.
Enable AHCI – make sure Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) is enabled in the system BIOS. Using outdated IDE or ATA modes will reduce the performance of your solid-state drive.
Do not use NTFS compression for frequently used folders, as it decreases SSD performance.
In case of a clean installation, do not disable anything, as Windows 7 will configure everything better than you would.

In my opinion, SSDs are worth every penny you pay for them, because the performance gain is tremendous. So, if you have the extra cash, get an SSD and enjoy the speed.

For more computer speedup tips read our ebook “Turbo Windows – the Ultimate PC Speed Up Guide”. Download it for FREE now!

http://www.auslogics.com/en/turbo-windows/ssd-vs-hard-drive/

2016 Trends and Driving Forces in HDD and SSD

By Toshiba, involved in both products
This is a Press Release edited by StorageNewsletter.com on 2015.12.24

The Ever Changing World of Storage

toshiba,kaeseTrends and Driving Forces
By Rainer W. Kaese, senior manager business development, Toshiba Electronics Europe, storage products division, who has been with Toshiba for over 20 years, initially specialized in application specific ICs, managing the ASIC design center, and later the business development team for ASIC and foundry products.

There has been much written about the demise of the HDD, with nearly all new mobile devices using flash memory as the main storage medium.

The adoption of flash-based SSDs in laptops and desktop computers continues at pace and also continues to eat into traditional HDD applications.

Despite this shift, it is expected that HDDs will still account for the majority of sales in 2016, as HDDs remain the most economical way to store large data sets.

Demands for archival and long-term storage are being driven by the ever increasing volume of data that home users and enterprises are creating and storing. This is leading to growth in external backup drives, NAS systems (local home storage servers), enterprise storage and cloud storage in general. This trend will increase the availability and accessibility of cloud and networked storage and may limit demand for storage capacity in personal devices.

For personal devices, the price gap between SSDs and HDDs is becoming smaller – reducing as new NAND technologies make it a more competitive storage option. In the enterprise market, the price per gigabyte for enterprise HDDs is falling at a similar rate as the cost per gigabyte for enterprise SSDs.

Spinning disks in the enterprise
Enterprise HDD capacity is expected to continue to grow with a potential to reach 20-40TB by the end of the decade, while still maintaining the industry standard 3.5-inch form factor.

Enterprise capacity HDDs with 8TB are already starting to answer the industry’s nearline storage needs. New technologies such as Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) will increase the capacity on the same physical hardware – taking an 8TB drive to 10TB and further.

While conventional HDDs record data by writing to magnetic tracks that do not overlap, SMR HDDs record data on tracks that partially overlap like roof shingles and this provides a higher track density.

The increase in capacity is not without cost though the random write performance of these drives is limited and un-deterministic to a certain extent, while sequential R/W and random read performance is similar to the nearline models. This makes SMR drives suitable for the increasing need for streamed data, data archiving and cold data.

Smaller, faster, denser
While HDDs will still account for the majority of archival storage of the near future, their place within the server architecture is changing – more and more 15,000rpm drives are being replaced by enterprise SSDs.

There are a number of factors influencing this shift, the improved IO/s performance of eSSDs in comparison to even the fastest HDDs, the reduced energy consumption of flash-based drives, and the decreasing cost per gigabyte.

The cost per gigabyte is likely to continue to decrease, especially as the introduction of 3D NAND technologies such as Toshiba’s 3D BiCS NAND helps to increase chip bit densities and increase drive capacities. While 3D technologies are still only just starting to make their mark on the storage landscape, SSDs manufactured using these new chips promise higher endurance, faster speeds, greater energy efficiency and higher capacities.

In the long term, SSDs have the potential to outgrow HDDs in terms of capacity, with 256TB SSDs predicted to become available within the next five years.

The changing face of interfaces
At the entry-level end of the enterprise market, SATA interface equipped eSSDs have proven very popular as boot drives and for larger storage volumes. One of the reasons for this is the fact that SATA SSDs provide the lowest cost/capacity entry point into the flash-based storage world. This economic advantage was driven by the high volume scale of client SATA SSDs being produced to replace 2.5-inch laptop HDD.

With additions such as power loss protection and increased over-provisioning, a client SATA SSD can be turned into a reasonably reliable and entry level eSSD. With a predicted decline of the 2.5″ form-factor client SATA SSDs due to the transition to M.2 PCIe modules, this commercial driver will eventually disappear.

The use of new interfaces has accelerated the shift in form factor away from the 2.5-inch factor to M2 modules and even smaller. The world’s smallest NVM Express SSD that squeezes 256GB into a single BGA package measuring just 16mm by 20mm was recently announced.

One of the limiting factors for the speeds at which SSDs can operate has been the way they interface with computers – the commonly used 6Gb SATA interface has a bandwidth of up to 600MB/s, while 12Gb SAS interfaces achieve up to 1,200MB/s. PCIe Generation 3 based SSDs typically support 4 lanes with bandwidths of approximately 1GB/s per lane, resulting in 4GB/s bandwidth. It is expected in the long term that the SATA eSSD market will transition to PCIe-based solutions (for boot) and SAS eSSD (for volume storage).

The higher bandwidth of PCIe enables the CPU to address more NAND chips at the same time, reducing latencies and enhancing R/W speeds. This has started a transition towards SSDs that have a direct connection to the PCIe bus using the NVMe interface protocol that has gained widespread adoption in many OSs.

The first server models that support this interface are available, but the number of devices is limited to the number of free PCIe connections in the motherboard’s chipset. As PCIe-based enterprise SSDs of more than 4TB~8TB become available, this configuration will prove enough for tier 0 storage architectures. High DWPD PCIe SSDs will also become widely available in the Add-In-Card (AIC) form factor for direct plug in to the PCIe slots of the motherboard. While this approach reduces the need for cabling it, it does currently not allow any hot plug functionality – so removing or exchanging cards without service interruptions would not be possible.

It is important to note that hot plug capabilities were designed to overcome the unpredictable failure of individual HDDs in an array. As SSDs do not have any moving parts, their failure rates are far more predictable. Individual memory cells may wear out and fail, but in-built redundancy accommodates for this and monitoring software can identify drives that are reaching their endurance limits. From that perspective, failure rates are therefore similar than other semiconductor based devices in the server such as CPU or DRAM.

For larger, more complex storage systems, the 12Gb SAS interface is expected to remain the standard interface. The interface supports end-to-end data protection being provided by the SAS link, dual link capability and a large existing infrastructure of controllers, HBA, expanders, backplanes and JBOD.

To address differentiated applications and their different style of workloads, eSSD manufacturers are developing drives optimised for specific capacity points (such as 0.5TB, 1TB, 2TB, 4TB raw flash) and endurance levels (25, 10, 3 or 1 DWPD) to ensure the optimal balance of write endurance, capacity and cost for all applications and architectures.

RAID redundancy facing the chop?
There is a trend away from the use of traditional RAID array-based redundancy protection as continuously increasing drive capacities have made rebuild times unacceptably long for many organisations.

Instead, modern storage architectures based on alternative redundancy technologies such as Erasure Coding provide redundancy and data protection on a system level where several copies of data are stored on a number of individual servers. Depending on the system architecture, these systems can be resistant to individual drive failures, server or cluster failures, and even data centre failures.

Keeping an eye on industry drivers
The demand for storage capacity continues to grow as does the perceived value of the data stored. This is driving demand for cloud storage operations where economies of scale can help mitigate the costs of storing ever-increasing amounts of data.

While speed and capacity will remain important factors, power consumption and reliability will become even more important factors when determining TCO. Capacity per unit space is increasing in importance and high capacity, low endurance SSDs may become the industry’s preferred solution.

In addition to cloud archival storage, the storage of video surveillance data is an important growth area. Applications for video surveillance systems keep expanding into many areas including industrial process monitoring, airports and traffic monitoring and a host of retail situations where customer behavior analysis can help improve overall customer experience.

Surveillance data is increasingly being used not only to protect against security risks, but also as a part of a comprehensive business process management tool.

Greater opportunities for enhanced video analytics are being offered with emerging, advanced video surveillance technologies and systems. The shift towards higher resolution cameras that have higher capacity demands together with the volume of video-data generated and the need to store data for longer, change storage requirements. This drives increased demands for local storage capacity as well as cloud-based video surveillance-as-a-service (VSaaS) offerings.

Here, the right, well thought through approach to storage is needed to make full use of the modern video surveillance solutions available on the market.

Conclusion
The adoption of new technologies and interfaces will continue to disrupt the existing perceptions of how and where HDDs and SSDs should be used in various storage architectures. The accessibility and growth of cloud storage and service offerings will dictate the need for storage in local devices for applications as diverse as file access, media streaming and surveillance storage and analytics.

No matter the application, the industry is reaching an inflection point in the use of HDDs switching to SSDs, and as the price per gigabyte falls, sales of SSDs will continue to grow and adoption will intensify and widen into new applications. What is clear, is that to be successful, manufacturers will need full control of design and development of drives and firmware – in the SSD market, that will by necessity include firmware, controllers and NAND flash memory cells.

http://www.storagenewsletter.com/rubriques/market-reportsresearch/2016-trends-and-driving-forces-in-hdd-and-ssd/

solid-state storage

Posted by: Margaret Rouse
WhatIs.com

Contributor(s): Brien Posey

Sponsored News
Research Revealed: Solid State Storage Buys to Jump in 2015
–Dell
Virtual Server Performance – Why Solid-State Storage Isn’t Enough
–SolidFire
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Vendor Resources
ESG: SSDs That Expand the Meaning of Economies of Scale
–Micron Technology
Essential Guide to Solid-State Storage Implementation
–SearchStorage.com
Solid-state storage (SSS) is a type of computer storage media made from silicon microchips. SSS stores data electronically instead of magnetically, as spinning hard disk drives (HDDs) or magnetic oxide tape do.
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Solid-state storage can be found in three form factors: solid-state drives (SSD), solid-state cards (SSC) and solid-state modules (SSM). An important advantage of solid-state storage is that it contains no mechanical parts, allowing data transfer to and from storage media to take place at a much higher speed and providing a more predictable lifespan for the storage media. Because there are no moving parts, SSDs produce far less heat than HDDs.

In addition to providing faster and more consistent input/output (I/O) times, solid-state storage media offers the same levels of data integrity and endurance as other electronic devices, and requires less power and cooling than its electromechanical equivalents. It also generally weighs less.

Solid-state storage terminology
Solid-state storage trends
Although solid-state storage technology is not new, interest in how the technology can be used to improve enterprise storage has been relatively recent. Part of this trend can be attributed to reductions in price, but hardware performance also plays a role. Since the turn of this century, processor speeds have continued to increase dramatically while read and write times for mechanical HDDs have not.

Today’s CPUs can process data much faster than HDD storage can supply it. The resulting lag time is known as latency, and one way enterprise administrators have traditionally dealt with high storage latency is by short-stroking the disk drives. Short-stroking is done by deliberately limiting the disk drive capacity so the disk drive actuator has to move the heads across a smaller number of tracks, reducing seek time. Environments that implement short-stroking typically have to make up for the reduced capacity used in each disk drive by increasing the number of disk drives in these configurations. In contrast, solid-state storage devices have zero seek time. This considerably reduces their latencies, which makes them faster than HDDs, especially for random read/write operations. SSS devices have less of a performance advantage when it comes to sequential read/write operations.

In the enterprise, solid-state storage technology is used for primary storage and also as cache in front of traditional spinning disks, introducing a new layer between the processor and storage. Some industry experts predict solid-state storage will eventually replace hard disk storage if silicon factories can meet the increasing demand for product and the price for SSS continues to decline.

Cost of solid-state storage
Not that long ago, a 2 terabyte (TB) RAM-based solid-state external storage system would cost approximately $600,000. Today, a 2 TB RAID 0 PCI Express-based SSD can be purchased for less than $3,000. A 1 TB SSD can be purchased for about $1,000. While SSD prices have decreased dramatically, SSDs are still more expensive than HDDs. A mechanical HDD with 2 TB of storage can be purchased for less than $150.

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Server-side flash technology lifts solid-state adoption
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Cataloging the drawbacks to Hadoop data analysis
Types of solid-state storage systems
There are two types of solid-state systems: flash memory-based systems and RAM-based systems. There are also two types of flash memory: NAND flash and NOR flash.
Margaret Rouse asks:
Do you think solid-state storage technology will ever be priced competitively with hard disk drives?
3 ResponsesJoin the Discussion
NAND flash is generally used in enterprise SSS products because of its higher capacities and faster erase and write times. It is non-volatile, which means the data on the storage media remains in memory after the power is turned off. In contrast, RAM-based solid-state storage is volatile — the storage media requires constant power to retain the data it holds. RAM-based systems have the advantage of being relatively insensitive to the number of times data is written to them.

Flash-based systems have a finite number of writes and, like magnetic tape, the media can wear out. Flash-based SSDs store data in single-level cell (SLC) or multi-level cell (MLC) flash memory cells grouped into pages, and pages organized into blocks. Read and write operations are page-oriented. Erase operations apply only to entire blocks. Disk drives and adapter cards can be RAM- or flash-based, but USB drives are almost always flash-based.
This video (at left) with Demartek LLC founder and president Dennis Martin delves into solid-state storage technology best practices and developments surrounding the technology.

http://searchstorage.techtarget.com/definition/solid-state-storage

 

Solid-state drive

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about flash-based, DRAM-based, and other solid-state storage. For removable USB solid-state storage, see USB flash drive. For compact flash memory cards, see Memory card. For software-based secondary storage, see RAM drive.
“Electronic disk” redirects here. For other uses, see Electronic disk (disambiguation).
“SSD” redirects here. For other uses, see SSD (disambiguation).

A 2.5-inch SSD, usually found inlaptops and desktop computers

A rackmount SSD storage appliance based on DDR SDRAM

A PCI-attached IO Accelerator SSD

A PCI-Express-, DRAM- and NAND-based SSD that uses an external power supply to effectively make the DRAM non-volatile.

An mSATA SSD with an external enclosure

A solid-state drive (SSD, also known as a solid-state disk[1][2][3] although it contains neither an actual disk nor a drive motor to spin a disk) is a solid-state storage device that usesintegrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology primarily uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives, which permit simple replacements in common applications.[4] Additionally, new I/O interfaces, like SATA Express, have been designed to address specific requirements of the SSD technology.

SSDs have no moving mechanical components. This distinguishes them from traditional electromechanical magnetic disks such as hard disk drives (HDDs) or floppy disks, which contain spinning disks and movable read/write heads.[5] Compared with electromechanical disks, SSDs are typically more resistant to physical shock, run silently, have lower access time, and lowerlatency.[6] However, while the price of SSDs has continued to decline over time,[7] consumer-grade SSDs are (as of 2016) still roughly four times more expensive per unit of storage than consumer-grade HDDs.[8]

As of 2015, most SSDs use MLC NAND-based flash memory, which is a type of non-volatile memory that retains data when power is lost. For applications requiring fast access but not necessarily data persistence after power loss, SSDs may be constructed from random-access memory (RAM). Such devices may employ batteries as integrated power sources to retain data for a certain amount of time after external power is lost.[4]

Hybrid drives or solid-state hybrid drives (SSHDs) combine the features of SSDs and HDDs in the same unit, containing a large hard disk drive and an SSD cache to improve performance of frequently accessed data.[9][10][11]

Development and history

Early SSDs using RAM and similar technology

SSDs had origins in the 1950s with two similar technologies: magnetic core memory and charged capacitor read-only storage (CCROS).[12][13] These auxiliary memory units (as contemporaries called them) emerged during the era of vacuum-tube computers. Though, their use ceased with the introduction of cheaper drum storage units.[14]

Later, in the 1970s and 1980s, SSDs were implemented in semiconductor memory for early supercomputers of IBM, Amdahl and Cray,[15] but they were seldom used because of their prohibitively high price. In the late 1970s, General Instruments produced an electrically alterable ROM (EAROM) which operated somewhat like the later NAND flash memory. Unfortunately, a ten-year life was not achievable and many companies abandoned the technology.[16] In 1976, Dataram started selling a product called Bulk Core, which provided up to 2 MB of solid state storage compatible with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and Data General (DG) computers.[17] In 1978,Texas Memory Systems introduced a 16 kilobyte RAM solid-state drive to be used by oil companies for seismic data acquisition.[16] The following year, StorageTek developed the first RAM solid-state drive.[18]

The Sharp PC-5000, introduced in 1983, used 128-kilobyte solid-state storage cartridges containing bubble memory.[19] In 1984, Tallgrass Technologies Corporation had a tape backup unit of 40 MB with a solid state 20 MB unit built in. The 20 MB unit could be used instead of a hard drive.[20] In September 1986, Santa Clara Systems introduced BatRam, a 4 megabyte mass storage system expandable to 20 MB using 4 MB memory modules. The package included a rechargeable battery to preserve the memory chip contents when the array was not powered.[21] 1987 saw the entry of EMC Corporation (EMC) into the SSD market, with drives introduced for the mini-computer market. However, by 1993, EMC had exited the SSD market.[16][22]

Software-based RAM disks remain in use as of 2016 because they are an order of magnitude faster than other technology, though they consume CPU resources and cost much more on a per-GB basis.[23]

Flash-based SSDs

In 1989, the Psion MC 400 laptop included four slots for removable storage in the form of flash-based “solid-state disk” cards, using the same type of flash memory cards as used by the Psion Series 3.[24] The flash modules did have the limitation of needing to be re-formatted entirely to reclaim space from deleted or modified files; old versions of files which were deleted or modified continued to take up space until the module was formatted.

In 1991, SanDisk Corporation created a 20 MB solid state drive (SSD) which sold for $1,000.

In 1994, STEC, Inc. bought Cirrus Logic’s flash controller operation, allowing the company to enter the flash memory business for consumer electronic devices.[25]

In 1995, M-Systems introduced flash-based solid-state drives.[26] They had the advantage of not requiring batteries to maintain the data in the memory (required by the earlier volatile memory systems), but were not as fast as the DRAM-based solutions.[27] Since then, SSDs have been used successfully as HDD replacements by the military and aerospace industries, as well as for other mission-critical applications. These applications require the exceptional mean time between failures (MTBF) rates that solid-state drives achieve, by virtue of their ability to withstand extreme shock, vibration and temperature ranges.[28]

In 1999, BiTMICRO made a number of introductions and announcements about flash-based SSDs, including an 18 GB 3.5-inch SSD.[29]

In 2007, Fusion-io announced a PCIe-based SSD with 100,000 input/output operations per second (IOPS) of performance in a single card, with capacities up to 320 gigabytes.[30]

At Cebit 2009, OCZ Technology demonstrated a 1 terabyte (TB) flash SSD using a PCI Express ×8 interface. It achieved a maximum write speed of 654 megabytes per second (MB/s) and maximum read speed of 712 MB/s.[31]

In December 2009, Micron Technology announced an SSD using a 6 gigabits per second (Gbit/s) SATA interface.[32]

Enterprise flash drives

Top and bottom views of a 2.5-inch 100 GB SATA 3.0 (6 Gbit/s) model of the Intel DC S3700 series

Enterprise flash drives (EFDs) are designed for applications requiring high I/O performance (IOPS), reliability, energy efficiency and, more recently, consistent performance. In most cases, an EFD is an SSD with a higher set of specifications, compared with SSDs that would typically be used in notebook computers. The term was first used by EMC in January 2008, to help them identify SSD manufacturers who would provide products meeting these higher standards.[33] There are no standards bodies who control the definition of EFDs, so any SSD manufacturer may claim to produce EFDs when they may not actually meet the requirements.[34]

An example is the Intel DC S3700 series of drives, introduced in the fourth quarter of 2012, which focuses on achieving consistent performance, an area that had previously not received much attention but which Intel claimed was important for the enterprise market. In particular, Intel claims that, at a steady state, the S3700 drives would not vary their IOPS by more than 10–15%, and that 99.9% of all 4 KB random I/Os are serviced in less than 500 µs.[35]

Another example is the Toshiba PX02SS enterprise SSD series, announced in 2016, which is optimized for use in server and storage platforms requiring high endurance from write-intensive applications such as write caching, I/O acceleration and online transaction processing (OLTP). The PX02SS series uses 12 Gbit/s SAS interface, featuring MLC NAND flash memory and achieving random write speeds of up to 42,000 IOPS, random read speeds of up to 130,000 IOPS, and endurance rating of 30 drive writes per day (DWPD).[36]

Architecture and function

The key components of an SSD are the controller and the memory to store the data. The primary memory component in an SSD was traditionally DRAM volatile memory, but since 2009 it is more commonly NAND flash non-volatile memory.[1][4]

Controller

Every SSD includes a controller that incorporates the electronics that bridge the NAND memory components to the host computer. The controller is an embedded processor that executes firmware-level code and is one of the most important factors of SSD performance.[37] Some of the functions performed by the controller include:[38][39]

The performance of an SSD can scale with the number of parallel NAND flash chips used in the device. A single NAND chip is relatively slow, due to the narrow (8/16 bit) asynchronous I/O interface, and additional high latency of basic I/O operations (typical for SLC NAND, ~25 μs to fetch a 4 KB page from the array to the I/O buffer on a read, ~250 μs to commit a 4 KB page from the IO buffer to the array on a write, ~2 ms to erase a 256 KB block). When multiple NAND devices operate in parallel inside an SSD, the bandwidth scales, and the high latencies can be hidden, as long as enough outstanding operations are pending and the load is evenly distributed between devices.[40]

Micron and Intel initially made faster SSDs by implementing data striping (similar to RAID 0) and interleaving in their architecture. This enabled the creation of ultra-fast SSDs with 250 MB/s effective read/write speeds with the SATA 3 Gbit/s interface in 2009.[41] Two years later, SandForce continued to leverage this parallel flash connectivity, releasing consumer-grade SATA 6 Gbit/s SSD controllers which supported 500 MB/s read/write speeds.[42]SandForce controllers compress the data prior to sending it to the flash memory. This process may result in less writing and higher logical throughput, depending on the compressibility of the data.[43]

Memory

Flash-memory-based

Comparison of architectures[44]
Comparison characteristics MLC : SLC NAND : NOR
Persistence ratio 1 : 10 1 : 10
Sequential write ratio 1 : 3 1 : 4
Sequential read ratio 1 : 1 1 : 5
Price ratio 1 : 1.3 1 : 0.7

Most SSD manufacturers use non-volatile NAND flash memory in the construction of their SSDs because of the lower cost compared with DRAM and the ability to retain the data without a constant power supply, ensuring data persistence through sudden power outages.[45][46] Flash memory SSDs are slower than DRAM solutions, and some early designs were even slower than HDDs after continued use. This problem was resolved by controllers that came out in 2009 and later.[47]

Flash memory-based solutions are typically packaged in standard disk drive form factors (1.8-, 2.5-, and 3.5-inch), but also in smaller unique and compact layouts made possible by the small size of flash memory.

Lower priced drives usually use multi-level cell (MLC) flash memory, which is slower and less reliable than single-level cell (SLC) flash memory.[48][49] This can be mitigated or even reversed by the internal design structure of the SSD, such as interleaving, changes to writing algorithms,[49] and higher over-provisioning (more excess capacity) with which the wear-leveling algorithms can work.[50][51][52]

DRAM-based

SSDs based on volatile memory such as DRAM are characterized by very fast data access, generally less than 10 microseconds, and are used primarily to accelerate applications that would otherwise be held back by the latencyof flash SSDs or traditional HDDs. DRAM-based SSDs usually incorporate either an internal battery or an external AC/DC adapter and backup storage systems to ensure data persistence while no power is being supplied to the drive from external sources. If power is lost, the battery provides power while all information is copied from random access memory (RAM) to back-up storage. When the power is restored, the information is copied back to the RAM from the back-up storage, and the SSD resumes normal operation (similar to the hibernate function used in modern operating systems).[27][53] SSDs of this type are usually fitted with DRAM modules of the same type used in regular PCs and servers, which can be swapped out and replaced by larger modules.[54] Such as i-RAM, HyperOs HyperDrive, DDRdrive X1, etc. Some manufacturers of DRAM SSDs solder the DRAM chips directly to the drive, and do not intend the chips to be swapped out—such as ZeusRAM, Aeon Drive, etc.[55]

A remote, indirect memory-access disk (RIndMA Disk) uses a secondary computer with a fast network or (direct) Infiniband connection to act like a RAM-based SSD, but the new, faster, flash-memory based, SSDs already available in 2009 are making this option not as cost effective.[56]

While the price of DRAM continues to fall, the price of Flash memory falls even faster. The “Flash becomes cheaper than DRAM” crossover point occurred approximately 2004.[57][58]

Other

Some SSDs, called NVDIMM or Hyper DIMM devices, use both DRAM and flash memory. When the power goes down, the SSD copies all the data from its DRAM to flash; when the power comes back up, the SSD copies all the data from its flash to its DRAM.[59] In a somewhat similar way, some SSDs use form factors and buses actually designed for DIMM modules, while using only flash memory and making it appear as if it were DRAM. Such SSDs are usually known as UltraDIMM devices.[60]

Drives known as hybrid drives or solid-state hybrid drives (SSHDs) use a hybrid of spinning disks and flash memory.[61][62] Some SSDs use magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) for storing data.[63][64]

In 2015, Intel and Micron announced 3D XPoint as a new non-volatile memory technology.[65] Intel plans to produce 3D XPoint SSDs with PCI Express interface in 2016,[66] which will operate faster and with higher endurance than NAND-based SSDs, while the areal density will be comparable at 128 gigabits per chip.[66][67][68][69] For the price per bit, 3D XPoint will be more expensive than NAND, but cheaper than DRAM.[70]

Cache or buffer

A flash-based SSD typically uses a small amount of DRAM as a volatile cache, similar to the buffers in hard disk drives. A directory of block placement and wear leveling data is also kept in the cache while the drive is operating.[40] One SSD controller manufacturer, SandForce, does not use an external DRAM cache on their designs but still achieves high performance. Such an elimination of the external DRAM reduces the power consumption and enables further size reduction of SSDs.[71]

Battery or super capacitor

Another component in higher-performing SSDs is a capacitor or some form of battery, which are necessary to maintain data integrity so the data in the cache can be flushed to the drive when power is lost; some may even hold power long enough to maintain data in the cache until power is resumed.[71][72] In the case of MLC flash memory, a problem called lower page corruption can occur when MLC flash memory loses power while programming an upper page. The result is that data written previously and presumed safe can be corrupted if the memory is not supported by a super capacitor in the event of a sudden power loss. This problem does not exist with SLC flash memory.[39]

Most consumer-class SSDs do not have built-in batteries or capacitors;[73] among the exceptions are the Crucial M500 and MX100 series,[74] the Intel 320 series,[75] and the more expensive Intel 710 and 730 series.[76]Enterprise-class SSDs, such as the Intel DC S3700 series,[77] usually have built-in batteries or capacitors.

Host interface[edit]

An SSD with 1.2 TB of MLC NAND, using PCI Express as the host interface[78]

Apart from associated connectors, the host interface is not physically a component of the SSD, but it is a key part of the drive. The interface is usually incorporated into the above-discussed controller, and is many times one of the interfaces found in HDDs. They include:

Besides the host interface, SSDs also use different logical device interfaces, including Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI), NVM Express (NVMe), and certain proprietary interfaces. Logical device interfaces define the command sets used by operating systems to communicate with SSDs and host bus adapters (HBAs).

Configurations

The size and shape of any device is largely driven by the size and shape of the components used to make that device. Traditional HDDs and optical drives are designed around the rotating platter or optical disc along with thespindle motor inside. If an SSD is made up of various interconnected integrated circuits (ICs) and an interface connector, then its shape is no longer limited to the shape of rotating media drives. Some solid state storage solutions come in a larger chassis that may even be a rack-mount form factor with numerous SSDs inside. They would all connect to a common bus inside the chassis and connect outside the box with a single connector.[4]

For general computer use, the 2.5-inch form factor (typically found in laptops) is the most popular. For desktop computers with 3.5-inch hard disk slots, a simple adapter plate can be used to make such a disk fit. Other types of form factors are more common in enterprise applications. An SSD can also be completely integrated in the other circuitry of the device, as in the Apple MacBook Air (starting with the fall 2010 model).[82] As of 2014, mSATA andM.2 form factors are also gaining popularity, primarily in laptops.

Standard HDD form factors

The benefit of using a current HDD form factor would be to take advantage of the extensive infrastructure already in place to mount and connect the drives to the host system.[4][83] These traditional form factors are known by the size of the rotating media, e.g., 5.25-inch, 3.5-inch, 2.5-inch, 1.8-inch, not by the dimensions of the drive casing.[84]

Standard card form factors

Main articles: mSATA and M.2

For applications where space is at premium, like for ultrabooks or tablet computers, a few compact form factors were standardized for flash-based SSDs.

There is the mSATA form factor, which uses the PCI Express Mini Card physical layout. It remains electrically compatible with the PCI Express Mini Card interface specification, while requiring an additional connection to the SATA host controller through the same connector.

M.2 form factor, formerly known as the Next Generation Form Factor (NGFF), is a natural transition from the mSATA and physical layout it used, to a more usable and more advanced form factor. While mSATA took advantage of an existing form factor and connector, M.2 has been designed to maximize usage of the card space, while minimizing the footprint. The M.2 standard allows both SATA and PCI Express SSDs to be fitted onto M.2 modules.[85]

Disk-on-a-module form factors

A 2 GB disk-on-a-module with PATA interface

A disk-on-a-module (DOM) is a flash drive with either 40/44-pin Parallel ATA (PATA) or SATA interface, intended to be plugged directly into the motherboard and used as a computer hard disk drive (HDD). DOM devices emulate a traditional hard disk drive, resulting in no need for special drivers or other specific operating system support. DOMs are usually used inembedded systems, which are often deployed in harsh environments where mechanical HDDs would simply fail, or in thin clients because of small size, low power consumption and silent operation.

As of 2010, storage capacities range from 32 MB to 64 GB with different variations in physical layouts, including vertical or horizontal orientation.

Box form factors

Many of the DRAM-based solutions use a box that is often designed to fit in a rack-mount system. The number of DRAM components required to get sufficient capacity to store the data along with the backup power supplies requires a larger space than traditional HDD form factors.[86]

Bare-board form factors

Form factors which were more common to memory modules are now being used by SSDs to take advantage of their flexibility in laying out the components. Some of these include PCIe, mini PCIe, mini-DIMM, MO-297, and many more.[87] The SATADIMM from Viking Technology uses an empty DDR3 DIMM slot on the motherboard to provide power to the SSD with a separate SATA connector to provide the data connection back to the computer. The result is an easy-to-install SSD with a capacity equal to drives that typically take a full 2.5-inch drive bay.[88] At least one manufacturer, Innodisk, has produced a drive that sits directly on the SATA connector (SATADOM) on the motherboard without any need for a power cable.[89] Some SSDs are based on the PCIe form factor and connect both the data interface and power through the PCIe connector to the host. These drives can use either direct PCIe flash controllers[90] or a PCIe-to-SATA bridge device which then connects to SATA flash controllers.[91]

Ball grid array form factors

In the early 2000s, a few companies introduced SSDs in Ball Grid Array (BGA) form factors, such as M-Systems’ (now SanDisk) DiskOnChip[92] and Silicon Storage Technology‘s NANDrive[93][94] (now produced by Greenliant Systems), and Memoright‘s M1000[95] for use in embedded systems. The main benefits of BGA SSDs are their low power consumption, small chip package size to fit into compact subsystems, and that they can be soldereddirectly onto a system motherboard to reduce adverse effects from vibration and shock.[96]

Comparison with other technologies

Hard disk drives

SSD benchmark, showing about 230 MB/s reading speed (blue), 210 MB/s writing speed (red) and about 0.1 ms seek time (green), all independent from the accessed disk location.

Making a comparison between SSDs and ordinary (spinning) HDDs is difficult. Traditional HDD benchmarks tend to focus on the performance characteristics that are poor with HDDs, such as rotational latency and seek time. As SSDs do not need to spin or seek to locate data, they may prove vastly superior to HDDs in such tests. However, SSDs have challenges with mixed reads and writes, and their performance may degrade over time. SSD testing must start from the (in use) full disk, as the new and empty (fresh, out-of-the-box) disk may have much better write performance than it would show after only weeks of use.[97]

Most of the advantages of solid-state drives over traditional hard drives are due to their ability to access data completely electronically instead of electromechanically, resulting in superior transfer speeds and mechanical ruggedness.[98] On the other hand, hard disk drives offer significantly higher capacity for their price.[6][99]

Field failure rates indicate that SSDs are significantly more reliable than HDDs.[100][101][102] However, SSDs are uniquely sensitive to sudden power interruption, resulting in aborted writes or even cases of the complete loss of the drive.[103] The reliability of both HDDs and SSDs varies greatly amongst models.[104]

As with HDDs, there is a tradeoff between cost and performance of different SSDs. Single-level cell (SLC) SSDs, while significantly more expensive than multi-level (MLC) SSDs, offer a significant speed advantage.[46] At the same time, DRAM-based solid-state storage is currently considered the fastest and most costly, with average response times of 10 microseconds instead of the average 100 microseconds of other SSDs. Enterprise flash devices (EFDs) are designed to handle the demands of tier-1 application with performance and response times similar to less-expensive SSDs.[105]

In traditional HDDs, a re-written file will generally occupy the same location on the disk surface as the original file, whereas in SSDs the new copy will often be written to different NAND cells for the purpose of wear leveling. The wear-leveling algorithms are complex and difficult to test exhaustively; as a result, one major cause of data loss in SSDs is firmware bugs.[106][107]

The following table shows a detailed overview of the advantages and disadvantages of both technologies. Comparisons reflect typical characteristics, and may not hold for a specific device.

Attribute or characteristic Solid-state drive Hard disk drive
Start-up time Almost instantaneous; no mechanical components to prepare. May need a few milliseconds to come out of an automatic power-saving mode. Disk spin-up may take several seconds. A system with many drives may need to stagger spin-up to limit peak power drawn, which is briefly high when an HDD is first started.[108]
Random access time[109] Typically under 0.1 ms.[110] As data can be retrieved directly from various locations of the flash memory, access time is usually not a big performance bottleneck. Ranges from 2.9 (high end server drive) to 12 ms (laptop HDD) due to the need to move the heads and wait for the data to rotate under the read/write head.[111]
Read latency time[112] Generally low because the data can be read directly from any location. In applications where hard disk seeks are the limiting factor, this results in faster boot and application launch times (see Amdahl’s law).[113] Much higher than SSDs. Read time is different for every different seek, since the location of the data on the disk and the location of the read-head make a difference.
Data transfer rate SSD technology can deliver rather consistent read/write speed, but when lots of individual smaller blocks are accessed, performance is reduced. In consumer products the maximum transfer rate typically ranges from about 200 MB/s to 1500 MB/s, depending on the disk. Enterprise market offers devices with multi-gigabyte per second throughput. Once the head is positioned, when reading or writing a continuous track, a modern HDD can transfer data at about 200 MB/s. In practice transfer speeds are many times lower due to constant seeking, as files are read from various locations or they are fragmented. Data transfer rate depends also upon rotational speed, which can range from 3,600 to 15,000 rpm[114] and also upon the track (reading from the outer tracks is faster).
Read performance[115] Read performance does not change based on where data is stored on an SSD.[108]Unlike mechanical hard drives, current SSD technology suffers from a performance degradation phenomenon called write amplification, where the NAND cells show a measurable drop in performance, and will continue degrading throughout the life of the SSD.[116] A technique called wear leveling is implemented to mitigate this effect, but due to the nature of the NAND chips, the drive will inevitably degrade at a noticeable rate. If data from different areas of the platter must be accessed, as with fragmented files, response times will be increased by the need to seek each fragment.[117]
Impacts of file system fragmentation There is limited benefit to reading data sequentially (beyond typical FS block sizes, say 4 KB), making fragmentation negligible for SSDs.[118] Defragmentation would cause wear by making additional writes of the NAND flash cells, which have a limited cycle life.[119][120] However, even on SSDs there is a practical limit on how much fragmentation certain file systems can sustain; once that limit is reached, subsequent file allocations fail.[121] As such, defragmentation may still be necessary, although to a lesser degree.[121] Some file systems, such as NTFS, usually become fragmented over time if frequently written; periodic defragmentation is required to maintain optimum performance.[122] This usually is not an issue in modern file systems.
Noise (acoustic)[123] SSDs have no moving parts and therefore are basically silent, although on some low-grade SSDs, high pitch noise from the high voltage generator (for erasing blocks) may occur. HDDs have moving parts (heads, actuator, and spindle motor) and make characteristic sounds of whirring and clicking; noise levels vary between models, but can be significant (while often much lower than the sound from the cooling fans). Laptop hard disks are relatively quiet.
Temperature control[124] SSDs usually do not require any special cooling and can tolerate higher temperatures than HDDs. High-end enterprise models installed as add-on cards or 2.5-inch bay devices may ship with heat sinks to dissipate generated heat, requiring certain volumes of airflow to operate.[125] Ambient temperatures above 95 °F (35 °C) can shorten the life of a hard disk, and reliability will be compromised at drive temperatures above 131 °F (55 °C). Fan cooling may be required if temperatures would otherwise exceed these values.[126] In practice, modern HDDs may be used with no special arrangements for cooling.
Lowest operating temperature[127] SSDs can operate at −55 °C (−67 °F). Most modern HDDs can operate at 0 °C (32 °F).
Highest altitude when operating[128] SSDs have no issues on this.[129] HDDs can operate safely at an altitude of at most 3,000 meters. HDDs will fail to operate at altitudes above 12,000 meters.[130]
Moving from a cold environment to a warmer environment SSDs have no issues on this.[citation needed] A certain amount of acclimation time is needed when moving HDDs from a cold environment to a warmer environment prior to operating it; otherwise, internal condensation will occur and operating it immediately will result in damage to its internal components.[131]
Breather hole SSDs do not require breather hole. Most modern HDDs require breather hole in order for it to function properly.[130]
Susceptibility to environmental factors[113][132][133] No moving parts, very resistant to shock and vibration. Heads floating above rapidly rotating platters are susceptible to shock and vibration.
Installation and mounting Not sensitive to orientation, vibration, or shock. Usually no exposed circuitry. Circuitry may be exposed, and it must not be short-circuited by conductive materials (such as the metal chassis of a computer). Should be mounted to protect against vibration and shock. Some HDDs should not be installed in a tilted position.[134]
Susceptibility to magnetic fields Low impact on flash memory, but an electromagnetic pulse will damage any electrical system, especially integrated circuits. In general, magnets or magnetic surges may result in data corruption or mechanical damage to the drive internals. Drive’s metal case provides a low level of sheilding to the magnetic platters.[135][136][137]
Weight and size[132] SSDs, essentially semiconductor memory devices mounted on a circuit board, are small and lightweight. They often follow the same form factors as HDDs (2.5-inch or 1.8-inch), but the enclosures are made mostly of plastic. HDDs are generally heavier than SSDs, as the enclosures are made mostly of metal, and they contain heavy objects such as motors and large magnets. 3.5-inch drives typically weigh around 700 grams.
Reliability and lifetime SSDs have no moving parts to fail mechanically. Each block of a flash-based SSD can only be erased (and therefore written) a limited number of times before it fails. The controllers manage this limitation so that drives can last for many years under normal use.[138][139][140][141][142] SSDs based on DRAM do not have a limited number of writes. However the failure of a controller can make a SSD unusable. Reliability varies significantly across different SSD manufacturers and models with return rates reaching 40% for specific drives.[102] As of 2011 leading SSDs have lower return rates than mechanical drives.[100] Many SSDs critically fail on power outages; a December 2013 survey of many SSDs found that only some of them are able to survive multiple power outages.[143][needs update?] HDDs have moving parts, and are subject to potential mechanical failures from the resulting wear and tear. The storage medium itself (magnetic platter) does not essentially degrade from read and write operations.According to a study performed by Carnegie Mellon University for both consumer and enterprise-grade HDDs, their average failure rate is 6 years, and life expectancy is 9–11 years.[144] Leading SSDs have overtaken hard disks for reliability,[100] however the risk of a sudden, catastrophic data loss can be lower for mechanical disks.[145]

When stored offline (unpowered in shelf) in long term, the magnetic medium of HDD retains data significantly longer than flash memory used in SSDs.

Secure writing limitations NAND flash memory cannot be overwritten, but has to be rewritten to previously erased blocks. If a software encryption program encrypts data already on the SSD, the overwritten data is still unsecured, unencrypted, and accessible (drive-based hardware encryption does not have this problem). Also data cannot be securely erased by overwriting the original file without special “Secure Erase” procedures built into the drive.[146] HDDs can overwrite data directly on the drive in any particular sector. However, the drive’s firmware may exchange damaged blocks with spare areas, so bits and pieces may still be present. Most HDD manufacturers offer a tool that can zero-fill all sectors, including the reallocated ones.[citation needed]
Cost per capacity SSD pricing changes rapidly: US$0.59 per GB in April 2013,[147] US$0.45 per GB in April 2014, and US$0.37 per GB in February 2015.[148] HDDs cost about US$0.05 per GB for 3.5-inch and $0.10 per GB for 2.5-inch drives
Storage capacity In 2015, SSDs were available in sizes up to 16 TB,[149] but less costly, 120 to 512 GB models were more common. In 2014, HDDs of up to 8 TB were available.[150]
Read/write performance symmetry Less expensive SSDs typically have write speeds significantly lower than their read speeds. Higher performing SSDs have similar read and write speeds. HDDs generally have slightly longer (worse) seek times for writing than for reading.[151]
Free block availability and TRIM SSD write performance is significantly impacted by the availability of free, programmable blocks. Previously written data blocks no longer in use can be reclaimed by TRIM; however, even with TRIM, fewer free blocks cause slower performance.[40][152][153] HDDs are not affected by free blocks and do not benefit from TRIM.
Power consumption High performance flash-based SSDs generally require half to a third of the power of HDDs. High-performance DRAM SSDs generally require as much power as HDDs, and must be connected to power even when the rest of the system is shut down.[154][155]Emerging technologies like DevSlp can minimize power requirements of idle drives. The lowest-power HDDs (1.8-inch size) can use as little as 0.35 watts when idle.[156] 2.5-inch drives typically use 2 to 5 watts. The highest-performance 3.5-inch drives can use up to about 20 watts.

Memory cards

CompactFlash card used as an SSD

While both memory cards and most SSDs use flash memory, they serve very different markets and purposes. Each has a number of different attributes which are optimized and adjusted to best meet the needs of particular users. Some of these characteristics include power consumption, performance, size, and reliability.[157]

SSDs were originally designed for use in a computer system. The first units were intended to replace or augment hard disk drives, so the operating system recognized them as a hard drive. Originally, solid state drives were even shaped and mounted in the computer like hard drives. Later SSDs became smaller and more compact, eventually developing their own unique form factors. The SSD was designed to be installed permanently inside a computer.[157]

In contrast, memory cards (such as Secure Digital (SD), CompactFlash (CF) and many others) were originally designed for digital cameras and later found their way into cell phones, gaming devices, GPS units, etc. Most memory cards are physically smaller than SSDs, and designed to be inserted and removed repeatedly.[157] There are adapters which enable some memory cards to interface to a computer, allowing use as an SSD, but they are not intended to be the primary storage device in the computer. The typical CompactFlash card interface is three to four times slower than an SSD. As memory cards are not designed to tolerate the amount of reading and writing which occurs during typical computer use, their data may get damaged unless special procedures are taken to reduce the wear on the card to a minimum.

Applications

Until 2009, SSDs were mainly used in those aspects of mission critical applications where the speed of the storage system needed to be as high as possible. Since flash memory has become a common component of SSDs, the falling prices and increased densities have made it more cost-effective for many other applications. Organizations that can benefit from faster access of system data include equity trading companies, telecommunicationcorporations, streaming media and video editing firms. The list of applications which could benefit from faster storage is vast.[4]

Flash-based solid-state drives can be used to create network appliances from general-purpose personal computer hardware. A write protected flash drive containing the operating system and application software can substitute for larger, less reliable disk drives or CD-ROMs. Appliances built this way can provide an inexpensive alternative to expensive router and firewall hardware.[citation needed]

SSDs based on an SD card with a live SD operating system are easily write-locked. Combined with a cloud computing environment or other writable medium, to maintain persistence, an OS booted from a write-locked SD card is robust, rugged, reliable, and impervious to permanent corruption. If the running OS degrades, simply turning the machine off and then on returns it back to its initial uncorrupted state and thus is particularly solid. The SD card installed OS does not require removal of corrupted components since it was write-locked though any written media may need to be restored.

Hard drives caching

In 2011, Intel introduced a caching mechanism for their Z68 chipset (and mobile derivatives) called Smart Response Technology, which allows a SATA SSD to be used as a cache (configurable as write-through or write-back) for a conventional, magnetic hard disk drive.[158] A similar technology is available on HighPoint‘s RocketHybrid PCIe card.[159]

Solid-state hybrid drives (SSHDs) are based on the same principle, but integrate some amount of flash memory on board of a conventional drive instead of using a separate SSD. The flash layer in these drives can be accessed independently from the magnetic storage by the host using ATA-8 commands, allowing the operating system to manage it. For example, Microsoft’s ReadyDrive technology explicitly stores portions of the hibernation file in the cache of these drives when the system hibernates, making the subsequent resume faster.[160]

Dual-drive hybrid systems are combining the usage of separate SSD and HDD devices installed in the same computer, with overall performance optimization managed by the computer user, or by the computer’s operating system software. Examples of this type of system are bcache and dm-cache on Linux,[161] and Apple’s Fusion Drive.

Wear leveling

If a particular block was programmed and erased repeatedly without writing to any other blocks, that block would wear out before all the other blocks — thereby prematurely ending the life of the SSD. For this reason, SSD controllers use a technique called wear leveling to distribute writes as evenly as possible across all the flash blocks in the SSD.

In a perfect scenario, this would enable every block to be written to its maximum life so they all fail at the same time. Unfortunately, the process to evenly distribute writes requires data previously written and not changing (cold data) to be moved, so that data which are changing more frequently (hot data) can be written into those blocks. Each time data are relocated without being changed by the host system, this increases the write amplification and thus reduces the life of the flash memory. The key is to find an optimum algorithm which maximizes them both.[162][163]

Data recovery and secure deletion

Solid state drives have set new challenges for data recovery companies, as the way of storing data is non-linear and much more complex than that of hard disk drives. The strategy the drive operates by internally can largely vary between manufacturers, and the TRIM command zeroes the whole range of a deleted file. Wear leveling also means that the physical address of the data and the address exposed to the operating system are different.

As for secure deletion of data, using the ATA Secure Erase command is recommended, as the drive itself knows the most effective method to truly reset its data. A program such as Parted Magic can be used for this purpose.[164]In 2014, Asus was the first company to introduce a Secure Erase feature built into the UEFI of its Republic of Gamers series of PC motherboards.[165]

File systems suitable for SSDs

Typically the same file systems used on hard disk drives can also be used on solid state disks. It is usually expected for the file system to support the TRIM command which helps the SSD to recycle discarded data. There is no need for the file system to take care of wear leveling or other flash memory characteristics, as they are handled internally by the SSD. Some flash file systems using log-based designs (F2FS, JFFS2) help to reduce write amplification on SSDs, especially in situations where only very small amounts of data are changed, such as when updating file system metadata.

While not a file system feature, operating systems must also align partitions correctly to avoid excessive read-modify-write cycles. A typical practice for personal computers is to have each partition aligned to start at a 1 MiB (= 1,048,576 bytes) mark, which covers all common SSD page and block size scenarios, as it is divisible by 1 MiB, 512 KiB, 128 KiB, 4 KiB, and 512 bytes. Modern operating system installation software and disk tools handle this automatically.

Listed below are some notable computer file systems that work well with solid-states drives.

Linux

The ext4, Btrfs, XFS, JFS and F2FS file systems include support for the discard (TRIM) function. As of November 2013, ext4 can be recommended as a safe choice. F2FS is a modern file system optimized for flash-based storage, and from a technical perspective is a very good choice, but is still in experimental stage.

Kernel support for the TRIM operation was introduced in version 2.6.33 of the Linux kernel mainline, released on 24 February 2010.[166] To make use of it, a filesystem must be mounted using the discard parameter. Linuxswap partitions are by default performing discard operations when the underlying drive supports TRIM, with the possibility to turn them off, or to select between one-time or continuous discard operations.[167][168][169] Support for queued TRIM, which is a SATA 3.1 feature that results in TRIM commands not disrupting the command queues, was introduced in Linux kernel 3.12, released on November 2, 2013.[170]

An alternative to the kernel-level TRIM operation is to use a user-space utility called fstrim that goes through all of the unused blocks in a filesystem and dispatches TRIM commands for those areas. fstrim utility is usually run by cron as a scheduled task. As of November 2013, it is used by the Ubuntu Linux distribution, in which it is enabled only for Intel and Samsung solid-state drives for reliability reasons; vendor check can be disabled by editing file/etc/cron.weekly/fstrim using instructions contained within the file itself.[171]

Since 2010, standard Linux disk utilities have taken care of appropriate partition alignment by default.[172]

Performance considerations[edit]

An SSD that uses NVM Express as the logical device interface, in form of aPCI Express 3.0 ×4 expansion card

During installation, Linux distributions usually do not configure the installed system to use TRIM and thus the /etc/fstab file requires manual modifications.[173] This is because of the notion that the current Linux TRIM command implementation might not be optimal.[174] It has been proven to cause a performance degradation instead of a performance increase under certain circumstances.[175][176] As of January 2014, Linux sends an individual TRIM command to each sector, instead of a vectorized list defining a TRIM range as recommended by the TRIM specification.[177] This deficiency has existed for years and there are no known plans to eliminate it.

For performance reasons, it is recommended to switch the I/O scheduler from the default CFQ (Completely Fair Queuing) to Noop or Deadline. CFQ was designed for traditional magnetic media and seek optimizations, thus many of those I/O scheduling efforts are wasted when used with SSDs. As part of their designs, SSDs are offering much bigger levels of parallelism for I/O operations, so it is preferable to leave scheduling decisions to their internal logic – especially for high-end SSDs.[178][179]

A scalable block layer for high-performance SSD storage, known as blk-multiqueue or blk-mq and developed primarily by Fusion-io engineers, was merged into the Linux kernel mainline in kernel version 3.13, released on 19 January 2014. This leverages the performance offered by SSDs and NVM Express, by allowing much higher I/O submission rates. With this new design of the Linux kernel block layer, internal queues are split into two levels (per-CPU and hardware-submission queues), thus removing bottlenecks and allowing much higher levels of I/O parallelization. As of version 4.0 of the Linux kernel, released on 12 April 2015, VirtIO block driver, the SCSI layer (which is used by Serial ATA drivers), device mapper framework, loop device driver, unsorted block images (UBI) driver (which implements erase block management layer for flash memory devices) and RBD driver (which exports Ceph RADOS objects as block devices) have been modified to actually use this new interface; other drivers will be ported in the following releases.[180][181][182][183][184]

OS X

OS X versions since 10.6.8 (Snow Leopard) support TRIM but only when used with an Apple-purchased SSD.[185] TRIM is not automatically enabled for third-party drives, although it can be enabled by using third-party utilities such as Trim Enabler. The status of TRIM can be checked in the System Information application or in the system_profiler command-line tool.

OS X version 10.11 (El Capitan) and 10.10.4 (Yosemite) include sudo trimforce enable as a Terminal command that enables TRIM on non-Apple SSDs.[186] There is also a technique to enable TRIM in versions of OS X earlier than 10.6.8, although it remains uncertain whether TRIM is actually utilized properly in those cases.[187]

Microsoft Windows

Versions of Microsoft Windows prior to 7 do not take any special measures to support solid state drives. Starting from Windows 7, the standard NTFS file system provides TRIM support (other file systems do not support TRIM[188]).

By default, Windows 7 and newer versions execute TRIM commands automatically if the device is detected to be a solid-state drive. To change this behavior, in the registry keyHKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem the value DisableDeleteNotification can be set to 1 to prevent the mass storage driver from issuing the TRIM command. This can be useful in situations where data recovery is preferred over wear leveling (in most cases, TRIM irreversibly resets all freed space).[189]

Windows implements TRIM command for more than just file delete operations. The TRIM operation is fully integrated with partition- and volume-level commands like format and delete, with file system commands relating to truncate and compression, and with the System Restore (also known as Volume Snapshot) feature.[190]

Windows 7 and later

Windows 7 and later versions have native support for SSDs.[190][191] The operating system detects the presence of an SSD and optimizes operation accordingly. For SSD devices Windows disables SuperFetch and ReadyBoost, boot-time and application prefetching operations.[citation needed] Despite the initial statement by Steven Sinofsky prior to the release of Windows 7,[190] however, defragmentation is not disabled, even though its behavior on SSDs defers.[121] One reason is the low performance of Volume Shadow Copy Service on fragmented SSDs.[121] The second reason is to avoid reaching the practical maximum number of file fragments that a volume can handle. If this maximum is reached, subsequent attempts to write to the disk will fail with an error message.[121]

Windows 7 also includes support for the TRIM command to reduce garbage collection for data which the operating system has already determined is no longer valid. Without support for TRIM, the SSD would be unaware of this data being invalid and would unnecessarily continue to rewrite it during garbage collection causing further wear on the SSD. It is beneficial to make some changes that prevent SSDs from being treated more like HDDs, for example cancelling defragmentation, not filling them to more than about 75% of capacity, not storing frequently written-to files such as log and temporary files on them if a hard drive is available, and enabling the TRIM process.[192][193]

Windows Vista

Windows Vista generally expects hard disk drives rather than SSDs.[194][195] Windows Vista includes ReadyBoost to exploit characteristics of USB-connected flash devices, but for SSDs it only improves the default partition alignment to prevent read-modify-write operations that reduce the speed of SSDs. Most SSDs are typically split into 4 kB sectors, while most systems are based on 512 byte sectors with their default partition setups unaligned to the 4 KB boundaries.[196] The proper alignment does not help the SSD’s endurance over the life of the drive; however, some Vista operations, if not disabled, can shorten the life of the SSD.

Disk defragmentation should be disabled because the location of the file components on an SSD doesn’t significantly impact its performance, but moving the files to make them contiguous using the Windows Defrag routine will cause unnecessary write wear on the limited number of P/E cycles on the SSD. The Superfetch feature will not materially improve the performance of the system and causes additional overhead in the system and SSD, although it does not cause wear.[197] Windows Vista does not send the TRIM command to solid state drives, but some third part utilities such as SSD Doctor will periodically scan the drive and TRIM the appropriate entries.[198]

ZFS

Solaris as of version 10 Update 6 (released in October 2008), and recent versions of OpenSolaris, Solaris Express Community Edition, Illumos, Linux with ZFS on Linux and FreeBSD all can use SSDs as a performance booster for ZFS. A low-latency SSD can be used for the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL), where it is named the SLOG. This is used every time a synchronous write to the disk occurs. An SSD (not necessarily with a low-latency) may also be used for the level 2 Adaptive Replacement Cache (L2ARC), which is used to cache data for reading. When used either alone or in combination, large increases in performance are generally seen.[199]

FreeBSD

ZFS for FreeBSD introduced support for TRIM on September 23, 2012.[200] The code builds a map of regions of data that were freed; on every write the code consults the map and eventually removes ranges that were freed before, but are now overwritten. There is a low-priority thread that TRIMs ranges when the time comes.

Also the Unix File System (UFS) supports the TRIM command.[201]

Swap partitions

  • According to Microsoft’s former Windows division president Steven Sinofsky, “there are few files better than the pagefile to place on an SSD”.[202] According to collected telemetry data, Microsoft had found the pagefile.sys to be an ideal match for SSD storage.[202]
  • Linux swap partitions are by default performing TRIM operations when the underlying block device supports TRIM, with the possibility to turn them off, or to select between one-time or continuous TRIM operations.[167][168][169]
  • If an operating system does not support using TRIM on discrete swap partitions, it might be possible to use swap files inside an ordinary file system instead. For example, OS X does not support swap partitions; it only swaps to files within a file system, so it can use TRIM when, for example, swap files are deleted.
  • DragonFly BSD allows SSD-configured swap to also be used as file system cache.[203] This can be used to boost performance on both desktop and server workloads. The bcache, dm-cache and Flashcache projects provide a similar concept for the Linux kernel.[204]

Standardization organizations

The following are noted standardization organizations and bodies that work to create standards for solid-state drives (and other computer storage devices). The table below also includes organizations which promote the use of solid-state drives. This is not necessarily an exhaustive list.

Organization or Committee Subcommittee of: Purpose
INCITS N/A Coordinates technical standards activity between ANSI in the USA and joint ISO/IEC committees worldwide
T10 INCITS SCSI
T11 INCITS FC
T13 INCITS ATA
JEDEC N/A Develops open standards and publications for the microelectronics industry
JC-64.8 JEDEC Focuses on solid-state drive standards and publications
NVMHCI N/A Provides standard software and hardware programming interfaces for nonvolatile memory subsystems
SATA-IO N/A Provides the industry with guidance and support for implementing the SATA specification
SFF Committee N/A Works on storage industry standards needing attention when not addressed by other standards committees
SNIA N/A Develops and promotes standards, technologies, and educational services in the management of information
SSSI SNIA Fosters the growth and success of solid state storage

Commercialization

Availability

Solid-state drive technology has been marketed to the military and niche industrial markets since the mid-1990s.[205]

Along with the emerging enterprise market, SSDs have been appearing in ultra-mobile PCs and a few lightweight laptop systems, adding significantly to the price of the laptop, depending on the capacity, form factor and transfer speeds. For low-end applications, a USB flash drive may be obtainable for anywhere from $10 to $100 or so, depending on capacity and speed; alternatively, a CompactFlash card may be paired with a CF-to-IDE or CF-to-SATA converter at a similar cost. Either of these requires that write-cycle endurance issues be managed, either by refraining from storing frequently written files on the drive or by using a flash file system. Standard CompactFlash cards usually have write speeds of 7 to 15 MB/s while the more expensive upmarket cards claim speeds of up to 60 MB/s.

One of the first mainstream releases of SSD was the XO Laptop, built as part of the One Laptop Per Child project. Mass production of these computers, built for children in developing countries, began in December 2007. These machines use 1,024 MiB SLC NAND flash as primary storage which is considered more suitable for the harsher than normal conditions in which they are expected to be used. Dell began shipping ultra-portable laptops with SanDisk SSDs on April 26, 2007.[206] Asus released the Eee PC subnotebook on October 16, 2007, with 2, 4 or 8 gigabytes of flash memory.[207] On January 31, 2008, Apple released the MacBook Air, a thin laptop with an optional 64 GB SSD. The Apple Store cost was $999 more for this option, as compared with that of an 80 GB 4200 RPM hard disk drive.[208] Another option, the Lenovo ThinkPad X300 with a 64 gigabyte SSD, was announced by Lenovo in February 2008.[209] On August 26, 2008, Lenovo released ThinkPad X301 with 128 GB SSD option which adds approximately $200 US.[210]

Some Mtron solid-state drives

In 2008, low-end netbooks appeared with SSDs. In 2009, SSDs began to appear in laptops.[206][208]

On January 14, 2008, EMC Corporation (EMC) became the first enterprise storage vendor to ship flash-based SSDs into its product portfolio when it announced it had selected STEC, Inc.‘s Zeus-IOPS SSDs for its Symmetrix DMX systems.[211] In 2008, Sun released the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage Systems (codenamed Amber Road), which use both solid state drives and conventional hard drives to take advantage of the speed offered by SSDs and the economy and capacity offered by conventional hard disks.[212]

Dell began to offer optional 256 GB solid state drives on select notebook models in January 2009.[213][214] In May 2009, Toshiba launched a laptop with a 512 GB SSD.[215][216]

Since October 2010, Apple’s MacBook Air line has used a solid state drive as standard.[217] In December 2010, OCZ RevoDrive X2 PCIe SSD was available in 100 GB to 960 GB capacities delivering speeds over 740 MB/s sequential speeds and random small file writes up to 120,000 IOPS.[218] In November 2010, Fusion-io released its highest performing SSD drive named ioDrive Octal utilising PCI-Express x16 Gen 2.0 interface with storage space of 5.12 TB, read speed of 6.0 GB/s, write speed of 4.4 GB/s and a low latency of 30 microseconds. It has 1.19 M Read 512 byte IOPS and 1.18 M Write 512 byte IOPS.[219]

In 2011, computers based on Intel’s Ultrabook specifications became available. These specifications dictate that Ultrabooks use an SSD. These are consumer-level devices (unlike many previous flash offerings aimed at enterprise users), and represent the first widely available consumer computers using SSDs aside from the MacBook Air.[220] At CES 2012, OCZ Technology demonstrated the R4 CloudServ PCIe SSDs capable of reaching transfer speeds of 6.5 GB/s and 1.4 million IOPS.[221] Also announced was the Z-Drive R5 which is available in capacities up to 12 TB, capable of reaching transfer speeds of 7.2 GB/s and 2.52 million IOPS using the PCI Express x16 Gen 3.0.[222]

In December 2013, Samsung introduced and launched the industry’s first 1 TB mSATA SSD.[223] In August 2015, Samsung announced a 16 TB SSD, at the time the world’s highest-capacity single storage device of any type.[224]

Quality and performance

In general, performance of any particular device can vary significantly in different operating conditions. For example, the number of parallel threads accessing the storage device, the I/O block size, and the amount of free space remaining can all dramatically change the performance (i.e. transfer rates) of the device.[225]

SSD technology has been developing rapidly. Most of the performance measurements used on disk drives with rotating media are also used on SSDs. Performance of flash-based SSDs is difficult to benchmark because of the wide range of possible conditions. In a test performed in 2010 by Xssist, using IOmeter, 4 kB random 70% read/30% write, queue depth 4, the IOPS delivered by the Intel X25-E 64 GB G1 started around 10,000 IOPs, and dropped sharply after 8 minutes to 4,000 IOPS, and continued to decrease gradually for the next 42 minutes. IOPS vary between 3,000 and 4,000 from around 50 minutes onwards for the rest of the 8+ hour test run.[226]

Write amplification is the major reason for the change in performance of an SSD over time. Designers of enterprise-grade drives try to avoid this performance variation by increasing over-provisioning, and by employing wear-leveling algorithms that move data only when the drives are not heavily utilized.[227]

Sales

SSD shipments were 11 million units in 2009,[228] 17.3 million units in 2011[229] for a total of US$5 billion,[230] 39 million units in 2012, and are expected to rise to 83 million units in 2013[231] to 201.4 million units in 2016[229] and to 227 million units in 2017.[232]

Revenues for the SSD market (including low-cost PC solutions) worldwide totalled $585 million in 2008, rising over 100% from $259 million in 2007.[233]

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid-state_drive

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The 6 Killer Apps of Prosperity: Competition, Scientific Revolution, Property Rights, Modern Medicine, Consumer Society, Work Ethic — Videos

Posted on November 22, 2015. Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

Niall Ferguson: The 6 killer apps of prosperity

Over the past few centuries, Western cultures have been very good at creating general prosperity for themselves. Historian Niall Ferguson asks: Why the West, and less so the rest? He suggests half a dozen big ideas from Western culture — call them the 6 killer apps — that promote wealth, stability and innovation. And in this new century, he says, these apps are all shareable.

Background Articles

The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of The World by Niall Ferguson

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No Muslim Presidents — Ben Carson Right — Sharia Law Conflicts With Presidential Oath of Office To Defend U.S. Constitution — Governor Scott Walker Suspends Campaign — Conservatives Disappointed — Videos

Posted on September 22, 2015. Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Project_1

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

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Story 1: No Muslim Presidents —  Ben Carson Right — Sharia Law Conflicts With Presidential Oath of Office To Defend U.S. Constitution — Governor Scott Walker Suspends Campaign — Conservatives Disappointed — Videos

U.S. Constitution

Article II

Section 1.

Clause 8: Oath or affirmation

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/articleii

United States Constitution

Article VI

All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/articlevi

U.S. Bill of Rights

Amendment I (1): Freedom of religion, speech, and the press; rights of assembly and petition
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

https://www.constitutionfacts.com/us-constitution-amendments/bill-of-rights/

Sharia Law

Shariah law

Sharia law is the law of Islam. The Sharia (also spelled Shariah or Shari’a) law is cast from the actions and words of Muhammad, which are called “Sunnah,” and the Quran, which he authored.

The Sharia law itself cannot be altered, but the interpretation of the Sharia law, called “figh,” by imams is given some leeway.

As a legal system, the Sharia law covers a very wide range of topics. While other legal codes deal primarily with public behavior, Sharia law covers public behavior, private behavior and private beliefs. Of all legal systems in the world today, Islam’s Sharia law is the most intrusive and strict, especially against women.

According to the Sharia law:

•  Theft is punishable by amputation of the right hand (above).
•  Criticizing or denying any part of the Quran is punishable by death.
•  Criticizing or denying Muhammad is a prophet is punishable by death.
•  Criticizing or denying Allah, the moon god of Islam is punishable by death.
•  A Muslim who becomes a non-Muslim is punishable by death.
•  A non-Muslim who leads a Muslim away from Islam is punishable by death.
•  A non-Muslim man who marries a Muslim woman is punishable by death.
•  A man can marry an infant girl and consummate the marriage when she is 9 years old.
•  Girls’ clitoris should be cut (per Muhammad‘s words in Book 41, Kitab Al-Adab, Hadith 5251).
•  A woman can have 1 husband, but a man can have up to 4 wives; Muhammad can have more.
•  A man can unilaterally divorce his wife but a woman needs her husband’s consent to divorce.
•  A man can beat his wife for insubordination.
•  Testimonies of four male witnesses are required to prove rape against a woman.
•  A woman who has been raped cannot testify in court against her rapist(s).
•  A woman’s testimony in court, allowed only in property cases, carries half the weight of a man’s.
•  A female heir inherits half of what a male heir inherits.
•  A woman cannot drive a car, as it leads to fitnah (upheaval).
•  A woman cannot speak alone to a man who is not her husband or relative.
•  Meat to be eaten must come from animals that have been sacrificed to Allah – i.e., be Halal.
•  Muslims should engage in Taqiyya and lie to non-Muslims to advance Islam.
•  The list goes on.

http://www.billionbibles.org/sharia/sharia-law.html

Ben Carson: ‘Absolutely I stand by the comments’ about Muslim president

Ben Carson Does Not Believe a Muslim Should Be President Meet The Press

Republican presidential candidate Ben Carson said today he would not support a Muslim as president on meet the press The retired neurosurgeon also said Islam, as a religion, was inconsistent with the Constitution. Carson told NBC’s “Meet the Press” he believed a president’s faith should matter “depending on what that faith is.” “I would not advocate that we put a Muslim in charge of this nation. I absolutely would not agree with that,” Carson said. “If it’s [a president’s faith] inconsistent with the values and principles of America, then of course it should matter.” Carson, who has been near the top of several presidential polls, said he would consider voting for a Muslim in Congress “[depending] on who that Muslim is and what their policies are.” ABC News has reached out to Carson’s campaign for comment.
Ben Carson Does ‘Not Advocate’ A Muslim As President Sun, Sep 20 Republican presidential candidate Dr. Ben Carson tells Chuck Todd that the faith of a presidential candidate should matter to voters “if it is inconsistent with the values … of America.”

GOP candidate Carson: Muslim shouldn’t be elected president

What Is Sharia Law?

How Is Sharia Law Dangerous for Western Society?

484. Is Islam A Religion Of Peace?

485. Was Muhammad A Prophet Of Peace?

493. What Is Sharia Law?

Muslims should not become President’ Republican candidate

Muslim Brotherhood in America, Part 1: The Threat Doctrine of Shariah & the Muslim Brotherhood

Muslim Brotherhood in America, Part 2: ‘Civilization Jihad’ in America

Muslim Brotherhood in America, Part 3: Influence Operations Against Conservatives & the GOP

Muslim Brotherhood in America, Part 4: Suhail Khan, A Case Study in Influence Operations

CAIR – Muslim Mafia

CAIR in Damage Control After Terrorist Designation, Ties to Muslim Brotherhood

CAIR, Muslim American Society Designated as Terrorist Organizations

Election 2016 Presidential Polls

Tuesday, September 22
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
Iowa Republican Presidential Caucus PPP (D) Trump 24, Carson 17, Cruz 8, Fiorina 13, Rubio 8, Bush 6, Walker 5, Huckabee 6, Paul 4, Jindal 4, Kasich 2, Santorum 1, Christie 1, Perry, Graham 0 Trump +7
Iowa Democratic Presidential Caucus PPP (D) Clinton 43, Sanders 22, Biden 17, O’Malley 3, Webb 3, Chafee 2 Clinton +21
Monday, September 21
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination CNN/ORC Clinton 42, Sanders 24, Biden 22, O’Malley 1, Webb 0, Chafee 0 Clinton +18
Sunday, September 20
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
2016 Republican Presidential Nomination CNN/ORC Trump 24, Carson 14, Bush 9, Rubio 11, Cruz 6, Fiorina 15, Huckabee 6, Paul 4, Kasich 2, Christie 3, Walker 0, Perry, Santorum 1, Jindal 0, Graham 0 Trump +9
Thursday, September 17
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
Michigan Republican Presidential Primary MRG Trump 22, Carson 24, Bush 8, Fiorina 3, Rubio 4, Cruz 3, Huckabee 6, Kasich 2, Walker 2, Christie 1, Paul 2, Santorum 0, Jindal 0 Carson +2
Michigan Democratic Presidential Primary MRG Clinton 41, Sanders 22, Biden 22, O’Malley 1, Chafee 0, Webb 0 Clinton +19
Michigan: Trump vs. Clinton MRG Clinton 43, Trump 40 Clinton +3
Michigan: Bush vs. Clinton MRG Clinton 39, Bush 40 Bush +1
Wednesday, September 16
Race/Topic   (Click to Sort) Poll Results Spread
New Hampshire Republican Presidential Primary WBUR Trump 22, Carson 18, Kasich 9, Fiorina 11, Bush 9, Cruz 5, Paul 4, Rubio 2, Christie 2, Walker 1, Huckabee 1, Graham 1, Pataki 0, Jindal 0, Santorum 0 Trump +4
New Hampshire 2016 Democratic Primary WBUR Sanders 35, Clinton 31, Biden 14, Webb 2, O’Malley 1, Chafee 1 Sanders +4

Wisconsin Gov Scott Walker Suspends His Presidential Campaign – Mark Steyn – Hannity

Poor debate showings key to Walker’s early

 

Scott Walker drops out of 2016 presidential race

Scott Walker on Donald Trump, Family Politics

Donald Trump: Scott Walker Has ‘a Lot of Problems’

It’s Official – The Kochs Have Chosen Their Candidate

Scott Walker suspends presidential campaign

By Jenna Johnson, Dan Balz and Robert Costa

Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker has suspended his presidential campaign, effectively ending a once-promising GOP presidential bid that collapsed amid tepid debate performances, confusing statements and other missteps.

“Today, I believe that I am being called to lead by helping to clear the field in this race so that a positive, conservative message can rise to the top of the field,” Walker said in a brief speech in Madison, Wisconsin, on Monday evening. “With this in mind, I will suspend my campaign immediately.”

Walker said that because the field is so crowded, candidates have become focused on personal attacks instead of the substantial issues that matter most to voters. He said Republicans have lost the “optimistic view of America” pushed by President Ronald Reagan, Walker’s political idol, and urged those still running to “get back to the basics” with a focus on creating jobs, reducing the size of government and strengthening the military.

“To refocus the debate on these types of issues will require leadership,” Walker said. “I encourage other Republican presidential candidates to consider doing the same so that the voters can focus on a limited number of candidates who can offer a positive, conservative alternative to the current front-runner. This is fundamentally important to the future of the party and, more importantly, to the future of our country.”

In making that plea, Walker did not directly name the current front-runner, businessman Donald Trump.

The announcement stunned many of Walker’s major supporters, donors, fundraisers and even some of his staff members. Given his tanking poll numbers, many expected dramatic changes to the staff and strategy — but not such a sudden end.

“I’m stunned and saddened because I think Scott has had a tremendous record of accomplishment,” Fred Malek, a longtime party fundraiser who serves as the Republican Governor’s Association’s finance chairman. “He’s a man of the highest character and capacity, and he would have made a great president.”
Wisconsin State Assembly Speaker Robin Vos said in a statement: “Governor Walker has an amazing story to tell about turning Wisconsin around. It is unfortunate that the bluster of candidates overshadowed his substance.”

When Walker launched his presidential campaign in mid-July, he was considered a top-tier candidate. He was an early favorite in Iowa, where many voters liked that he was a mellow, understated and sometimes boring Midwesterner. And a super PAC supporting his candidacy raised more than $20 million in less than three months.

But as the summer wore on, Walker’s campaign quickly became overshadowed by Trump and other candidates who have never held elected office. As Walker slid in early polls, he seemed to struggle to find his place the field, sometimes taking stances or using language that confused some of his longtime supporters. During the first Republican debate, Walker pitched himself as “aggressively normal” but seemed to disappear on the crowded stage. While he tried to be more energetic during the second debate last week, Walker was again overshadowed and hardly spoke during the three-hour faceoff. There were always glimmers of hope within the campaign that the situation would improve, and Walker’s campaign was constantly maneuvering — first targeting Trump’s supporters, then trying to tap into anti-establishment sentiments and then, just last week, focusing all of their energy on Iowa.

[How Donald Trump destroyed Scott Walker’s presidential chances]

Throughout the summer, Walker made a series of confusing or contradictory comments that often took several days to fully clarify. In August, he seemed to endorse ending birthright citizenship, then said he didn’t have a position on the issue, and then said that he did not want to change the constitution, which many believe guarantees citizenship to those born on U.S. soil. In late August, Walker called building a wall along the Canadian border “a legitimate issue for us to look at,” only to say days later that he never supported the idea and that his words were twisted by the media. Over Labor Day weekend, he refused to say if the United States should accept more Syrian refugees, telling reporters that it was a “hypothetical question” and that he wanted to talk about “reality” – only to say soon after that the United States should not accept more refugees.
Several longtime Walker supporters said they no longer recognized the candidate they had watched rise to national prominence from the Wisconsin governor’s office. Walker is best known for aggressively pushing for reforms to the state’s public-sector unions in 2011, riling Democrats both in his state and across the country. He quickly became a favorite of tea-party activists and his calm amid protests at the state capitol landed him on the cover of conservative magazines. He became a regular presence on Fox News. A year later, as he battled and ultimately won a recall election, he was being touted as a possible vice-presidential candidate for GOP nominee Mitt Romney.

“It was nice for him to get that attention in the short run, but it set up expectations he couldn’t hope to maintain,” said Vin Weber, a former Minnesota congressman and adviser to Jeb Bush’s presidential campaign.

Union leadership, which had long considered Walker a top target, reacted quickly Monday to reports that he was suspending his campaign. “Scott Walker is still a disgrace, just no longer national,” AFL-CIO president Richard Trumka said in a terse afternoon statement.

In recent weeks, there were clear signs that Walker’s campaign was in trouble. His poll results began to resemble a ski slope. And although the super PAC was flush with money, supporters worried that the campaign itself was running low on cash.

The large cadre of staff and paid consultants around Walker have been on what one called a “death watch” for the past several weeks. It was clear to many that a single bad debate performance would spell the beginning of a dramatic downsizing of Walker’s campaign, with Walker staffers bracing for spending cuts, layoffs and a shake-up in the campaign leadership. Following last week’s debate, the frustration of many fundraisers and major donors exploded, as they demanded that Walker replace his campaign manager, Rick Wiley. Over the weekend, Walker skipped two previously scheduled appearances in Michigan and California, angering Republicans in states with high numbers of delegates, so that he could instead spend more time in Iowa. There, he struck several people as looking exhausted and beaten down.
There aren’t many loyal Walker voters in the state left to claim, said Steve Grubbs, Iowa strategist for Republican presidential rival Rand Paul. “The reality is that there was a very significant shift from Walker to Trump over the last 8-10 weeks,” he said, adding that it was those voters who might be up for grabs. “As Walker is out, and Trump begins to lose support, those voters will come back into play. And we believe that a lot of those voters are gettable,” said Grubbs.

Then came the latest CNN poll on Sunday that was like a punch in the gut: The governor was now polling nationally at less than one percent – so low that he received an asterisk on some charts instead of an actual number.

Still, the candidate kept his deliberations to quit the race very close, with a full schedule of events planned for this week that included campaign stops in Indiana and Virginia and a fundraiser in New York City at the home of one of his major donors, Joe Ricketts. Most staff, including senior aides, found out only Monday that he had decided to suspend his campaign later in the day.

Walker said on Monday that he reflected on the decision at church on Sunday. In suspending his campaign, he thanked everyone who believed in him — especially his wife, Tonette, and their two sons.

“Most of all, I want to thank God for his abundant grace,” Walker said in closing on Monday. “Win or lose, it is more than enough for any of us.”

[What happened to Scott Walker?]

Trump — who has been credited with quickening if not causing the sudden death of Walker’s campaign — praised Walker’s character and gubernatorial record and said he would reach out to his former rival in the coming days to offer encouragement.

“I really liked him a lot,” Trump said in an interview with The Washington Post on Monday. “I thought he was a terrific person. He has been a terrific governor. I got to know him pretty well. I’m a little surprised that it hasn’t worked out better for him. Many people thought he’d be the primary competition, at least initially.”
Trump, who proudly surrounds himself with a small group of aides, wondered if Walker was hurt by too much advice and management from his political consultants. “He was very loose guy when he came up to see me a few months ago to give me a plaque, but then on the campaign, maybe there were too many people. I think he had too many people, many of them who didn’t know what they were doing,” he said.

Other presidential contenders also offered their praise on Monday evening. In a statement, Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Tex.) called Walker “a good man, a formidable fighter, and an effective reformer.” Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) also used a statement to call Walker “a good man” and “one of the best governors in the country.”

Even before Walker announced the suspension of his campaign, rival campaigns had begun contacting top Walker donors to urge them to come aboard. Vin Weber said Bush’s campaign was aggressively reaching out to Walker donors and staffers Monday afternoon. “We thought it happened a little sooner than expected, but it was inevitable. There was not a path back for him, based on his performance as a candidate. And even though he was an asterisk in the polls, his decision will help to clarify the race, sending a strong message to other candidates who aren’t registering to move on and get the party down to 5 or 6 candidates who are viable.”

Gary Marx, a senior adviser to Walker’s campaign who coordinated outreach to conservative movement groups, said in an interview Monday that he and others are already looking for work. On Tuesday, Marx said, he will interview with three GOP presidential campaigns, which he declined to name.

A major problem of the Walker campaign, he said, was that it was difficult to generate enthusiasm — and campaign funding soon dried up. “No matter how much money was in the super PAC, hard dollars still matter,” he said. “He didn’t have the finances to continue on. Money is ultimately what stops campaigns from going further.”

http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2015/09/21/scott-walker-suspends-presidential-campaign/

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Apocalypse Now 1979 FULL MOVIE HD — Videos

Posted on July 28, 2015. Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , |

Apocalypse Now 1979 FULL MOVIE HD — Videos

Apocalypse Now

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Apocalypse Now
Apocalypse Now poster.jpg

Theatrical release poster by Bob Peak
Directed by Francis Coppola
Produced by Francis Coppola
Written by
Starring
Music by
Cinematography Vittorio Storaro
Edited by
Production
company
Distributed by United Artists
Release dates
  • May 10, 1979 (Cannes)
  • August 15, 1979(United States)
Running time
153 minutes[1]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $31.5 million[2]
Box office $150 million[3]

Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic adventure war film set during the Vietnam War. Produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola and starring Marlon Brando, Martin Sheen, and Robert Duvall, the film follows the central character, U.S. Army special operations officer Captain Benjamin L. Willard (Sheen), of MACV-SOG, on a secret mission to assassinate the renegade and presumed insane U.S. Army Special Forces ColonelWalter E. Kurtz (Brando).

The screenplay by John Milius and Coppola updates the setting of Joseph Conrad‘s novella Heart of Darkness to that of the Vietnam War era.[4] It also draws from Michael Herr‘s Dispatches,[5] the film version of Conrad’sLord Jim[citation needed] which shares the same character of Marlow with Heart of Darkness, and Werner Herzog‘s Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972).[6]

The film has been noted for the problems encountered while making it. These problems were chronicled in the documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker’s Apocalypse, which recounted the stories of Brando arriving on the set overweight and completely unprepared; costly sets being destroyed by severe weather; and its lead actor (Sheen) suffering a near fatal heart attack while on location. Problems continued after production as the release was postponed several times while Coppola edited thousands of feet of footage.

Apocalypse Now was released to wide acclaim. Many critics now regard it as one of the greatest films ever made.[7][8][9] It was honored with the Palme d’Or at Cannes, and nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. The film was also ranked #14 in the Sight and Sound greatest films poll. In 2000, Apocalypse Now was deemed “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant” and was selected for preservation by the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress .

Plot

In 1970, during the Vietnam War, U.S. Army Captain and special operations veteran Benjamin L. Willard (Martin Sheen) is offered an assignment to follow the Nung River into the remote jungle, and find rogue Special Forces Colonel Walter E. Kurtz (Marlon Brando). Kurtz apparently went insane and now commands his own Montagnard troops inside neutral Cambodia as a demi-god. Willard is told his objective is to infiltrate the Colonel’s team and to terminate the Colonel’s command “…with extreme prejudice“.

Ambivalent about the mission, Willard joins a Navy PBR commanded by “Chief” (Albert Hall) and crewmen Lance (Sam Bottoms), “Chef” (Frederic Forrest) and “Mr. Clean” (Laurence Fishburne) to head upriver. They rendezvous with brazen Lieutenant Colonel Bill Kilgore (Robert Duvall), a commander of an attack helicopter squadron, to discuss going up the Nung river. Kilgore initially scoffs at them, but befriends Lance, both being keen surfers, and agrees to escort them through the Viet Cong-held coastal mouth of the river due to the surfing conditions there. At dawn the helicopter raid commences. Amid the attack Kilgore calls in a napalm sortie on the local cadres and the rivermouth is taken. Willard gathers his men to the PBR, transported via helicopter, and begins the journey upriver.

Tension arises between Chief and Willard as Willard believes himself to be in command of the PBR, while Chief prioritizes other objectives over Willard’s secret mission. Slowly making their way upriver, Willard reveals part of his mission to the Chief to assuage the Chief’s concerns about why his mission should take precedence. As night falls, the PBR reaches the chaos of the last US outpost on the Nùng river, the Do Long bridge. Seeking some intel on what’s upriver, Willard and Lance proceed through the base seeking information. Finding no info, and disgusted, Willard orders the Chief to continue upriver as an unseen enemy launches a strike on the bridge.

The next day, Willard learns from the dispatch that another Special Operations Group (SOG) operative, Captain Colby (Scott Glenn), who was sent on an earlier mission identical to Willard’s, is now listed as missing in action. Meanwhile, as the rest of the crew read letters from home, Lance pops open a purple smoke grenade for fun. This catches the attention of an unseen enemy in the trees and the boat is fired upon, killing Mr. Clean. Later, in a separate attack, Chief is killed.

Eventually the PBR arrives at Kurtz’s outpost and the remaining crew members are met by an American freelance photographer (Dennis Hopper), who manically praises Kurtz’s genius. As they wander through the compound they come across Colby, who stands nearly catatonic along with other US servicemen, now serving in Kurtz’s renegade army. After returning to the PBR, Willard later takes Lance with him to the village, leaving Chef behind with orders to call an airstrike on the village if they do not return.

In the camp, Willard is subdued, bound and brought before Kurtz (Marlon Brando) in the darkened temple. Tortured and imprisoned, Willard screams helplessly as Kurtz drops Chef’s severed head into his lap, meaning there will be no airstrike. After several days, Willard is released and given the freedom of the compound. Kurtz lectures him on his theories of war, humanity and civilization while praising the ruthlessness and dedication of the Viet Cong. Kurtz discusses his family and asks that Willard tell his son “the truth” about him in the event of his “death”.

That night, as the villagers ceremonially slaughter a water buffalo, Willard stealthily enters Kurtz’s chamber as Kurtz is making a tape recording, and attacks him with a machete. Lying mortally wounded on the ground, Kurtz, with his dying breath, whispers “…The horror… the horror…”. The villagers are now abuzz about something amiss in Kurtz’s quarters, and seeing Willard departing the rooms with bloody machete in hand, they bow down and allow Willard to take Lance by the hand and lead him to the boat. The two of them ride away as Kurtz’s final words echo eerily as the world fades to black.

Cast

  • Martin Sheen as Captain Benjamin L. Willard, a veteran U.S. Army special operations officer who has been serving in Vietnam for three years. The soldier who escorts him at the start of the film recites that Willard is from 505th Battalion, of the elite 173rd Airborne Brigade, assigned to MACV-SOG. It is later stated in the briefing scene that he worked intelligence/counterintelligence for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, carrying out secret operations and assassinations. Both scenes also establish he workedCOMSEC. An attempt to re-integrate into home-front society had apparently failed prior to the time at which the film is set (in 1970), and so he returns to the war-torn jungles of Vietnam, where he seems to feel more at home.
  • Marlon Brando as Colonel Walter E. Kurtz, a highly decorated U.S. Army Special Forces officer with the 5th Special Forces Group who goes rogue. He runs his own military unit out of Cambodia and is feared by the US military as much as the North Vietnamese and Vietcong.
  • Robert Duvall as Lieutenant Colonel William “Bill” Kilgore, 1st Battalion, 9th Air Cavalry Regiment commander and surfing fanatic. Kilgore is a strong-willed leader who loves his men but has methods that appear out-of-tune with the setting of the war. His character is a composite of several characters including Colonel John B. Stockton, General James F. Hollingsworth (featured in The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong by Nicholas Tomalin), and George Patton IV, also a West Point officer whom Robert Duvall knew.[10]
  • Frederic Forrest as Engineman 3rd Class Jay “Chef” Hicks, a tightly wound former chef from New Orleans who is horrified by his surroundings.
  • Albert Hall as Chief Quartermaster George Phillips. The chief runs a tight ship and frequently clashes with Willard over authority. Has a father-son relationship with Clean.
  • Sam Bottoms as Gunner’s Mate 3rd Class Lance B. Johnson, a former professional surfer from California. He is known to drop acid. He becomes entranced by the Montagnard tribe, even participating in the sacrifice ritual.
  • Laurence Fishburne (credited as Larry Fishburne) as Gunner’s Mate 3rd Class Tyrone “Mr. Clean” Miller, the seventeen-year-old cocky South Bronx-born crewmember.
  • Dennis Hopper as an American photojournalist, a manic disciple of Kurtz who greets Willard. According to the DVD commentary of Redux, the character is based on Sean Flynn, a famed news correspondent who disappeared in Cambodia in 1970. His dialogue follows that of the Russian “harlequin” in Conrad’s story.
  • G. D. Spradlin as Lieutenant General Corman, military intelligence (G-2) an authoritarian officer who fears Kurtz and wants him removed. The character is named after filmmaker Roger Corman.
  • Jerry Ziesmer as a mysterious man (who is coincidentally addressed by General Corman as ‘Jerry’; document visible on the Blu-ray version mentions a C.I.A. agent named R.E. Moore) in civilian attire who sits in on Willard’s initial briefing. His only line in the film is the famous “Terminate with extreme prejudice“. Ziesmer also served as the film’s assistant director.
  • Harrison Ford as Colonel G. Lucas, aide to Corman and a general information specialist who gives Willard his orders. The character’s name is a reference to George Lucas, who was involved in the script’s early development with Milius and was the original director intended to direct the film. Ford also portrayed Han Solo in Lucas’ space opera Star Wars, and prior to that had appeared in Lucas’ American Graffiti (1973, produced by Coppola and Gary Kurtz) and Coppola’s The Conversation (1974).
  • Scott Glenn as Captain Richard M. Colby, previously assigned Willard’s current mission before he defected to Kurtz’s private army and sent a message to his wife, intercepted by the army, telling her to sell everything they owned, including their children.
  • Bill Graham as Agent (announcer and in charge of the Playmates’ show)
  • Cynthia Wood (Playmate of the Year)
  • Linda (Beatty) Carpenter (August 1976 Playmate) as Playmate “Miss August”
  • Colleen Camp as Playmate “Miss May”
  • R. Lee Ermey as Helicopter Pilot
  • Francis Ford Coppola (cameo) as a TV news director filming beach combat; he shouts “Don’t look at the camera, keep on fighting!” Cinematographer Vittorio Storaro plays the cameraman by Coppola’s side.
  • Charlie Sheen (uncredited) as Extra

Several actors who were, or later became, prominent stars have minor roles in the film including Harrison Ford, G. D. Spradlin, Scott Glenn, R. Lee Ermey, and Laurence Fishburne. Fishburne was only fourteen years old when shooting began in March 1976, and he lied about his age in order to get cast in his role.[11] Apocalypse Now took so long to finish that Fishburne was seventeen (the same age as his character) by the time of its release.

Adaptation

Although inspired by Joseph Conrad‘s Heart of Darkness, the film deviates extensively from its source material. The novella, based on Conrad’s experience as a steamboat captain in Africa, is set in the Congo Free State during the 19th century.[12] Kurtz and Marlow (who is named Willard in the movie) work for a Belgian trading company that brutally exploits its native African workers.

When Marlow arrives at Kurtz’s outpost, he discovers that Kurtz has gone insane and is lording over a small tribe as a god. The novella ends with Kurtz dying on the trip back and the narrator musing about the darkness of the human psyche: “the heart of an immense darkness”.

In the novella, Marlow is the pilot of a river boat sent to collect ivory from Kurtz’s outpost, only gradually becoming infatuated with Kurtz. In fact, when he discovers Kurtz in terrible health, Marlow makes an effort to bring him home safely. In the movie, Willard is an assassin dispatched to kill Kurtz. Nevertheless, the depiction of Kurtz as a god-like leader of a tribe of natives and his malarial fever, Kurtz’s written exclamation “Exterminate the brutes!” (which appears in the film as “Drop the bomb. Exterminate them All!”) and his last words “The horror! The horror!” are taken from Conrad’s novella.

Coppola argues that many episodes in the film—the spear and arrow attack on the boat, for example—respect the spirit of the novella and in particular its critique of the concepts of civilization and progress. Other episodes adapted by Coppola, the Playboy Playmates’ (Sirens) exit, the lost souls, “take me home” attempting to reach the boat and Kurtz’s tribe of (white-faced) natives parting the canoes (gates of Hell) for Willard, (with Chef and Lance) to enter the camp are likened to Virgil and “The Inferno” (Divine Comedy) by Dante. While Coppola replaced European colonialism with American interventionism, the message of Conrad’s book is still clear.[13]

Coppola’s interpretation of the Kurtz character is often speculated to have been modeled after Tony Poe, a highly decorated Vietnam-era paramilitary officer from the CIA’s Special Activities Division.[14] Poe’s actions in Vietnam and in the ‘Secret War’ in neighbouring Laos, in particular his highly unorthodox and often savage methods of waging war, show many similarities to those of the fictional Kurtz; for example, Poe was known to drop severed heads into enemy-controlled villages as a form of psychological warfare and use human ears to record the number of enemies his indigenous troops had killed. He would send these ears back to his superiors as proof of the efficacy of his operations deep inside Laos.[15][16] Coppola denies that Poe was a primary influence and says the character was loosely based on Special Forces Colonel Robert B. Rheault, whose 1969 arrest over the murder of suspected double agent Thai Khac Chuyen in Nha Trang generated substantial contemporary news coverage.[17]

Use of T. S. Eliot’s poetry

In the film, shortly before Colonel Kurtz dies, he recites part of T. S. Eliot‘s poem “The Hollow Men“. The poem is preceded in printed editions by the epigraph “Mistah Kurtz – he dead”, a quotation from Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.

Two books seen opened on Kurtz’s desk in the film are From Ritual to Romance by Jessie Weston and The Golden Bough by Sir James Frazer, the two books that Eliot cited as the chief sources and inspiration for his poem “The Waste Land“. Eliot’s original epigraph for “The Waste Land” was this passage from Heart of Darkness, which ends with Kurtz’s final words:[18]

Did he live his life again in every detail of desire, temptation, and surrender during that supreme moment of complete knowledge? He cried in a whisper at some image, at some vision, – he cried out twice, a cry that was no more than a breath –

“The horror! The horror!”

When Willard is first introduced to Dennis Hopper’s character, the photojournalist describes his own worth in relation to that of Kurtz with: “I should have been a pair of ragged claws/Scuttling across the floors of silent seas”, from “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock“.

Production

Development

While working as an assistant for Francis Ford Coppola on The Rain People, George Lucas and Steven Spielberg encouraged their friend and filmmaker John Milius to write a Vietnam War film.[19] Milius had wanted to volunteer for the war, and was disappointed when he was rejected for having asthma.[20] Milius came up with the idea for adapting the plot of Joseph Conrad‘s Heart of Darkness to the Vietnam War setting. He had read the novel when he was a teenager and was reminded about it by one of his college lecturers who had mentioned the several unsuccessful attempts to adapt it into a movie.[21][note 1]

Coppola gave Milius $15,000 to write the screenplay with the promise of an additional $10,000 if it were green-lit.[22][23] Milius claims that he wrote the screenplay in 1969[21] and originally called it The Psychedelic Soldier.[24] He wanted to use Conrad’s novel as “a sort of allegory. It would have been too simple to have followed the book completely”.[22]

Milius based the character of Willard and some of Kurtz’s on a friend of his, Fred Rexer. Rexer claimed to have experienced, first-hand, the scene related by Brando’s character wherein the arms of villagers are hacked off by the Viet Cong. Kurtz was based onRobert B. Rheault, head of special forces in Vietnam.[25] Scholars have never found any evidence to corroborate Rexer’s claim, nor any similar Viet Cong behavior, and consider it an urban legend.[26]

At one point, Coppola told Milius, “Write every scene you ever wanted to go into that movie”,[21] and he wrote ten drafts, amounting to over a thousand pages.[27] Milius changed the film’s title to Apocalypse Now after being inspired by a button badge popular withhippies during the 1960s that said “Nirvana Now”. He was also influenced by an article written by Michael Herr titled, “The Battle for Khe Sanh”, which referred to drugs, rock ‘n’ roll, and people calling airstrikes down on themselves.[21] He was also inspired by such films as Dr Strangelove.

Milius says the classic line “Charlie don’t surf” was inspired by a comment Ariel Sharon made during the Six Day War, when he went skin diving after capturing enemy territory and announced “We’re eating their fish”. He says the line “I love the smell of Napalm in the morning” just came to him.[28]

Milius had no desire to direct the film himself and felt that Lucas was the right person for the job.[21] Lucas worked with Milius for four years developing the film, alongside his work on other films, including his script for Star Wars.[29] He approached Apocalypse Now as a black comedy,[30] and intended to shoot the film after making THX 1138, with principal photography to start in 1971.[22] Lucas’ friend and producer Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines, scouting suitable locations. They intended to shoot the film in both the rice fields between Stockton and Sacramento, California and on-location in Vietnam, on a $2 million budget, cinéma vérité style, using 16 mm cameras, and real soldiers, while the war was still going on.[21][29][31] However, due to the studios’ safety concerns and Lucas’ involvement with American Graffiti and Star Wars, Lucas decided to shelve the project for the time being.[22][29]

Pre-production

Coppola was drawn to Milius’ script, which he described as “a comedy and a terrifying psychological horror story”.[32] In the spring of 1974, Coppola discussed with friends and co-producers Fred Roos and Gray Frederickson the idea of producing the film.[33] He asked Lucas and then Milius to direct Apocalypse Now, but both men were involved with other projects;[33] in Lucas’ case, he got the go-ahead to make Star Wars, and declined the offer to direct Apocalypse Now.[21] Coppola was determined to make the film and pressed ahead himself. He envisioned the film as a definitive statement on the nature of modern war, the difference between good and evil, and the impact of American society on the rest of the world. The director said that he wanted to take the audience “through an unprecedented experience of war and have them react as much as those who had gone through the war”.[32]

In 1975, while promoting The Godfather Part II in Australia, Coppola and his producers scouted possible locations for Apocalypse Now in Cairns in northern Queensland, that had jungle resembling Vietnam.[34] He decided to make his film in the Philippines for its access to American equipment and cheap labor. Production coordinator Fred Roos had already made two low-budget films there for Monte Hellman, and had friends and contacts in the country.[32] Coppola spent the last few months of 1975 revising Milius’ script and negotiating with United Artists to secure financing for the production. According to Frederickson, the budget was estimated between $12–14 million.[35] Coppola’s American Zoetrope assembled $8 million from distributors outside the United States and $7.5 million from United Artists who assumed that the film would star Marlon Brando, Steve McQueen, and Gene Hackman.[32] Frederickson went to the Philippines and had dinner with President Ferdinand Marcos to formalize support for the production and to allow them to use some of the country’s military equipment.[36]

Casting

Steve McQueen was Coppola’s first choice to play Willard, but the actor did not accept because he did not want to leave America for 17 weeks.[32] Al Pacino was also offered the role but he too did not want to be away for that long a period of time and was afraid of falling ill in the jungle as he had done in the Dominican Republic during the shooting of The Godfather Part II.[32] Jack Nicholson, Robert Redford, and James Caan were approached to play either Kurtz or Willard.[31]

Coppola and Roos had been impressed by Martin Sheen‘s screen test for Michael in The Godfather and he became their top choice to play Willard, but the actor had already accepted another project and Harvey Keitel was cast in the role based on his work in Martin Scorsese‘s Mean Streets.[37] Principal photography began three weeks later. Within a few days, Coppola was unhappy with Harvey Keitel’s take on Willard, saying that the actor “found it difficult to play him as a passive onlooker”.[31] After viewing early footage, the director took a plane back to Los Angeles and replaced Keitel with Martin Sheen. By early 1976, Coppola had persuaded Marlon Brando to play Kurtz for an enormous fee of $3.5 million for a month’s work on location in September 1976. Dennis Hopper was cast as a kind of Green Beret sidekick for Kurtz and when Coppola heard him talking nonstop on location, he remembered putting “the cameras and the Montagnard shirt on him, and we shot the scene where he greets them on the boat”.[31]James Caan was the first choice to play colonel Lucas. Caan wanted too much money for what was considered a minor part in the movie. Harrison Ford was eventually cast as Colonel Lucas.

Principal photograph

On March 1, 1976, Coppola and his family flew to Manila and rented a large house there for the five-month shoot.[31] Sound and photographic equipment had been coming in from California since late 1975.

Typhoon Olga wrecked the sets at Iba and on May 26, 1976, production was closed down.[38] Dean Tavoularis remembers that it “started raining harder and harder until finally it was literally white outside, and all the trees were bent at forty-five degrees”.[38] One part of the crew was stranded in a hotel and the others were in small houses that were immobilized by the storm. The Playboy Playmate set had been destroyed, ruining a month’s shooting that had been scheduled. Most of the cast and crew went back to the United States for six to eight weeks. Tavoularis and his team stayed on to scout new locations and rebuild the Playmate set in a different place. Also, the production had bodyguards watching constantly at night and one day the entire payroll was stolen. According to Coppola’s wife, Eleanor, the film was six weeks behind schedule and $2 million over budget.[38]

Coppola flew back to the U.S. in June 1976. He read a book about Genghis Khan to get a better handle on the character of Kurtz.[38] After filming commenced, Marlon Brando arrived in Manila very overweight and began working with Coppola to rewrite the ending.[39] The director downplayed Brando’s weight by dressing him in black, photographing only his face, and having another, taller actor double for him in an attempt to portray Kurtz as an almost mythical character.[39]

After Christmas 1976, Coppola viewed a rough assembly of the footage but still needed to improvise an ending. He returned to the Philippines in early 1977 and resumed filming.[39] On March 5, 1977, Sheen had a heart attack and struggled for a quarter of a mile to reach help.