PHILOSOPHY – Montaigne
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Will Durant — Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
“That to Study Philosophy is to Learn to Die” Essay by Michel De Montaigne
Essays – Book 1 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 1/3 )
Essays – Book 1 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 2/3 )
Essays – Book 1 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 3/3 )
Essays – Book 2 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 1/5 )
Essays – Book 2 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 2/5 )
Essays – Book 2 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 3/5 )
Essays – Book 2 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 4/5 )
Essays – Book 2 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 5/5 )
Essays – Book 3 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 1/4 )
Essays – Book 3 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 2/4 )
Essays – Book 3 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 3/4 )
Essays – Book 3 by Michel Eyquem de Montaigne – Audiobook ( Part 4/4 )
Documentary – Western Philosophy, Part 1 – Classical Education
Documentary – Western Philosophy, Part 2 – Classical Education
Michel de Montaigne
|Michel de Montaigne|
|Born||Michel de Montaigne
28 February 1533
Château de Montaigne, Guyenne, France
|Died||13 September 1592 (aged 59)
Château de Montaigne, Guyenne, France
|Alma mater||College of Guienne
University of Toulouse
|School||Renaissance humanismRenaissance skepticism|
Montaigne’s wheel argument
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (/mɒnˈteɪn/;French: [miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ]; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and autobiography with serious intellectual insight; his massive volume Essais (translated literally as “Attempts” or “Trials”) contains some of the most influential essays ever written.
Montaigne had a direct influence on writers all over the world, including Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer, Isaac Asimov, and possibly on the later works of William Shakespeare.
In his own lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author. The tendency in his essays to digress into anecdotes and personal ruminations was seen as detrimental to proper style rather than as an innovation, and his declaration that, “I am myself the matter of my book”, was viewed by his contemporaries as self-indulgent. In time, however, Montaigne would come to be recognized as embodying, perhaps better than any other author of his time, the spirit of freely entertaining doubt which began to emerge at that time. He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, “Que sçay-je?” (“What do I know?”, in Middle French; now rendered as Que sais-je? in modern French).
Remarkably modern even to readers today, Montaigne’s attempt to examine the world through the lens of the only thing he can depend on implicitly—his own judgment—makes him more accessible to modern readers than any other author of the Renaissance. Much of modern literary non-fiction has found inspiration in Montaigne and writers of all kinds continue to read him for his masterful balance of intellectual knowledge and personal storytelling.
Montaigne was born in the Aquitaine region of France, on the family estate Château de Montaigne, in a town now called Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne, close to Bordeaux. The family was very wealthy; his great-grandfather, Ramon Felipe Eyquem, had made a fortune as a herring merchant and had bought the estate in 1477, thus becoming the Lord of Montaigne. His father, Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of Montaigne, was a French Catholic soldier in Italy for a time and had also been the mayor of Bordeaux.
Although there were several families bearing the patronym “Eyquem” in Guyenne, his family is thought to have had some degree of Marrano (Spanish and Portuguese Jewish) origins. His mother, Antoinette López de Villanueva, was a convert to Protestantism. His maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez, from Zaragoza, was from a wealthy Marrano (Sephardic Jewish) family who had converted to Catholicism. His maternal grandmother, Honorette Dupuy, was from a Catholic family in Gascony, France.
His mother lived a great part of Montaigne’s life near him, and even survived him, but is mentioned only twice in his essays. Montaigne’s relationship with his father, however, is frequently reflected upon and discussed in his essays.
Montaigne’s education began in early childhood and followed a pedagogical plan that his father had developed, refined by the advice of the latter’s humanist friends. Soon after his birth, Montaigne was brought to a small cottage, where he lived the first three years of life in the sole company of a peasant family, in order to, according to the elder Montaigne, “draw the boy close to the people, and to the life conditions of the people, who need our help”. After these first spartan years, Montaigne was brought back to the château. The objective was for Latin to become his first language.
The intellectual education of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor (a doctor named Horstanus, who could not speak French). His father hired only servants who could speak Latin, and they also were given strict orders always to speak to the boy in Latin. The same rule applied to his mother, father, and servants, who were obliged to use only Latin words he himself employed, and thus acquired a knowledge of the very language his tutor taught him. Montaigne’s Latin education was accompanied by constant intellectual and spiritual stimulation. He was familiarized with Greek by a pedagogical method that employed games, conversation, and exercises of solitary meditation, rather than the more traditional books.
The atmosphere of the boy’s upbringing, although designed by highly refined rules taken under advisement by his father, created in the boy’s life the spirit of “liberty and delight” to “make me relish… duty by an unforced will, and of my own voluntary motion…without any severity or constraint”; yet he would have everything to take advantage of his freedom. And so a musician woke him every morning, playing one instrument or another, and an épinettier (with a zither) was the constant companion to Montaigne and his tutor, playing a tune to alleviate boredom and tiredness.
Around the year 1539, Montaigne was sent to study at a prestigious boarding school in Bordeaux, the Collège de Guyenne, then under the direction of the greatest Latin scholar of the era, George Buchanan, where he mastered the whole curriculum by his thirteenth year. He then began his study of law at the University of Toulouse in 1546 and entered a career in the local legal system. He was a counselor of the Court des Aides of Périgueux and, in 1557, he was appointed counselor of the Parlement in Bordeaux (a high court). From 1561 to 1563 he was courtier at the court of Charles IX; he was present with the king at the siege of Rouen (1562). He was awarded the highest honour of the French nobility, the collar of the Order of St. Michael, something to which he aspired from his youth. While serving at the Bordeaux Parlement, he became very close friends with the humanist poet Étienne de la Boétie, whose death in 1563 deeply affected Montaigne. It has been suggested by Donald M. Frame, in his introduction to The Complete Essays of Montaigne that because of Montaigne’s “imperious need to communicate” after losing Étienne, he began the Essais as his “means of communication” and that “the reader takes the place of the dead friend”.
Montaigne wed Françoise de la Cassaigne in 1565, not of his own free will but by prearrangement and under pressure from his family; they had six daughters, but only the second-born survived childhood.
|French literary history|
Following the petition of his father, Montaigne started to work on the first translation of the Catalan monk Raymond Sebond‘s Theologia naturalis, which he published a year after his father’s death in 1568 (In 1595, Sebond’s Prologue was put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum for its declaration that the Bible is not the only source of revealed truth). After this, he inherited the family’s estate, the Château de Montaigne, to which he moved back in 1570, thus becoming the Lord of Montaigne. Another literary accomplishment was Montaigne’s posthumous edition of his friend Boétie’s works.
In 1571, he retired from public life to the Tower of the Château, his so-called “citadel”, in the Dordogne, where he almost totally isolated himself from every social and family affair. Locked up in his library, which contained a collection of some 1,500 works, he began work on his Essais (“Essays”), first published in 1580. On the day of his 38th birthday, as he entered this almost ten-year period of self-imposed reclusion, he had the following inscription crown the bookshelves of his working chamber:
In the year of Christ 1571, at the age of thirty-eight, on the last day of February, his birthday, Michael de Montaigne, long weary of the servitude of the court and of public employments, while still entire, retired to the bosom of the learned virgins, where in calm and freedom from all cares he will spend what little remains of his life, now more than half run out. If the fates permit, he will complete this abode, this sweet ancestral retreat; and he has consecrated it to his freedom, tranquility, and leisure.
During this time of the Wars of Religion in France, Montaigne, a Roman Catholic, acted as a moderating force,respected both by the Catholic King Henry III and the Protestant Henry of Navarre.
In 1578, Montaigne, whose health had always been excellent, started suffering from painful kidney stones, a sickness he had inherited from his father’s family. Throughout this illness, he would have nothing to do with doctors or drugs. From 1580 to 1581, Montaigne traveled in France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, partly in search of a cure, establishing himself at Bagni di Lucca where he took the waters. His journey was also a pilgrimage to the Holy House of Loreto, to which he presented a silver relief depicting himself and his wife and daughter kneeling before the Madonna, considering himself fortunate that it should be hung on a wall within the shrine. He kept a fascinating journal recording regional differences and customs and a variety of personal episodes, including the dimensions of the stones he succeeded in ejecting from his bladder. This was published much later, in 1774, after its discovery in a trunk which is displayed in his tower.
During Montaigne’s visit to the Vatican, as he described in his travel journal, the Essais were examined by Sisto Fabri who served as Master of the Sacred Palace under Pope Gregory XIII. After Fabri examined Montaigne’s Essais the text was returned to its author on 20 March 1581. Montaigne had apologized for references to the pagan notion of “fortuna” as well as for writing favorably of Julian the Apostate and of heretical poets, and was released to follow his own conscience in making emendations to the text.
While in the city of Lucca in 1581, he learned that he had been elected mayor of Bordeaux; he returned and served as mayor. He was re-elected in 1583 and served until 1585, again moderating between Catholics and Protestants. The plague broke out in Bordeaux toward the end of his second term in office, in 1585. In 1586, the plague and the Wars of Religion prompted him to leave his château for two years.
Montaigne continued to extend, revise, and oversee the publication of Essais. In 1588 he wrote its third book and also met the writer Marie de Gournay, who admired his work and later edited and published it. Montaigne called her his adopted daughter. King Henry III was assassinated in 1589, and Montaigne then helped to keep Bordeaux loyal to Henry of Navarre, who would go on to become King Henry IV.
Montaigne died of quinsy at the age of 59, in 1592 at the Château de Montaigne. The disease in his case “brought about paralysis of the tongue”, and he had once said “the most fruitful and natural play of the mind is conversation. I find it sweeter than any other action in life; and if I were forced to choose, I think I would rather lose my sight than my hearing and voice.” Remaining in possession of all his other faculties, he requested mass, and died during the celebration of that mass.
He was buried nearby. Later his remains were moved to the church of Saint Antoine at Bordeaux. The church no longer exists: it became the Convent des Feuillants, which has also disappeared. The Bordeaux Tourist Office says that Montaigne is buried at the Musée Aquitaine, Faculté des Lettres, Université Bordeaux 3 Michel de Montaigne, Pessac. His heart is preserved in the parish church of Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne.
The humanities branch of the University of Bordeaux is named after him: Université Michel de Montaigne Bordeaux 3.
His fame rests on the Essais, a collection of a large number of short subjective treatments of various topics published in 1580, inspired by his studies in the classics, especially by the works of Plutarch and Lucretius. Montaigne’s stated goal is to describe humans, and especially himself, with utter frankness. Montaigne’s writings are studied as literature and philosophy around the world.
Inspired by his consideration of the lives and ideals of the leading figures of his age, he finds the great variety and volatility of human nature to be its most basic features. He describes his own poor memory, his ability to solve problems and mediate conflicts without truly getting emotionally involved, his disdain for the human pursuit of lasting fame, and his attempts to detach himself from worldly things to prepare for his timely death. He writes about his disgust with the religious conflicts of his time. He believed that humans are not able to attain true certainty. The longest of his essays, Apology for Raymond Sebond, contains his famous motto, “What do I know?”
Montaigne considered marriage necessary for the raising of children, but disliked strong feelings of passionate love because he saw them as detrimental to freedom. In education, he favored concrete examples and experience over the teaching of abstract knowledge that has to be accepted uncritically. His essay “On the Education of Children” is dedicated to Diana of Foix.
The Essais exercised important influence on both French and English literature, in thought and style. Francis Bacon‘s Essays, published over a decade later, in 1596, are usually assumed to be directly influenced by Montaigne’s collection, and Montaigne is cited by Bacon alongside other classical sources in later essays.
Montaigne’s influence on psychology
Though not a scientist, Montaigne made observations on topics in psychology. In his essays, he developed and explained his observations of these topics. His thoughts and ideas covered topics such as thought, motivation, fear, happiness, child education, experience, and human action. Montaigne’s ideas have influenced psychology and are a part of psychology’s rich history.
Child education was among the psychological topics that he wrote about. His essays On the Education of Children, On Pedantry, and On Experience explain the views he had on child education.:61:62:70 Some of his views on child education are still relevant today.
Montaigne’s views on the education of children were opposed to the common educational practices of his day.:63:67He found fault with both what was taught and how it was taught.:62 Much of the education during Montaigne’s time was focused on the reading of the classics and learning through books.:67Montaigne disagreed with learning strictly through books. He believed it was necessary to educate children in a variety of ways. He also disagreed with the way information was being presented to students. It was being presented in a way that encouraged students to take the information that was taught to them as absolute truth. Students were denied the chance to question the information. Therefore, students could not truly learn. Montaigne believed that to truly learn, a student had to take the information and make it their own.
At the foundation Montaigne believed that the selection of a good tutor was important for the student to become well educated.:66 Education by a tutor was to be done at the pace of the student.:67He believed that a tutor should be in dialogue with the student, letting the student speak first. The tutor should also allow for discussions and debates to be had. Through this dialogue, it was meant to create an environment in which students would teach themselves. They would be able to realize their mistakes and make corrections to them as necessary.
Individualized learning was also integral to his theory of child education. He argued that the student combines information he already knows with what is learned, and forms a unique perspective on the newly learned information.:356 Montaigne also thought that tutors should encourage a student’s natural curiosity and allow them to question things.:68He postulated that successful students were those who were encouraged to question new information and study it for themselves, rather than simply accepting what they had heard from the authorities on any given topic. Montaigne believed that a child’s curiosity could serve as an important teaching tool when the child is allowed to explore the things that they are curious about.
Experience was also a key element to learning for Montaigne. Tutors needed to teach students through experience rather than through the mere memorization of knowledge often practised in book learning.:62:67He argued that students would become passive adults; blindly obeying and lacking the ability to think on their own.:354 Nothing of importance would be retained and no abilities would be learned.:62 He believed that learning through experience was superior to learning through the use of books. For this reason he encouraged tutors to educate their students through practice, travel, and human interaction. In doing so, he argued that students would become active learners, who could claim knowledge for themselves.
Montaigne’s views on child education continue to have an influence in the present. Variations of Montaigne’s ideas on education are incorporated into modern learning in some ways. He argued against the popular way of teaching in his day, encouraging individualized learning. He believed in the importance of experience over book learning and memorization. Ultimately, Montaigne postulated that the point of education was to teach a student how to have a successful life by practising an active and socially interactive lifestyle.:355
Related writers and influence
Thinkers exploring similar ideas to Montaigne include Erasmus, Thomas More, and Guillaume Budé, who all worked about fifty years before Montaigne. Many of Montaigne’s Latin quotations are from Erasmus’ Adagia, and most critically, all of his quotations from Socrates. Plutarch remains perhaps Montaigne’s strongest influence, in terms of substance and style. Montaigne’s quotations from Plutarch in the Essays number well over 500.
Ever since Edward Capell first made the suggestion in 1780, scholars have suggested Montaigne to be an influence on Shakespeare. The latter would have had access to John Florio‘s translation of Montaigne’s Essais, published in English in 1603, and a scene in The Tempest “follows the wording of Florio [translating Of Cannibals] so closely that his indebtedness is unmistakable”. However, most parallels between the two can be explained as commonplaces: as with Cervantes, Shakespeare‘s similarities with writers in other nations could be due simply to their simultaneous study of Latin moral and philosophical writers such as Seneca the Younger, Horace, Ovid and Virgil.
The English essayist William Hazlitt expressed boundless admiration for Montaigne, exclaiming that “he was the first who had the courage to say as an author what he felt as a man. … He was neither a pedant nor a bigot. … In treating of men and manners, he spoke of them as he found them, not according to preconceived notions and abstract dogmas”. Beginning most overtly with the essays in the “familiar” style in his own Table-Talk, Hazlitt tried to follow Montaigne’s example.
Ralph Waldo Emerson chose “Montaigne; or, the Skeptic” as a subject of one of his series of lectures entitled Representative Men, alongside other subjects such as Shakespeare and Plato. In “The Skeptic” Emerson writes of his experience reading Montaigne, “It seemed to me as if I had myself written the book, in some former life, so sincerely it spoke to my thought and experience.” Friedrich Nietzsche judged of Montaigne: “That such a man wrote has truly augmented the joy of living on this Earth”. Saint-Beuve advises us that “to restore lucidity and proportion to our judgments, let us read every evening a page of Montaigne.” 
The American philosopher Eric Hoffer employed Montaigne both stylistically and in thought. In Hoffer’s memoir, Truth Imagined, he said of Montaigne, “He was writing about me. He knew my innermost thoughts.” The Welsh novelist John Cowper Powys expressed his admiration for Montaigne’s philosophy in his books Suspended Judgements (1916) and The Pleasures of Literature (1938). Judith N. Shklar introduces her book Ordinary Vices (1984), “It is only if we step outside the divinely ruled moral universe that we can really put our minds to the common ills we inflict upon one another each day. That is what Montaigne did and that is why he is the hero of this book. In spirit he is on every one of its pages…”
20th century literary critic Erich Auerbach called Montaigne the first modern man. “Among all his contemporaries,” writes Auerbach (Mimesis, Chapter 12), “he had the clearest conception of the problem of man’s self-orientation; that is, the task of making oneself at home in existence without fixed points of support.” 
- Robert P. Amico, The Problem of the Criterion, Rowman & Littlefield, 1995, p. 42. Primary source: Montaigne, Essais, II, 12: “Pour juger des apparences que nous recevons des subjets, il nous faudroit un instrument judicatoire ; pour verifier cet instrument, il nous y faut de la demonstration ; pour verifier la demonstration, un instrument : nous voilà au rouet [To judge of the appearances that we receive of subjects, we had need have a judicatorie instrument: to verifie this instrument we should have demonstration; and to approve demonstration, an instrument; thus are we ever turning round]” (transl. by Charles Cotton).
- FT.com “Small Talk: José Saramago”. “Everything I’ve read has influenced me in some way. Having said that, Kafka, Borges, Gogol, Montaigne, Cervantes are constant companions.”
- “Montaigne”. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
- His anecdotes are ‘casual’ only in appearance; Montaigne writes: ‘Neither my anecdotes nor my quotations are always employed simply as examples, for authority, or for ornament…They often carry, off the subject under discussion, the seed of a richer and more daring matter, and they resonate obliquely with a more delicate tone,’ Michel de Montaigne, Essais, Pléiade, Paris (ed. A. Thibaudet) 1937, Bk. 1, ch.40, p. 252 (tr. Charles Rosen)
- Buckley, Michael J., At the Origins of Modern Atheism, Yale UP, 1990, p. 69.
- Kinnaird, John, William Hazlitt: Critic of Power, Columbia University Press, 1978, p. 274.
- from Truth Imagined, memoir by Eric Hoffer.
- Sophie Jama, L’Histoire Juive de Montaigne [The Jewish History of Montaigne], Paris, Flammarion, 2001, p. 76.
- “His mother was a Jewish Protestant, his father a Catholic who achieved wide culture as well as a considerable fortune.” Civilization, Kenneth Clark, (Harper & Row: 1969), p. 161.
- Winkler, Emil (1942). “Zeitschrift für Französische Sprache und Literatur”.
- Goitein, Denise R (2008). “Montaigne, Michel de”. Encyclopaedia Judaica. The Gale Group. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
- Introduction: Montaigne’s Life and Times, in Apology for Raymond Sebond, By Michel de Montaigne (Roger Ariew), (Hackett: 2003), p. iv: “Michel de Montaigne was born in 1533 at the chateau de Montagine (about 30 miles east of Bordeaux), the son of Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne, and Antoinette de Louppes (or Lopez), who came from a wealthy (originally Iberian) Jewish family”.
- “…the family of Montaigne’s mother, Antoinette de Louppes (Lopez) of Toulouse, was of Spanish Jewish origin….” The Complete Essays of Montaigne, Translated by Donald M. Frame, “Introduction,” p. vii ff., Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1989 ISBN 0-8047-0486-4
- Popkin, Richard H (2003-03-20). “The History of Scepticism: From Savonarola to Bayle”. ISBN 9780195107678.
- Green, Toby (2009-03-17). “Inquisition: The Reign of Fear”. ISBN 9781429938532.
- Montaigne. Essays, III, 13
- Hutchins, Robert Maynard; Hazlitt, W. Carew, eds. (1952). The Essays of Michel Eyquem de Montaigne. Great Books of the Western World. twenty-five. Trans. Charles Cotton. Encyclopedia Britannica. p. v.
He had his son awakened each morning by ‘the sound of a musical instrument’
- Frame, Donald (translator). The Complete Essays of Montaigne. 1958. p. v.
- As cited by Richard L. Regosin, ‘Montaigne and His Readers’, in Denis Hollier (ed.) A New History of French Literature, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London 1995, pp. 248–52, p. 249. The Latin original runs: ‘An. Christi 1571 aet. 38, pridie cal. mart., die suo natali, Mich. Montanus, servitii aulici et munerum publicorum jamdudum pertaesus, dum se integer in doctarum virginum recessit sinus, ubi quietus et omnium securus (quan)tillum in tandem superabit decursi multa jam plus parte spatii: si modo fata sinunt exigat istas sedes et dulces latebras, avitasque, libertati suae, tranquillitatique, et otio consecravit.’ as cited in Helmut Pfeiffer, ‘Das Ich als Haushalt:Montaignes ökonomische Politik’, in Rudolf Behrens,Roland Galle (eds.) Historische Anthropologie und Literatur:Romanistische Beträge zu einem neuen Paradigma der Literaturwissenschaft, Königshausen und Neumann, Würzburg, 1995 pp. 69–90 p. 75
- Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). “Montaigne, Michel, Seigneur“. Collier’s New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company.
- Edward Chaney, The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the Renaissance, 2nd ed. (London, 2000), p. 89.
- Cazeaux, Guillaume (2015). Montaigne et la coutume[Montaigne and the custom]. Milan: Mimésis. ISBN 9788869760044.
- Montaigne’s Travel Journal, translated with an introduction by Donald M. Frame and foreword by Guy Davenport, San Francisco, 1983
- Treccani.it, L’encicolpedia Italiana, Dizionario Biografico. Accessed 10 August 2013
- Montaigne, Michel de, Essays of Michel de Montaigne, tr. Charles Cotton, ed. William Carew Hazlitt, 1877, “The Life of Montaigne” in v. 1. n.p., Kindle edition.
- “The Autobiography of Michel De Montaign”, translated, introduced, and edited by Marvin Lowenthal, David R. Godine Publishing, p. 165
- “Biographical Note”, Encyclopedia Britannica “Great Books of the Western World”, Vol. 25, p. vi “Montaigne”
- Bakewell, Sarah. How to Live – or – A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer (2010), pp. 325–26, 365 n. 325.
- “Titi Lucretii Cari De rerum natura libri sex (Montaigne.1.4.4)”. Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- Bloom, Harold. The Western Canon.
- Bakewell, Sarah (2010). How to live : a life of Montaigne in one question and twenty attempts at an answer. London: Vintage. p. 280. ISBN 9780099485155.
- King, Brett; Viney, Wayne; Woody, William.A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, 4th ed., Pearson Education, Inc. 2009, p. 112.
- Hall, Michael L. Montaigne’s Uses of Classical Learning. “Journal of Education” 1997, Vol. 179 Issue 1, p. 61
- Ediger, Marlow. Influence of ten leading educators on American education.Education Vol. 118, Issue 2, p. 270
- Worley, Virginia. Painting With Impasto: Metaphors, Mirrors, and Reflective Regression in Montagne’s ‘Of the Education of Children.’ Educational Theory, June 2012, Vol. 62 Issue 3, p. 343–70.
- Friedrich, Hugo; Desan, Philippe (1991). Montaigne. ISBN 9780520072534.
- Friedrich 1991, p. 71.
- Billault, Alain (2002). “Plutarch’s Lives“. In Gerald N. Sandy. The Classical Heritage in France. p. 226. ISBN 9789004119161.
- Olivier, T. (1980). “Shakespeare and Montaigne: A Tendency of Thought”. Theoria. 54: 43–59.
- Harmon, Alice (1942). “How Great Was Shakespeare’s Debt to Montaigne?”. PMLA. 57 (4): 988–1008. JSTOR 458873.
- Eliot, Thomas Stearns (1958). Introduction to Pascal’s Essays. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co. p. viii.
- Quoted from Hazlitt’s “On the Periodical Essayists” in Park, Roy, Hazlitt and the Spirit of the Age, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971, pp. 172–73.
- Nietzsche, Untimely Meditations, Chapter 3, “Schopenhauer as Educator,” Cambridge University Press, 1988, p. 135
- Saint-Beuve, “Montaigne”, “Literary and Philosophical Essays”, Ed. Charles W. Eliot, New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1938.
- Auerbach, Erich , Mimesis: Representations of Reality in Western Literature, Princeton UP, 1974, p.311
- Album Montaigne. Iconographie choisie et annotée par Jean Lacouture. Bibliothèque de la Pléiade. Éditions Gallimard, 2007. ISBN 9782070118298.
- Kuznicki, Jason (2008). “Montaigne, Michel (1533–1592)”. In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 339–41. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n208. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
- The Autobiography of Michel de Montaigne. Comprising the Life of the Wisest Man of his Times: his Childhood, Youth, and Prime; his Adventures in Love and Marriage, at Court, and in Office, War, Revolution, and Plague; his Travels at Home and Abroad; his Habits, Tastes, Whims, and Opinions. Composed, Prefaced, and Translated from the Essays, Letters, Travel Diary, Family Journal, etc., withholding no signal or curious detail, by Marvin Lowenthal. Houghton Mifflin, 1935.
- No greater mmonster nor miracle than myself. Charlotte Thomas, ed. 2014. Mercer University Press.
- Works by Michel de Montaigne at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Michel de Montaigne at Internet Archive
- Works by Michel de Montaigne at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Michel de Montaigne at Goodreads
- Facsimile and HTML versions of the 10 Volume Essays of Montaigne at the Online Library of Liberty
- Essays by Montaigne at Quotidiana.org
- The Charles Cotton translation of some of Montaigne’s Essays:
- The complete, searchable text of the Villey-Saulnier edition from the ARFTL project at the University of Chicago (French)
- Montaigne Studies at the University of Chicago
- Michel de Montaigne, entry by Christopher Edelman in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Foglia, Marc. “Montaigne”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Background and digital facsimile of 1595 volume at the Gordon Collection of the University of Virginia
- on YouTube, a documentary by Alain de Botton about Montaigne and his philosophy
- Titi Lucretii Cari De rerum natura libri sex, published in Paris 1563, later owned and annotated by Montaigne, fully digitised in Cambridge Digital Library
- Montaigne “On Cruelty”: A Close Reading of a Classic Essay from EDSITEment
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Alan Watts discusses choice and the thoughts process behind it. Our choices are fundamentally what shape our character, and more importantly our life as a whole.
What Do You Desire? Thought Provoking Motivation: By Alan Watts
Alan Watts breaks down what’s wrong with the world – Part 1 (1970)
UPDATE: Video now has full closed-caption (subtitles) in English. Allowing it to be viewed in many other languages through Google’s auto-translation captioning. Enjoy.
The very wise Alan Watts breaks down what’s wrong with the world at large, and does so back in 1970! His foreshadowing of the manipulation of the food supply through high yield crops is eery and so very true (i.e., Monsanto and their Ready Roundup crops).
He proposes a number of things we can do to change our attitudes towards life and the planet. I’m sorry to say he would be greatly disappointed if he were alive today, however we still have a chance to set things right and fulfill Watts’ dream of unity, peace, and love.
Alan Watts breaks down what’s wrong with the world – Part 2 (1970)
|Born||Alan Wilson Watts
6 January 1915
Chislehurst, Kent, England
|Died||16 November 1973 (aged 58)
Mt. Tamalpais, California, United States
|Nationality||British and American|
Alan Wilson Watts (6 January 1915 – 16 November 1973) was a British philosopher, writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Born in Chislehurst, England, he moved to the United States in 1938 and began Zen training in New York. Pursuing a career, he attended Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, where he received a master’s degree in theology. Watts became an Episcopal priest in 1945, then left the ministry in 1950 and moved to California, where he joined the faculty of the American Academy of Asian Studies.
Watts gained a large following in the San Francisco Bay Area while working as a volunteer programmer at KPFA, a Pacifica Radio station in Berkeley. Watts wrote more than 25 books and articles on subjects important to Eastern and Western religion, introducing the then-burgeoning youth culture to The Way of Zen (1957), one of the first bestselling books on Buddhism. In Psychotherapy East and West (1961), Watts proposed that Buddhism could be thought of as a form of psychotherapy and not a religion. He considered Nature, Man and Woman (1958) to be, “from a literary point of view — the best book I have ever written.” He also explored human consciousness, in the essay “The New Alchemy” (1958), and in the book The Joyous Cosmology (1962).
Towards the end of his life, he divided his time between a houseboat in Sausalito and a cabin on Mount Tamalpais. Many of his books are now available in digital format and many of his recorded talks and lectures are available on the Internet. According to the critic Erik Davis, his “writings and recorded talks still shimmer with a profound and galvanizing lucidity.”
Watts was born to middle class parents in the village of Chislehurst, Kent (now south-east London), in 1915, living at 3 (now 5) Holbrook Lane, which was subsequently lived in by author John Hemming-Clark in the early 2000s. Watts’ father, Laurence Wilson Watts, was a representative for the London office of the Michelin Tyre Company; his mother, Emily Mary Watts (née Buchan), was a housewife whose father had been a missionary. With modest financial means, they chose to live in pastoral surroundings and Alan, an only child, grew up playing at brookside, learning the names of wildflowers and butterflies. Probably because of the influence of his mother’s religious family the Buchans, an interest in “ultimate things” seeped in. But it mixed with Alan’s own interests in storybook fables and romantic tales of the mysterious Far East.
Watts also later wrote of a mystical dream he experienced while ill with a fever as a child. During this time he was influenced by Far Eastern landscape paintings and embroideries that had been given to his mother by missionaries returning from China. The few Chinese paintings Watts was able to see in England riveted him, and he wrote “I was aesthetically fascinated with a certain clarity, transparency, and spaciousness in Chinese and Japanese art. It seemed to float…”. These works of art emphasized the participatory relationship of man in nature, a theme that stood fast throughout his life, and one that he often writes about. See, for instance, the last chapter in The Way of Zen.
By his own assessment, Watts was imaginative, headstrong, and talkative. He was sent to boarding schools (which included both academic and religious training of the Muscular Christianity sort) from early years. Of this religious training, he remarked “Throughout my schooling my religious indoctrination was grim and maudlin…”
Watts spent several holidays in France in his teen years, accompanied by Francis Croshaw, a wealthy Epicurean with strong interests in both Buddhism and exotic little-known aspects of European culture. It was not long afterward that Watts felt forced to decide between the Anglican Christianity he had been exposed to and the Buddhism he had read about in various libraries, including Croshaw’s. He chose Buddhism, and sought membership in the London Buddhist Lodge, which had been established by Theosophists, and was now run by the barrister Christmas Humphreys. Watts became the organization’s secretary at 16 (1931). The young Watts explored several styles of meditation during these years.
Watts attended The King’s School, Canterbury next door to Canterbury Cathedral. Though he was frequently at the top of his classes scholastically and was given responsibilities at school, he botched an opportunity for a scholarship to Oxford by styling a crucial examination essay in a way that was read as presumptuous and capricious.
When he left secondary school, Watts worked in a printing house and later a bank. He spent his spare time involved with the Buddhist Lodge and also under the tutelage of a “rascal guru” named Dimitrije Mitrinović. (Mitrinović was himself influenced by Peter Demianovich Ouspensky, G. I. Gurdjieff, and the varied psychoanalytical schools of Freud, Jung and Adler.) Watts also read widely in philosophy, history, psychology, psychiatry and Eastern wisdom. By his own reckoning, and also by that of his biographer Monica Furlong, Watts was primarily an autodidact. His involvement with the Buddhist Lodge in London afforded Watts a considerable number of opportunities for personal growth. Through Humphreys, he contacted eminent spiritual authors (e.g. the artist, scholar, and mystic Nicholas Roerich, Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, and prominent theosophists like Alice Bailey).
In 1936, aged 21, he attended the World Congress of Faiths at the University of London, heard D. T. Suzuki read a paper, and afterwards was able to meet this esteemed scholar of Zen Buddhism. Beyond these discussions and personal encounters, Watts absorbed, by studying the available scholarly literature, the fundamental concepts and terminology of the main philosophies of India and East Asia.
Influences and first publication
Watts’s fascination with the Zen (or Ch’an) tradition—beginning during the 1930s—developed because that tradition embodied the spiritual, interwoven with the practical, as exemplified in the subtitle of his Spirit of Zen: A Way of Life, Work, and Art in the Far East. “Work”, “life”, and “art” were not demoted due to a spiritual focus. In his writing, he referred to it as “the great Ch’an (or Zen) synthesis of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism after 700 CE in China.” Watts published his first book, The Spirit of Zen, in 1936. Two decades later, in The Way of Zen he disparaged The Spirit of Zen as a “popularisation of Suzuki‘s earlier works, and besides being very unscholarly it is in many respects out of date and misleading.”
Watts married Eleanor Everett, whose mother Ruth Fuller Everett was involved with a traditional Zen Buddhist circle in New York. Ruth Fuller later married the Zen master (or “roshi”), Sokei-an Sasaki, who served as a sort of model and mentor to Watts, though he chose not to enter into a formal Zen training relationship with Sasaki. During these years, according to his later writings, Watts had another mystical experience while on a walk with his wife. In 1938 Watts and his wife left England to live in the United States. Watts became a United States citizen in 1943.
Christian priest and after
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Watts left formal Zen training in New York because the method of the teacher did not suit him. He was not ordained as a Zen monk, but he felt a need to find a vocational outlet for his philosophical inclinations. He entered Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, an Episcopal (Anglican) school in Evanston, Illinois, where he studied Christian scriptures, theology, and church history. He attempted to work out a blend of contemporary Christian worship, mystical Christianity, and Asian philosophy. Watts was awarded a master’s degree in theology in response to his thesis, which he published as a popular edition under the title Behold the Spirit: A Study in the Necessity of Mystical Religion. He later published Myth & Ritual in Christianity (1953), an eisegesis of traditional Roman Catholic doctrine and ritual in Buddhist terms. However, the pattern was set, in that Watts did not hide his dislike for religious outlooks that he decided were dour, guilt-ridden, or militantly proselytizing—no matter if they were found within Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism.
As recounted in his autobiography, Alan was ordained as an Episcopal priest in 1945 (aged 30) and resigned the ministry by 1950, partly as a result of an extramarital affair which resulted in his wife having their marriage annulled, but also because he could no longer reconcile his Buddhist beliefs with the formal doctrine of the church. He spent the New Year getting to know Joseph Campbell and Campbell’s wife, Jean Erdman; as well as John Cage, the notable composer.
In early 1951, Watts moved to California, where he joined the faculty of the American Academy of Asian Studies in San Francisco. Here he taught from 1951 to 1957 alongside Saburō Hasegawa (1906-1957), Frederic Spiegelberg, Haridas Chaudhuri, lama Tada Tōkan (1890-1967), and various visiting experts and professors. Hasegawa, in particular, served as a teacher to Watts in the areas of Japanese customs, arts, primitivism, and perceptions of nature. It was during this time he met the poet, Jean Burden whom he called an “important influence.” Alan placed a “cryptograph” crediting her in his book “Nature , Man and Woman” to which he alludes in his autobiography (P.297). Besides teaching, Watts served for several years as the Academy’s administrator. One notable student of his was Eugene Rose, who later went on to become a noted Orthodox Christian hieromonk and controversial theologian within the Orthodox Church in America under the jurisdiction of ROCOR. Rose’s own disciple, a fellow monastic priest published under the name Hieromonk Damascene, produced a book entitled Christ the Eternal Tao, in which the author draws parallels between the concept of the Tao in Chinese philosophy and the concept of the Logos in classical Greek philosophy and Eastern Christian theology.
Watts also studied written Chinese and practiced Chinese brush calligraphy with Hasegawa as well as with some of the Chinese students who enrolled at the academy. While Watts was noted for an interest in Zen Buddhism, his reading and discussions delved into Vedanta, “the new physics“, cybernetics, semantics, process philosophy, natural history, and the anthropology of sexuality.
After heading up the Academy for a few years, Watts left the faculty for a freelance career in the mid-1950s. In 1953, he began what became a long-running weekly radio program at Pacifica Radio station KPFA in Berkeley. Like other volunteer programmers at the listener-sponsored station, Watts was not paid for his broadcasts. These weekly broadcasts continued until 1962, by which time he had attracted a “legion of regular listeners”. Watts continued to give numerous talks and seminars, recordings of which were broadcast on KPFA and other radio stations during his life. These recordings are broadcast to this day. (For example, in 1970 Watts lectures were broadcast on Sunday mornings on San Francisco radio station KSAN; and in 2014 a number of radio stations continue to have an Alan Watts program in their weekly program schedules.) Original tapes of his broadcasts and talks are currently held by the Pacifica Radio Archives, based at KPFK in Los Angeles, and at the Electronic University archive founded by his son, Mark Watts.
In 1957 Watts, then 42, published one of his best known books, The Way of Zen, which focused on philosophical explication and history. Besides drawing on the lifestyle and philosophical background of Zen, in India and China, Watts introduced ideas drawn from general semantics (directly from the writings of Alfred Korzybski) and also from Norbert Wiener‘s early work on cybernetics, which had recently been published. Watts offered analogies from cybernetic principles possibly applicable to the Zen life. The book sold well, eventually becoming a modern classic, and helped widen his lecture circuit.
In the 1960s, Watts became increasingly interested in how identifiable patterns in nature tend to repeat themselves from the smallest of scales to the most immense. This became one of his passions in his research and thought.
Some of Watts’ writings published in 1958 (e.g., his book Nature, Man and Woman and his essay “The New Alchemy”) mentioned some of his early views on the use of psychedelic drugs for mystical insight. Watts had begun to experiment with psychedelics, initially with mescaline given to him by Oscar Janiger. He tried LSD several times in 1958, with various research teams led by Keith S. Ditman, Sterling Bunnell, Jr., and Michael Agron. He also tried marijuana and concluded that it was a useful and interesting psychoactive drug that gave the impression of time slowing down. Watts’s books of the ’60s reveal the influence of these chemical adventures on his outlook. He later said about psychedelic drug use, “If you get the message, hang up the phone. For psychedelic drugs are simply instruments, like microscopes, telescopes, and telephones. The biologist does not sit with eye permanently glued to the microscope, he goes away and works on what he has seen.”
For a time, Watts came to prefer writing in the language of modern science and psychology (Psychotherapy East and West is a good example),[tone] finding a parallel between mystical experiences and the theories of the material universe proposed by 20th-century physicists. He later equated mystical experience with ecological awareness, and typically emphasized whichever approach seemed best suited to the audience he was addressing.
Supporters and critics
Watts’s explorations and teaching brought him into contact with many noted intellectuals, artists, and American teachers in the human potential movement. His friendship with poet Gary Snyder nurtured his sympathies with the budding environmental movement, to which Watts gave philosophical support. He also encountered Robert Anton Wilson, who credited Watts with being one of his “Light[s] along the Way” in the opening appreciation of Cosmic Trigger. Werner Erhard attended workshops given by Alan Watts and said of him, “He pointed me toward what I now call the distinction between Self and Mind. After my encounter with Alan, the context in which I was working shifted.”
Though never affiliated for long with any one academic institution, he was Professor of Comparative Philosophy at the California Institute of Integral Studies (as mentioned above), had a fellowship at Harvard University (1962–64), and was a Scholar at San Jose State University (1968). He also lectured to many college and university students as well as the general public. His lectures and books gave him far-reaching influence on the American intelligentsia of the 1950s–1970s, but he was often seen as an outsider in academia. When questioned sharply by students during his talk at University of California, Santa Cruz in 1970, Watts responded, as he had from the early sixties, that he was not an academic philosopher but rather “a philosophical entertainer.”
Watts has been criticized by Buddhists such as Philip Kapleau and D. T. Suzuki for allegedly misinterpreting several key Zen Buddhist concepts. In particular, he drew criticism from those who believe that zazen must entail a strict and specific means of sitting, as opposed to a cultivated state of mind available at any moment in any situation. Typical of these is Kapleau’s claim that Watts dismissed zazen on the basis of only half a koan. In regard to the aforementioned koan, Robert Baker Aitken reports that Suzuki told him, “I regret to say that Mr. Watts did not understand that story.” In his talks, Watts addressed the issue of defining zazen practice by saying, “A cat sits until it is tired of sitting, then gets up, stretches, and walks away.”
Watts’s biographers saw him, after his stint as an Anglican priest, as representative of no religion but as a lone-wolf thinker and social rascal. In David Stuart’s warts-and-all biography of the man, Watts is seen as an unusually gifted speaker and writer driven by his own interests, enthusiasms, and demons. Elsa Gidlow, whom Alan called “sister” refused to be interviewed for this work but later painted a kinder picture of Alan’s life in her own autobiography, “Elsa, I Come With My Songs.”
However, Watts did have his supporters in the Zen community, including Shunryu Suzuki, the founder of the San Francisco Zen Center. As David Chadwick recounted in his biography of Suzuki, Crooked Cucumber: the Life and Zen Teaching of Shunryu Suzuki, when a student of Suzuki’s disparaged Watts by saying “we used to think he was profound until we found the real thing”, Suzuki “fumed with a sudden intensity”, saying, “You completely miss the point about Alan Watts! You should notice what he has done. He is a great bodhisattva.”
Watts sometimes alluded to a group of neighbors in Druid Heights (near Mill Valley, California) who had endeavored to combine architecture, gardening, and carpentry skills to make a beautiful and comfortable life for themselves. These neighbors accomplished this by relying on their own talents and using their own hands, as they lived in what has been called “shared bohemian poverty”. Druid Heights was founded by the writer Elsa Gidlow, and Watts dedicated his book The Joyous Cosmology to the people of this neighborhood. He later dedicated his autobiography to Elsa Gidlow, for whom he held a great affection.
Regarding his intentions, Watts attempted to lessen the alienation that accompanies the experience of being human that he felt plagued the modern Westerner, and (like his fellow British expatriate and friend, Aldous Huxley) to lessen the ill will that was an unintentional by-product of alienation from the natural world. He felt such teaching could improve the world, at least to a degree. He also articulated the possibilities for greater incorporation of aesthetics (for example: better architecture, more art, more fine cuisine) in American life. In his autobiography he wrote, “… cultural renewal comes about when highly differentiated cultures mix”.
In his last novel, Island (1962), Aldous Huxley mentions the religious practice of maithuna as being something like what Roman Catholics call “coitus reservatus“. A few years before, Watts had discussed the theme in his own book, Nature, Man and Woman, in which he discusses the possibility of the practice being known to early Christians and of it being kept secretly by the Church.
In his writings of the 1950s, he conveyed his admiration for the practicality in the historical achievements of Chán (Zen) in the Far East, for it had fostered farmers, architects, builders, folk physicians, artists, and administrators among the monks who had lived in the monasteries of its lineages. In his mature work, he presents himself as “Zennist” in spirit as he wrote in his last book, Tao: The Watercourse Way. Child rearing, the arts, cuisine, education, law and freedom, architecture, sexuality, and the uses and abuses of technology were all of great interest to him. Though known for his Zen teachings, he was also influenced by ancient Hindu scriptures, especially Vedanta, and spoke extensively about the nature of the divine reality which Man misses: how the contradiction of opposites is the method of life and the means of cosmic and human evolution; how our fundamental Ignorance is rooted in the exclusive nature of mind and ego; how to come in touch with the Field of Consciousness and Light, and other cosmic principles. These are discussed in great detail in dozens of hours of audio that are in part captured in the ‘Out of Your Mind’ series.
Watts sought to resolve his feelings of alienation from the institutions of marriage and the values of American society, as revealed in his classic comments on love relationships in “Divine Madness” and on perception of the organism-environment in “The Philosophy of Nature”. In looking at social issues he was quite concerned with the necessity for international peace, for tolerance and understanding among disparate cultures. He also came to feel acutely conscious of a growing ecological predicament; writing, for example, in the early 1960s: “Can any melting or burning imaginable get rid of these ever-rising mountains of ruin—especially when the things we make and build are beginning to look more and more like rubbish even before they are thrown away?” These concerns were later expressed in a television pilot made for NET (National Educational Television) filmed at his mountain retreat in 1971 in which he noted that the single track of conscious attention was wholly inadequate for interactions with a multi-tracked world.
Watts disliked much in the conventional idea of “progress”. He hoped for change, but he preferred amiable, semi-isolated rural social enclaves, and also believed in tolerance for social misfits and eccentric artists. Watts decried the suburbanization of the countryside and the way of life that went with it. In one campus lecture tour, which Watts titled “The End to the Put-Down of Man”, Watts presented positive images for both nature and humanity, spoke in favor of the various stages of human development (including the teenage years), reproached excessive cynicism and rivalry, and extolled intelligent creativity, good architecture and food.
In regards to his ethical outlook, Watts felt that absolute morality had nothing to do with the fundamental realization of one’s deep spiritual identity. He advocated social rather than personal ethics. In his writings, Watts was increasingly concerned with ethics applied to relations between humanity and the natural environment and between governments and citizens. He wrote out of an appreciation of a racially and culturally diverse social landscape.
He often said that he wished to act as a bridge between the ancient and the modern, between East and West, and between culture and nature.
In several of his later publications, especially Beyond Theology and The Book: On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are, Watts put forward a worldview, drawing on Hinduism, Chinese philosophy, pantheism or panentheism, and modern science, in which he maintains that the whole universe consists of a cosmic Self playing hide-and-seek (Lila); hiding from itself (Maya) by becoming all the living and non-living things in the universe and forgetting what it really is – the upshot being that we are all IT in disguise. In this worldview, Watts asserts that our conception of ourselves as an “ego in a bag of skin,” or “skin-encapsulated ego” is a myth; the entities we call the separate “things” are merely aspects or features of the whole.
Watts’ books frequently include discussions reflecting his keen interest in patterns that occur in nature and which are repeated in various ways and at a wide range of scales – including the patterns to be discerned in the history of civilizations.
In October 1973, Watts returned from a European lecture tour to his cabin in Druid Heights. Friends of Watts had been concerned about him for some time over what they considered his excessive drinking of alcohol. On 16 November 1973, he died in his sleep. He was reported to have been under treatment for a heart condition. His body was cremated shortly thereafter. His ashes were split with half buried near his library at Druid Heights and half at the Green Gulch Monastery.
Watts married three times and had seven children (five daughters and two sons). Watts met Eleanor Everett in 1936, when her mother, Ruth Fuller Everett, brought her to London to study piano. They met at the Buddhist Lodge, were engaged the following year and married in April 1938. A daughter, Joan, was born in November 1938 and another, Anne, was born in 1942. Their marriage ended in 1949, but Watts continued to correspond with his former mother-in-law.
Jean Burden, his lover and the inspiration for Nature, Man and Woman, remained in his thoughts to the end of his life.
In 1950, Watts married Dorothy DeWitt and moved to San Francisco in early 1951 to teach. They began a family that grew to include five children: Tia, Mark, Richard, Lila, and Diane. The couple separated in the early 1960s after Watts met Mary Jane Yates King while lecturing in New York. After a difficult divorce he married King in 1964. Watts lived with Mary Jane in Sausalito, California, in the mid-1960s. He divided his later years between a houseboat in Sausalito called the Vallejo,and a secluded cabin in Druid Heights, on the southwest flank of Mount Tamalpais north of San Francisco, California.
Watts’ eldest daughters, Joan Watts and Anne Watts, own and manage most of the copyrights to his books. His son, Mark Watts, serves as curator of his father’s audio, video and film and has published content of some of his spoken lectures in print format.
(ISBN’s for titles originally published prior to 1974 are for reprint editions)
- 1932 An Outline of Zen Buddhism, The Golden Vista Press (32 page pamphlet)
- 1936 The Spirit of Zen: A Way of Life, Work and Art in the Far East, E.P. Dutton ISBN 0-8021-3056-9
- 1937 The Legacy of Asia and Western Man, University of Chicago Press
- 1940 The Meaning of Happiness. (reprinted, Harper & Row, 1979, ISBN 0-06-080178-6)
- 1944 Theologia Mystica: Being the Treatise of Saint Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagite, on Mystical Theology, Together with the First and Fifth Epistles, West Park, New York: Holy Cross Press
- 1947 Behold the Spirit: A Study in the Necessity of Mystical Religion, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71761-9
- 1950 Easter: Its Story and Meaning New York: Schuman
- 1950 The Supreme Identity: An Essay on Oriental Metaphysic and the Christian Religion, Noonday Press/Farrar, Straus & Giroux ISBN 0-394-71835-6
- 1951 The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety. Pantheon Books. 1951. ISBN 0-394-70468-1.
- 1953 Myth and Ritual in Christianity, Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-8070-1375-7, including essay “God and Satan”
- 1957 The Way of Zen. Pantheon Books. 1957. ISBN 0-375-70510-4.
- 1958 Nature, Man and Woman, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-679-73233-0
- 1959 Beat Zen Square Zen and Zen, San Francisco: City Lights Books, ASIN B000F2RQL4
- 1960 This Is It and Other Essays on Zen and Spiritual Experience, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71904-2
- 1961 Psychotherapy East and West, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71609-4
- 1962 The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness, Pantheon Books
- 1963 The Two Hands of God: The Myths of Polarity, George Braziller
- 1964 Beyond Theology: The Art of Godmanship, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71923-9
- 1966 The Book: On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are. Pantheon Books. 1966. ISBN 0-679-72300-5.
- 1967 Nonsense, illustrations by Greg Irons (a collection of literary nonsense), San Francisco: Stolen Paper Editions
- 1970 Does It Matter?: Essays on Man’s Relation to Materiality, Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71665-5
- 1971 The Temple of Konarak: Erotic Spirituality, with photographs by Eliot Elisofon, London: Thames and Hudson. Also published as Erotic Spirituality: The Vision of Konarak, New York: Macmillan
- 1972 The Art of Contemplation: A Facsimile Manuscript with Doodles, Pantheon Books
- In My Own Way: An Autobiography 1915–1965. Pantheon Books. 1972. ISBN 9781577315841., Vintage Books pocket edition 1973, ISBN 0-394-71951-4, New World Library edition, 2007, ISBN 1-57731-584-7
- 1973 Cloud-hidden, Whereabouts Unknown: A Mountain Journal, Pantheon Books. Also published in Canada in 1974 by Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0224009729. ISBN 0-394-71999-9
- 1974 The Essence of Alan Watts, ed. Mary Jane Watts, Celestial Arts
- 1975 Tao: The Watercourse Way, with Chungliang Al Huang, Pantheon
- 1976 Essential Alan Watts, ed. Mark Watts,
- 1978 Uncarved Block, Unbleached Silk: The Mystery of Life
- 1979 Om: Creative Meditations, ed. Mark Watts
- 1982 Play to Live, ed. Mark Watts
- 1983 Way of Liberation: Essays and Lectures on the Transformation of the Self, ed. Mark Watts
- 1985 Out of the Trap, ed. Mark Watts
- 1986 Diamond Web, ed. Mark Watts
- 1987 The Early Writings of Alan Watts, ed. John Snelling, Dennis T. Sibley, and Mark Watts
- 1990 The Modern Mystic: A New Collection of the Early Writings of Alan Watts, ed. John Snelling and Mark Watts
- 1994 Talking Zen, ed. Mark Watts
- 1995 Become What You Are, Shambhala, expanded ed. 2003. ISBN 1-57062-940-4
- 1995 Buddhism: The Religion of No-Religion, ed. Mark Watts A preview from Google Books
- 1995 The Philosophies of Asia, ed. Mark Watts
- 1995 The Tao of Philosophy, ed. Mark Watts, edited transcripts, Tuttle Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-8048-3204-8
- 1996 Myth and Religion, ed. Mark Watts
- 1997 Taoism: Way Beyond Seeking, ed. Mark Watts
- 1997 Zen and the Beat Way, ed. Mark Watts
- 1998 Culture of Counterculture, ed. Mark Watts
- 1999 Buddhism: The Religion of No-Religion, ed. Mark Watts, edited transcripts, Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3203-X
- 2000 What Is Zen?, ed. Mark Watts, New World Library. ISBN 0-394-71951-4 A preview from Google Books
- 2000 What Is Tao?, ed. Mark Watts, New World Library. ISBN 1-57731-168-X
- 2000 Still the Mind: An Introduction to Meditation, ed. Mark Watts, New World Library. ISBN 1-57731-214-7
- 2000 Eastern Wisdom, ed. Mark Watts, MJF Books. ISBN 1-56731-491-0, three books in one volume: What is Zen?, What is Tao?, and An Introduction to Meditation (Still the Mind). Assembled from transcriptions of audio tape recordings made by his son Mark, of lectures and seminars given by Alan Watts during the last decade of his life.
- 2002 Zen, the Supreme Experience: The Newly Discovered Scripts, ed. Mark Watts, Vega
- 2006 Eastern Wisdom, Modern Life: Collected Talks, 1960–1969, New World Library
Audio and video works, essays
Including recordings of lectures at major universities and multi-session seminars.
- 1960 Eastern Wisdom and Modern Life, television series, Season 1 (1959) and Season 2 (1960)
- 1960 Essential Lectures
- 1960 Nature of Consciousness (here)
- 1960 The Value of Psychotic Experience
- 1960 The World As Emptiness
- 1960 From Time to Eternity
- 1960 Lecture On Zen
- 1960 The Cross of Cards
- 1960 Taoism
- 1962 This Is It – Alan Watts and friends in a spontaneous musical happening (Long playing album – MEA LP 1007)
- 1968 Psychedelics & Religious Experience, in California Law Review (here)
- 1969 Why Not Now: The Art of Meditation
- 1971 A Conversation With Myself: on YouTube, on YouTube, on YouTube, on YouTube
- 1972 The Art of Contemplation, Village Press
- 1972 The Way of Liberation in Zen Buddhism, Alan Watts Journal, vol. 2, nr 1
- 1994 Zen: The Best of Alan Watts (VHS)
- 2004 Out of Your Mind: Essential Listening from the Alan Watts Audio Archives, Sounds True, Inc. Unabridged edition,
- 2005 Do You Do It, or Does It Do You?: How to let the universe meditate you (CD)
- 2007 Zen Meditations with Alan Watts, DVD (here)
- 2013 What If Money Was No Object? (3 minutes) on YouTube
- Furlong, Monica 1986 Genuine Fake: a Biography of Alan Watts. Heinemann. (or titled Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts as published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, ISBN 0-395-45392-5)
- Lhermite, Pierre 1983 Alan Watts, Taoïste d’Occident, éd. La Table Ronde.
- Stuart, David 1976 (pseudonym for Edwin Palmer Hoyt, Jr.) Alan Watts: The Rise and Decline of the Ordained Shaman of the Counterculture. Chilton Book Co, Pa.
In popular culture
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- Watt’s appears in two books written by Jack Kerouac. Due to the objections of his publishers, Kerouac was not permitted to use the real names of the people featured in his books. Therefore, Watt’s appears as Arthur Whane in the book The Dharma Bums and Alex Aums in Desolation Angels.
- Watts’ talks inspired Van Morrison to write the song “Alan Watts Blues” for his 1987 album Poetic Champions Compose.
- Psytrance artist Mekkanikka features samples of Watts describing the Chinese conception of nature, as that which proceeds involuntarily and in essence uncontrollably, throughout the 2006 song “Let Go”.
- The math rock band Giraffes? Giraffes! sample Watts in their song “I Am S/H(im)e[r] As You Am S/H(im)e[r] As You Are Me And We Am I And I Are All Our Together: Our Collective Consciousness’ Psychogenic Fugue”, off of their 2007 album “More Skin With Milk-Mouth”.
- Samples from lectures by Alan Watts are featured in the intros or endings of several of STRFKR songs, including 2008’s “Florida”, “Isabella of Castile”; 2009’s “Medicine”; 2010’s “Pistol Pete”; 2011’s “Mystery Cloud”, “Hungry Ghost” and “Quality Time”, and in their 2016 album ‘Being No One, Going Nowhere‘ on the song “Interspace”.
- Ott features samples of Alan Watts lectures in his 2011 album Mir, on the first track, “One Day I Wish to Have This Kind of Time”.
- The artist Will Cady included samples of Watts’ lecture “The Dream of Life” in a 2013 single “What Fills The Gap”.
- Around 2013, many Chillstep producers began sampling Alan Watts’ recorded speeches in their music, resulting in what is called Philosophystep.
- Nothing More‘s 2014 self-titled album has passages from Watts’s lectures incorporated into the background of two songs. Both Gyre and Pyre consist of instrumentals with Watts’ quotes used over the music.
- The progressive metal band The Contortionist features a sample of Alan Watts at the end of their 2014 album Language.
- In 2015, Logic sampled the “What Do I Desire (What If Money Was No Object)” lecture on his 2015 album The Incredible True Story in the title song. Watt’s lecture concludes the album before it transitions to an audio cut-scene consistent with the rest of the album.
- A sample of Watt’s lecture “The Spectrum of Love” begins the song “Intro/Spectrum” by the band HÆLOS on their 2016 album Full Circle
- The metalcore band Architects released an album in 2016 entitled All Our Gods Have Abandoned Us, which includes Watts’ “The Mercy of Nature” quotes in the song Memento Mori.
- Sound Tribe Sector 9 features samples of Alan Watts in their live performances of the songs “World Go Round” and “Totem”.
- The 2013 film Her features Watts as an artificially intelligent operating system, portrayed by Brian Cox.
- The 2014 Red Bull Media House/Matchstick Productions skiing documentary Days Of My Youth uses Watts’ spoken word in a number of sequences through the film.
- In recent years[when?], portions of Watts’ lectures have been popularized by a series of animated internet videos.
- In the 2007-09 US-aired NBC TV series Life, Damian Lewis’ character often listens to Alan Watts’ recordings in his car and their significance as woven into the plot.
- James Craig Holte The Conversion Experience in America: A ‘Sourcebook on American Religious Conversion Autobiography page 199
- Watts, Alan W. (1973). In My Own Way: An Autobiography 1915–1965. New York: Pantheon Books. p. 280.
- David, Erik (2006). The Visionary State: A Journey through California’s Spiritual Landscape. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-4835-3.
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, Part 1
- Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts, by Monica Furlong, p. 12
- Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts, by Monica Furlong, p. 22
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, p. 322
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, pp. 71–72
- Watts, Alan W. 1957, Part 2, Chapter 4
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, p. 60
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, p. 102
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, pp. 78–82
- Watts, Alan W. 1947/1971 Behold the Spirit, revised edition. New York: Random House / Vintage. p. 32
- Watts, Alan W., 1957, p.11
- “Alan Wilson Watts”. Encyclopedia of World Biography.
- KPFA Folio, Volume 13, no. 1, 9–22 April 1962, p. 14. Retrieved at archive.org on 26 November 2014.
- KPFA Folio, Volume 14, no. 1, 8–21 April 1963, p. 19. Retrieved at archive.org on 26 November 2014.
- Susan Krieger, Hip Capitalism, 1979, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, ISBN 0-8039-1263-3 pbk., p. 170.
- KKUP Program Schedule. Retrieved on 26 November 2014.
- KPFK Program Schedule. Retrieved on 26 November 2014.
- KGNU Program Schedule. Retrieved on 26 November 2014.
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, p. 321.
- Alan Watts, “Eastern Wisdom and Modern Life, Season 1 (1959)” and Season 2 (1960), KQED public television series, San Francisco
- Ropp, Robert S. de 1995, 2002 Warrior’s Way: a Twentieth Century Odyssey. Nevada City, CA: Gateways, pp. 333-334.
- The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness (the quote is new to the 1965/1970 edition (page 26), and not contained in the original 1962 edition of the book).
- William Warren Bartley, Werner Erhard, The Transformation of a Man
- “Alan Watts – Life and Works”.
- “Deoxy Org: Alan Watts”.
- Weidenbaum, Jonathan. “Complaining about Alan Watts”.
- Kapleau 1967, pp. 21–22
- Aitken 1997, p. 30. 
- Stuart, David 1976 Alan Watts. Pennsylvania: Chilton.
- Chadwick, D: Crooked Cucumber: The Life and Zen Teaching of Shunryu Suzuki, Broadway Books,2000
- ^ Davis, Erik (May 2005). Druids and Ferries “Druids and Ferries”. Arthur (Brooklyn: Arthur Publishing Corp.) (16). http://www.techgnosis.com/index_druid.html Druids and Ferries.
- Davis, Erik (May 2005). “Druids and Ferries”. Arthur. Brooklyn: Arthur Publishing Corp. (16).
- The Joyous Cosmology, p. v
- Watts, Alan W. 1973, p. 247.
- The Joyous Cosmology, p. 63
- De Ropp, Robert S. 2002 Warrior’s Way. Nevada City, CA: Gateways, p. 334.
- Watts, Alan W. 1947/1971, pp. 25–28.
- Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts, by Monica Furlong
- “Alan Watts, Zen Philosopher, Writer and Teacher, 58, Dies”. The New York Times. 16 November 1973. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Watts, Alan (1975). Huang, Chungliang Al, ed. TAO: The Watercourse Way (Foreword). New York: Pantheon Books. pp. vii–xiii. ISBN 0-394-73311-8.
- Stirling 2006, pg. 27
- The Book on the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are (1966)
- Watts, Alan, 1973, pp. 300–304
- Theologia Mystica at WorldCat
- The Supreme Identity atWorldCat
- Nonsense at WorldCat
- Will Cady (2013-02-28), Will Cady – What Fills The Gap (feat. Alan Watts), retrieved 2016-08-07
- “Her (2013)”. IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- Flash Animated Philosophy From South Park Creators www.coldhardflash.com
- Aitken, Robert. Original Dwelling Place. Counterpoint. Washington, D.C. 1997. ISBN 1-887178-41-4 (paperback)
- Charters, Ann (ed.). The Portable Beat Reader. Penguin Books. New York. 1992. ISBN 0-670-83885-3 (hard cover); ISBN 0-14-015102-8 (paperback)
- Furlong, Monica, Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts Houghton Mifflin. New York. 1986 ISBN 0-395-45392-5, Skylight Paths 2001 edition of the biography, with new foreword by author: ISBN 1-893361-32-2
- Gidlow, Elsa, “Elsa:I Come With My Songs”. Bootlegger Press and Druid Heights Books, San Francisco. 1986.
- Kapleau, Philip. Three Pillars of Zen (1967) Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5975-7
- Stirling, Isabel. Zen Pioneer: The Life & Works of Ruth Fuller Sasak, Shoemaker & Hoard. 2006. ISBN 978-1-59376-110-3
- Watts, Alan, In My Own Way. New York. Random House Pantheon. 1973 ISBN 0-394-46911-9 (his autobiography)
|Library resources about
|By Alan Watts|
- Clark, David K. The Pantheism of Alan Watts. Downers Grove, Ill. Inter-Varsity Press. 1978. ISBN 0-87784-724-X
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alan Watts|
- AlanWatts.org run by Watts’ son Mark, who has produced a documentary about his father’s life called Why Not Now?
- Why Not Now? film trailer
- Alan Watts Mountain Center north of San Francisco
- Alan Watts Electronic University – Alan Watts’ audio and video courses, co-founded by Alan Watts, Mark Watts, and Henry Jacobs in 1973.
- Alan Watts Podcast – the official podcast
- Master Enlightenments Arts Seminars and Lectures by Alan Watts – looking at many different forms of enlightenment; recorded by Henry Jacobs in 1964/65.
- Alan Watts Online – Project Unicorn (also Archived 31 October 2004 at the Wayback Machine.)
- Works by or about Alan Watts in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Watts essay on Nothingness (This link no longer functions, but is available at“Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 31 August 2008. Retrieved 2013-03-10. .)
- Alan Watts Lectures and Essays audio, video, essays, and articles – resources from deoxy.org
- Alan Watts’ This Is It: The First Psychedelic LP essay by Patrick Lundborg
- Alan Watts Resource Compilation audio and video links of his lectures and essays
- “Alan Watts on YouTube, South Park”. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-09.interview with Mark Watts on the resurgence of his father’s work
- “What if money was no object?” interpretation of Watts’ lecture at ZenPencils.com
- Alan Watts on Cuke.com
- Alan Watts page on Facebook public discussion group
Quentin Skinner – What is the State? The question that “will not go away”
A Genealogy of the State: Quentin Skinner
Hobbes and the Person of the State | Professor Quentin Skinner
Quentin Skinner. On the Liberty of Republics.
Quentin Skinner: “A Genealogy of Liberty”
Interview of Professor Quentin Skinner – part 1
Interview of Professor Quentin Skinner – part 2
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Quentin Skinner was born the second son of Alexander Skinner, CBE (died 1979), and Winifred Rose Margaret, née Duthie (died 1982). Educated at Bedford School andGonville and Caius College, Cambridge, he was elected into a Fellowship there in 1962 upon obtaining a double-starred First in History, but immediately gained a teaching Fellowship at Christ’s College, Cambridge, where he remained until moving to the University of London in 2008. He is now an Honorary Fellow of both Christ’s College and Gonville and Caius College.
In the middle 1970s he spent four formative years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. It was there that he met Raymond Geuss, later a colleague at Cambridge. Together with John Dunn and J. G. A. Pocock, Skinner has been said to have founded the “Cambridge School” of the history of political thought. In 1978 he was appointed to the chair of Political Science at the University of Cambridge, and in 1996 he was appointed Regius Professor of History. He was pro-vice-chancellor of Cambridge in 1999. In 1979 he married Susan James, Professor of Philosophy at Birkbeck College London; they have a daughter and a son. He was previously married to Patricia Law Skinner, who was later married to Bernard Williams.
Skinner has delivered lectures at the Christian Gauss Seminars in Criticism at Princeton (1980), the Carlyle Lectures at Oxford (1980), the Messenger Lectures at Cornell (1983), the Tanner Lectures on Human Values at Harvard (1984), the T. S. Eliot Memorial Lectures at Kent (1995), the Ford Lectures at Oxford (2003), the Clarendon Lectures at Oxford (2011), the Clark Lectures at Cambridge (2012), the Academia Sinica Lectures in Taiwan (2013) and the Spinoza Lectures at University of Amsterdam (2014).
Skinner was Distinguished Visiting Professor at Queen Mary, University of London for the 2007–2008 academic year, and has been Barber Beaumont Professor of the Humanities at Queen Mary since October 2008. In 2014 he held the Spinoza Chair of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam
Skinner is a fellow at the British Academy, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Academia Europaea, the American Philosophical Society and the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. He has won the Wolfson History Prize (1979); the Sir Isaiah Berlin Prize of the British Political Studies Association (2006); the Benjamin Lippincott Award (2001) and the David Easton Award (2007) of the American Political Science Association; the Bielefelder Wissenschaftspreis (2008); and a Balzan Prize (2006). He holds honorary degrees from Aberdeen, Athens, Copenhagen, East Anglia, Chicago, Harvard, Helsinki, Leuven, Oslo, Oxford, Santiago and St Andrews. Since 2009 he has been a member of the Balzan Prize Committee.
Skinner’s historical writings have been characterised by an interest in recovering the ideas of Early Modern and previous political writers. This has been spread over Renaissance republican authors (see in Principal publications below, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought ), the ‘pre-Humanist’ dictatores of later medieval Italy, Niccolò Machiavelli, and more recently (in Liberty before Liberalism ) the English republicans of the mid-seventeenth century (including John Milton, James Harrington, and Algernon Sidney). The work of the 1970s and 1980s was in good part directed towards writing an account of the history of the modern idea of the state. In more recent publications he has preferred the more capacious term ‘neo-Roman’ to ‘republican’.
Skinner is influenced by historian J.G.A. Pocock’s The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law (1957), the work of Peter Laslett, and by Laslett’s edition of John Locke‘s Two Treatises of Government (1960) which Skinner read as an undergraduate in his second year at Cambridge.
Skinner and J.G.A. Pocock are principal members of the ‘Cambridge School‘ of the study of the history of political thought, best known for its attention to the ‘languages’ of political thought and the contextual focus.Skinner’s contribution was to articulate a theory of interpretation which concentrated on recovering the ‘speech acts’ embedded in the ‘illocutionary’ statements of specific individuals in writing works of political theory, particularly in Machiavelli, Thomas More, and Thomas Hobbes. This work was based on Skinner’s study of the philosophical preoccupations of J. L. Austin and the later Wittgenstein. One of the consequences of this account of interpretation is an emphasis on the necessity of studying less well-known political writers as a means of shedding light on the classic authors—although it also consciously questions the extent to which it is possible to distinguish ‘classic’ texts from the contexts, and particularly the arguments, in which they originally occurred and as such it is an attack on the uncritical assumption that political classics are monolithic and free-standing. In its earlier versions this added up to what many have seen as a persuasive critique on the approach of an older generation, particularly on that of Leo Strauss. The methodology of Skinner is also applicable to various textual studies domains that are informed by the procedures of historiography and philology, including an approach to classical and medieval texts.
Skinner’s longstanding concern with the speech acts of political writing helps explain his turn at the beginning of the 1990s towards the role of neo-classical rhetoric in early modern political theory, which resulted in his study of Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes (1996). Skinner has since returned to what has often been seen as an enduring interest to the Regius Professors of History at the University of Cambridge (not least Lord Acton), the history of liberty and particular developing what he has articulated as a ‘third form of liberty’. This can most effectively be described as a form of ‘negative’ liberty (or neo-Roman) which is characterised however by the active participation in government to remain free from interference and the slavery caused by succumbing to an arbitrary power. Recently (2008) he published an analysis of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes as a polemical retort to those who, in the English civil war, espoused precisely such a ‘neo-Roman’ concept of human freedom. Currently he is working on a monograph on Shakespeare and Rhetorical Invention for Oxford University Press to be published in 2014 which develops his lectures of the same name presented at Oxford and Cambridge in 2011 and 2012.
In an interview with Professor Alan Macfarlane of King’s College, Skinner revealed that he was a member of the Cambridge Apostles, a secret society of Cambridge University. He also revealed that Amartya Sen was a fellow member at this time. He commented they were both ‘outed’ some time ago.
- The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: Volume I: The Renaissance (Cambridge University Press, 1978) ISBN 978-0-521-29337-2
- The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: Volume II: The Age of Reformation (Cambridge University Press, 1978) ISBN 978-0-521-29435-5
- Machiavelli (Oxford University Press, 1981) ISBN 978-0-19-285407-0
- Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes (Cambridge University Press, 1996) ISBN 978-0-521-59645-9
- Liberty before Liberalism (Cambridge University Press, 1998) ISBN 978-1-107-68953-4
- Visions of Politics: Volume I: Regarding Method (Cambridge University Press, 2002) ISBN 978-0-521-58926-0
- Visions of Politics: Volume II: Renaissance Virtues (Cambridge University Press, 2002) ISBN 978-0-521-58925-3
- Visions of Politics: Volume III: Hobbes and Civil Science (Cambridge University Press, 2002) ISBN 978-0-521-89060-1
- L’artiste en philosophie politique (Editions du Seuil, Paris, 2003) ISBN 978-2-912107-15-2
- Hobbes and Republican Liberty (Cambridge University Press, 2008) ISBN 978-0-521-71416-7
- Vilkårlig makt; essays om politisk frihet (Forlaget Res Publica,Oslo, 2009) ISBN 978-82-8226-000-8
- Visionen des Politischen (Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 2009) ISBN 978-3-518-29510-6
- Staten og friheten (Forlaget Res Publica, Oslo, 2011) ISBN 978-82-8226-025-1
- Uma Genealogia do Estado Moderno (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, Lisbon, 2011) ISBN 978-972-671-289-3
- Die drei Körper des Staates (Wallstein, Göttingen, 2012) ISBN 978-3-8353-1157-2
- La vérité et l’historien (Editions EHESS, Paris, 2012) ISBN 978-2-7132-2368-6
- Forensic Shakespeare (Oxford University Press, 2014) ISBN 978-0-19-955824-7
- (Co-editor and contributor), Philosophy, Politics and Society: Fourth Series (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1972) ISBN 978-0-631-14410-6
- (Co-editor and contributor), Philosophy in History (Cambridge University Press, 1984) ISBN 978-0-521-27330-5
- (Editor and contributor), The Return of Grand Theory in the Human Sciences (Cambridge University Press, 1985) ISBN 978-0-521-39833-6
- (Co-editor and contributor), The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 1988) ISBN 978-0-521-25104-4
- (Co-editor), Machiavelli, The Prince (trans. Russell Price) (Cambridge University Press, 1988) ISBN 978-0-521-34993-2
- (Co-editor and contributor), Machiavelli and Republicanism (Cambridge University Press, 1990) ISBN 978-0-521-43589-5
- (Co-editor and contributor), Political Discourse in Early-modern Britain (Cambridge University Press, 1993) ISBN 978-0-521-39242-6
- (Co-editor) Milton and Republicanism (Cambridge University Press, 1995) ISBN 978-0-521-64648-2
- (Co-editor and contributor), Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, Volume I: Republicanism and Constitutionalism in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2002) ISBN 978-0-521-67235-1
- (Co-editor and contributor), Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, Volume II: The Values of Republicanism in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2002) ISBN 978-0-521-67234-4
- (Co-editor and contributor), States and Citizens: History, Theory, Prospects (Cambridge University Press, 2003) ISBN 978-0-521-53926-5
- (Co-editor), Thomas Hobbes: Writings on Common Law and Hereditary Right (The Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes, Volume XI) (The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2005) ISBN 978-0-19-923623-7
- (Co-editor and contributor), Sovereignty in Fragments: The Past, Present and Future of a Contested Concept (Cambridge University Press, 2010) ISBN 978-1-107-00004-9
- (Editor) Families and States in Western Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2011) ISBN 978-0-521-12801-8
- (Co-editor and contributor), Freedom and the Construction of Europe, Volume I: Religious Freedom and Civil Liberty (Cambridge University Press, 2013) ISBN 978-1-107-03306-1
- (Co-editor and contributor), Freedom and the Construction of Europe, Volume II: Free Persons and Free States (Cambridge University Press, 2013) ISBN 978-1-107-03307-8
- 1997: Staff writer. “An interview with Quentin Skinner”. Cogito (Nefeli Publications) 11: 69–78. doi:10.5840/cogito19971122.
- 2000a: ‘Intervista a Quentin Skinner: Conseguire la libertà promuovere l’uguaglianza’, Il pensiero mazziniano 3, pp. 118–22
- 2000b: ‘Entrevista: Quentin Skinner’ in As muitas faces da história, ed. Maria Lúcia Pallares-Burke, Brazilia, pp. 307–39 ISBN 978-85-7139-307-3 [Trans. in The New History: Confessions and Conversations, ed. Maria Lúcia Pallares-Burke, Cambridge, 2003 ISBN 978-0-7456-3021-2]
- 2001: ‘Quentin Skinnerin haastattelu’, Niin & Näin 31, pp. 8–23
- 2002: ‘Encountering the Past: An Interview with Quentin Skinner’ Finnish Yearbook of Political Thought [Redesciptions Yearbook of Political Thought, Conceptual History and Feminist Theory] 6, pp. 32–63
- 2003: ‘La Libertà Politica ed il Mestiere dello Storico: Intervista a Quentin Skinner’, Teoria Politica 19, pp. 177–85
- 2006: ‘Historia intellectual y acción política: Una entrevista con Quentin Skinner’, Historia y Política 16, pp. 237–58
- 2007a: ‘Neither text, nor context: An interview with Quentin Skinner’, Groniek: Historisch Tijdschrift 174, pp. 117–33 ISBN 978-90-72918-66-6
- 2007b: ‘La Historia de mi Historia: Una Entrevista con Quentin Skinner’, El giro contextual: Cinco ensayos de Quentin Skinner y seis comentarios, ed. Enrique Bocardo Crespo, Madrid, pp. 45–60.
- 2007c: Sebastián, Javier Fernández. “Intellectual history, liberty and Republicanism: an interview with Quentin Skinner”. Contributions to the History of Concepts (Springer) 3 (1): 102–123.
- 2008: ‘Concepts only have histories’, interview with Quentin Skinner by Emmanuelle Tricoire and Jacques Levy, EspacesTemps, document 3692
- 2009a: ‘Making History; The Discipline in Perspective: Interview with Professor Quentin Skinner’, Storia e Politica, 1, pp. 113–34.
- 2009b: ‘Wie frei sind wir wirklich?’ Fragen an Quentin Skinner’, Zeitschrift fűr Ideengeschichte 3, pp. 5–21.
- 2011 Prokhovnik, Raia. “An interview with Quentin Skinner”. Contemporary Political Theory (Palgrave Macmillan) 10 (2): 273–285. doi:10.1057/cpt.2010.26.
- 2012a: Prokhovnik, Raia, “Approaching political theory historically: an interview with Quentin Skinner”, in Browning, Gary; Dimova-Cookson, Maria; Prokhovnik, Raia, Dialogues with contemporary political theorists, Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 181–196, ISBN 9780230303058.
- 2012b: Giannakopoulos, Georgios; Quijano, Francisco. “On politics and history: a discussion with Quentin Skinner” (PDF). Journal of Intellectual History and Political Thought (SAXO Institute) 1 (1): 7–31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 September 2014.
- Giannakopoulos, Georgios; Quijano, Francisco (June 2013). “Historia y política en perspectiva: entrevista a Quentin Skinner”. Signos Filosóficos (in Spanish) 15 (29): 167–191. ISSN 1665-1324
- 2013: ‘An Interview with Professor Quentin Skinner’ conducted by Jeng-Guo Chen and Carl Shaw, Intellectual History 2, pp. 239–62
- Tully, James, ed. (1988). Meaning and context: Quentin Skinner and his critics. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691023014.
- Edling, Max; Mörkenstam, Ulf (June 1995). “Quentin Skinner: from historian of ideas to political scientist”. Scandinavian Political Studies (Wiley) 18 (2): 119–132. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9477.1995.tb00158.x.
- Various (1996). “Dossier: Quentin Skinner”. Krisis (Stichting Krisis) 64: 5–42. Pdf of contents page.
- “Quentin Skinner og Intellektuel Historie”. Slagmark: tidsskrift for idéhistorie (Aarhus Universitet) 33. 2001. ISSN 1904-8602
- Palonen, Kari (2003a). Quentin Skinner: history, politics, rhetoric. Cambridge, UK Malden, Massachusetts: Polity Blackwell. ISBN 9780745628578.
- Palonen, Kari (2004). Die Entzauberung der Begriffe: das Umschreiben der politischen Begriffe bei Quentin Skinner und Reinhart Koselleck. Münster: Lit. ISBN 9783825872229.
- Brett, Annabel; Tully, James, eds. (2006). Rethinking The foundations of modern political thought. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521615037.
- Bocardo Crespo, Enrique, ed. (2007). El Giro contextual: cinco ensayos de Quentin Skinner, y seis comentarios. Madrid, Spain: Tecnos. ISBN 9788430945504.
- Drolet, Michael (June 2007). “Quentin Skinner and Jacques Derrida on power and the state”. History of European Ideas (Taylor and Francis) 33 (2): 234–255. doi:10.1016/j.histeuroideas.2006.11.003.
- Perreau-Saussine, Emile (Winter 2007). “Quentin Skinner in context”. The Review of Politics (Cambridge Journals) 69 (1): 106–122. doi:10.1017/S0034670507000332.
- Walter, Ryan (August 2008). “Reconciling Foucault and Skinner on the state: the primacy of politics?”. History of the Human Sciences (Sage) 21 (3): 94–114. doi:10.1177/0952695108093955.
- Fisher, Richard (June 2009). “‘How to do things with books’: Quentin Skinner and the dissemination of ideas”. History of European Ideas (Taylor and Francis) 35 (2): 276–280.doi:10.1016/j.histeuroideas.2008.11.001.
- Skinner, Quentin (2009). Politik og historie: en tekstsamling. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag. ISBN 9788741252674. Details.
- Geuna, Marco (2009), “Quentin Skinner e Machiavelli”, in Arienzo, Alessandro; Borrelli, Gianfranco, Anglo-American faces of Machiavelli: Machiavelli e machiavellismi nella cultura anglo-americana (secoli XVI–XX), Monza, Italy: Polimetrica, pp. 577–622, ISBN 9788876991417.
- Muscolino, Salvatore (2012). Linguaggio, storia e politica: Ludwig Wittgenstein e Quentin Skinner. Palermo: Carlo Saladino editore. ISBN 9788895346175.
- Burke, Martin J. (January 2012). “Introduction”. Journal of the History of Ideas, special section: Symposium: On Quentin Skinner, from Method to Politics (University of Pennsylvania Press) 73 (1): 69.doi:10.1353/jhi.2012.0000. JSTOR 41337194.
- Erben, Marcus (2013). Begriffswandel als Sprachhandlung der Beitrag Quentin Skinners zur Methodologie und Funktionsbestimmung der pädagogischen Geschichtsschreibung. Frankfurt, Main, Germany: Lang-Ed. ISBN 9783631643556.
- http://www.history.qmul.ac.uk/staff/profiles/89576.pdf[permanent dead link]
- source: University of London site at “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2006..
- Anthony Pagden, ed., The Languages of Political Theory in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: 1987); J.G.A. Pocock: The Cambridge School.
- See for example Quentin Skinner, ‘A Third Concept of Liberty’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 117 (2002), pp. 237–68.
- Quentin Skinner (2008). Hobbes and Republican Liberty, Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-71416-7
- See “Shakespeare and Rhetorical Invention: The Clarendon Lectures in English 2011“.
- Lists of Bests: The Times Literary Supplement’s “100 Most Influential Books Since World War II”.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Quentin Skinner|
- Queen Mary University of London School of History: Distinguished Visiting Professor in the Humanities Professor Quentin Skinner – official page
- Quentin Skinner, “Belief, Truth, and Interpretation” A lecture delivered at a conference at the Ruhr-University Bochum on 18 November 2014.
- Philosophy Bites podcast of Quentin Skinner on Hobbes on the State
- Philosophy Bites podcast of Quentin Skinner on Machiavelli’s The Prince
- ‘On Politics and History: A Discussion with Quentin Skinner, Francisco Quijano and Georgios Giannakopoulos, Journal of Intellectual History and Political Thought 1.1, pp. 7–31
- Radio interview explains some of concepts regarding freedom and democracy that earned the recognition of 2006 Balzan Prize, in RealAudio or in MP3 referenced in a Google cached page from Vatican Radio[permanent dead link] dated 14 December 2006 at dataset 15.12.21.
- – ‘Three Concepts of Liberty’ Video recorded at the Einstein Forum, Potsdam, Germany.
- On Encountering the Past – An interview with Quentin Skinner by Petri Koikkalainen and Sami Syrjämäki.
- Mastery and Liberty. A discussion with Quentin Skinner by Sami Syrjämäki.
- Quentin Skinner interviewed by Alan Macfarlane 10 January 2008 (film)
- “What is the State?” Wolfson 2007 Lecture (audio and video)
- “What is Freedom?” Lecture (audio)
- “Interview with Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University” Full Interview Video, 2008, Part I of II.
- “Interview with Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University” Full Interview Video, 2008, Part II of II.
- “The Paradoxes of Political Liberty”, The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Harvard University, 1984
- “A Third Concept of Liberty”, Isaiah Berlin Lecture at the British Academy, 2002
- Prokhovnik, Raia (May 2011). “An interview with Quentin Skinner”. Contemporary Political Theory 10 (2): 273–285. doi:10.1057/cpt.2010.26.
- Sins of a Historian. An academic discussion on the problem of anachronism including a large exposition of Skinner’s methodological views by Sami Syrjämäki.
- “Quest for Freedom – A Conversation with Quentin Skinner”, Ideas Roadshow, 2014
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John Maynard Keynes and Economics: Kevin Hoover
John Maynard Keynes and Hayek: Bruce Caldwell
The Political Chances of Genuine Liberalism by Ludwig von Mises
“Friedrich August von Hayek CH (8 May 1899 – 23 March 1992) was an economist and philosopher known throughout the world for his defense of classical liberalism and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought. He is considered to be one of the most important economists and political philosophers of the twentieth century. One of the most influential members of the Austrian School of economics, he also made significant contributions in the fields of jurisprudence and cognitive science. He shared the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics with Gunnar Myrdal “for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena.” He also received the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991.
Biography F. A. Hayek (1899-1992)
“…F. A. Hayek is undoubtedly the most eminent of the modern Austrian economists. Student of Friedrich von Wieser, protégé and colleague of Ludwig von Mises, and foremost representative of an outstanding generation of Austrian school theorists, Hayek was more successful than anyone else in spreading Austrian ideas throughout the English-speaking world. “When the definitive history of economic analysis during the 1930s comes to be written,” said John Hicks in 1967, “a leading character in the drama (it was quite a drama) will be Professor Hayek. . . . It is hardly remembered that there was a time when the new theories of Hayek were the principal rival of the new theories of Keynes” (Hicks, 1967, p. 203). Unfortunately, Hayek’s theory of the business cycle was eventually swept aside by the Keynesian revolution. Ultimately, however, this work was again recognized when Hayek received, along with the Swede Gunnar Myrdal, the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science. Hayek was a prolific writer over nearly seven decades; his Collected Works, currently being published by the University of Chicago Press and Routledge, are projected at nineteen volumes. …”
Friedrich August von Hayek (1899 – 1992)
“…Friedrich August von Hayek was known all over the world. From the publication of his The Road to Serfdom in 1944, his name was a reference for passé thinking in the new world of Keynesian economics. By the time that Hayek received the Nobel Prize in Economic Science in 1974, he had become more and more associated with the solutions to the crises caused by Keynesian economics. Now, at his death almost two decades later, Hayek is not only associated with the successful repudiation of Keynes’ theories, but also with the solutions to the wider social and constitutional crises that are corollaries to Keynes’ economic model.
Hayek was won over from the general social democratic thinking of his university years by reading Ludwig von Mises’ Socialism (1922). He joined Mises’ famous seminar in Vienna, and became associated with Mises’ work on business cycles. Thus, when Hayek accepted a chair at the London School of Economics in 1931, he contributed to the debate on central economic planning which Mises had originally joined.
Hayek’s work on technical economics was and is highly acclaimed. Yet, he believed that the rational evidence disproving wrong economic thinking such as Keynes’, ultimately was shown to be insufficient. Scholars continued to accept wrong economics because there were deeper aspects which caused some to prefer the wrong to the right.
Expanding his horizons from his purely economic foundations, Hayek built on the science of economics, and was able with sure footing to explore much wider areas, especially political, legal, and constitutional philosophy. …”
Friedrich August Hayek
British economistalso called Friedrich A. Hayek, in full Friedrich August von Hayek
born May 8, 1899, Vienna, Austria died March 23, 1992, Freiburg, Germany
Economics and Knowledge
by Freidrich Hayek; Presidential address delivered before the London Economic Club; November 10 1936;
Reprinted from Economica IV (new ser., 1937), 33-54.
List of books by Friedrich Hayek
Online Library of Liberty
This Set Contains The Following Titles:
- The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, vol. 1 Austrian and Neoclassical Economics: Any Gains from Trade?
- The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, vol. 2 Hayekian Socialism
- The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, vol. 3 Hayek, Practitioner of Social Justice
- The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, vol. 4 Hayek, Radical Reactionary
- The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, vol. 5 Hayek’s Legacy
- The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, vol. 6 Hayek and the Fate of Liberty in the 20th Century
- The Legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, vol. 7 Morality and Community in the Extended Market Order …”
Plan of the Collected Works
of F. A. Hayek
Bruce Caldwell, General Editor
- Volume 1: The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (1988)
- Volume 2: The Road to Serfdom (2007)
- Volume 3: The Trend of Economic Thinking: Essays on Political Economists and Economic History (1991)
- Volume 4: The Fortunes of Liberalism: Essays on Austrian Economics and the Ideal of Freedom (1992)
- Volume 5: Good Money, Part 1: The New World (1999)
- Volume 6: Good Money, Part 2: The Standard (1999)
- Volume 7: Business Cycles, Part I
- Volume 8: Business Cycles, Part II
- Volume 9: Contra Keynes and Cambridge: Essays, Correspondence (1995)
- Volume 10: Socialism and War: Essays, Correspondence, and Documents (1996)
- Volume 11: Capital and Interest
- Volume 12: The Pure Theory of Capital (2007)
- Volume 13: Studies on the Abuse of Reason
- Volume 14: The Sensory Order
- Volume 15: The Market and Other Orders
- Volume 16: John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
- Volume 17: The Constitution of Liberty
- Volume 18: Essays on Liberty
- Volume 19: Law, Legislation, and Liberty …”
The Meaning of Hayek
By Gerald P. O’Driscoll Jr.
“…Hayek is best known for his most widely read work, The Road to Serfdom, which was written to explain to a literate, but nontechnical, readership how the road to political hell is paved with the best intentions. As he made clear, classical liberalism’s conflict with central planning was not over the shared goal of enhancing the well-being of the greatest possible number of people but over the way to achieve that goal.
Hayek’s thesis in The Road to Serfdom is that one intervention inevitably leads to another. The unintended consequences of each market intervention are economic distortions, which generate further interventions to correct them. That interventionist dynamic leads society down the road to serfdom.
In perhaps the best chapter of The Road to Serfdom, Hayek details “Why the Worst Get on Top” in totalitarian societies. The chapter begins with a quotation from Lord Acton: “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Hayek then elaborates the Actonian insight.
There are strong reasons for believing that what to us appear the worst features of the existing totalitarian systems are not accidental by-products but phenomena which totalitarianism is certain sooner or later to produce. Just as the democratic statesman who sets out to plan economic life will soon be confronted with the alternative of either assuming dictatorial powers or abandoning his plans, so the totalitarian dictator would soon have to choose between disregard of ordinary morals and failure. It is for this reason that the unscrupulous and uninhibited are likely to be more successful in a society tending toward totalitarianism. Who does not see this has not yet grasped the full width of the gulf which separates totalitarianism from a liberal regime, the utter difference between the whole moral atmosphere under collectivism and the essentially individualist Western civilization. …”
The Road to Serfdom
“The Road to Serfdom is a book written by Friedrich Hayek (recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1974) which has significantly shaped the political ideologies of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan and the concepts of ‘Reagonomics’ and ‘Thatcherism’. The Road to Serfdom is among the most influential and popular expositions of classical liberalism and libertarianism.
The book was originally published by Routledge Press in March 1944 in the UK and then by the University of Chicago Press in September 1944. In April, 1945, Reader’s Digest published a slightly shortened version of the book (still in print from the Institute of Economic Affairs), which eventually reached more than 600,000 readers. Around 1950 a picture-book version was published in Look Magazine, later made into a pamphlet and distributed by General Motors. The book has been translated into approximately 20 languages and is dedicated to “The socialists of all parties”. The introduction to the 50th anniversary edition is written by Milton Friedman (another recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics 1976). In 2007, the University of Chicago Press put out a “Definitive Edition”. …”
“Hayek’s central thesis is that all forms of collectivism lead logically and inevitably to tyranny, and he used the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany as examples of countries which had gone down “the road to serfdom” and reached tyranny. Hayek argued that within a centrally planned economic system, the distribution and allocation of all resources and goods would devolve onto a small group, which would be incapable of processing all the information pertinent to the appropriate distribution of the resources and goods at the central planners’ disposal. Disagreement about the practical implementation of any economic plan combined with the inadequacy of the central planners’ resource management would invariably necessitate coercion in order for anything to be achieved. Hayek further argued that the failure of central planning would be perceived by the public as an absence of sufficient power by the state to implement an otherwise good idea. Such a perception would lead the public to vote more power to the state, and would assist the rise to power of a “strong man” perceived to be capable of “getting the job done”. After these developments Hayek argued that a country would be ineluctably driven into outright totalitarianism. For Hayek “the road to serfdom” inadvertently set upon by central planning, with its dismantling of the free market system, ends in the destruction of all individual economic and personal freedom.
Hayek argued that countries such as the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany had already gone down the “road to serfdom“, and that various democratic nations are being led down the same road. In The Road to Serfdom he wrote: “The principle that the end justifies the means is in individualist ethics regarded as the denial of all morals. In collectivist ethics it becomes necessarily the supreme rule.” …”
The Road from Serfdom
Forseeing the Fall
Thomas W. Hazlett
Sometimes you have to live a long time just to be proved right. When Friedrich August von Hayek, born in 1899, died March 23 in Freiberg, Germany, he had outlived both Keynes and Marx. Happily for the human race, so have his ideas.
[Contributing Editor Thomas W. Hazlett interviewed Hayek in 1977, shortly before starting graduate school in economics at the University of California, Los Angeles.] …”
by Edwin J. Feulner, Ph.D.
“…Sixty years ago, master mapmaker Friedrich Hayek gave us his seminal work “The Road to Serfdom.” It was swiftly condensed by Reader’s Digest, and became an international best seller. Hayek’s insight would eventually earn him the 1974 Nobel Prize for economics (he’s probably the only Nobel-winning economist who’s also penned a bestseller), and because of him, we’ve been avoiding economic potholes ever since.
Hayek wrote the book at the height of World War II. At that time, virtually everyone in his adopted homeland of Britain was involved in the war movement in some way – and Hayek saw the danger in that. At that time of national crisis, government management of the economy made sense. With millions of people carrying arms and those at home busy making the weapons, only a central government could direct the overall economy.
But Hayek feared that citizens of the western democracies would draw the wrong conclusions – that, after the Nazis were defeated, too many people would call for continued state control of the economy. They would do so, he warned, in the mistaken belief that if they surrendered some measure of personal freedom to the government, the government would in return guarantee their personal and financial security.
Hayek correctly predicted that surrendering personal freedom to the government wouldn’t lead to greater security. It would lead merely to servitude – what Hayek called serfdom. …”
Taking Hayek Seriously
William Easterly: Hayek’s Economic Development Insights
The Road to Serfdom – 1
The Road to Serfdom – 2
The Future of Austrian Economics
Hayek Speaks to Europe (1/5)
Hayek Speaks to Europe (2/5)
Hayek Speaks to Europe (3/5)
Hayek Speaks to Europe (4/5)
Hayek Speaks to Europe (5/5)
The Road to Serfdom
by Friedrich A. Hayek
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Roy Masters (commentator)
Masters orating at Selma, Oregon in May 2014
|Birth name||Reuben Obermeister|
|Born||2 April 1928
London, United Kingdom
|Show||Advice Line with Roy Masters|
|Station(s)||Broadcast on 190 radio stations|
|Time slot||9–12 midnight PT Monday-Friday|
Roy Masters (born 2 April 1928) is host of Advice Line, a talk radio show he started in 1961 and still hosts today. He is a prolific author and creator of a mindfulness meditation exercise, now used in the U.S. military. Masters is founder of the Oregon-based non-profit organization, the Foundation of Human Understanding. In his early twenties, he travelled across America lecturing as an expert diamond cutter.
Early life and education
Roy Masters was born in London in 1928 to a family of diamond cutters. His grandfather was a diamond cutter, as were several of his uncles. Masters’ father died when he was 15, and he was sent to Brighton, Englandto apprenticeship in diamond cutting in his uncle’s company, Monnickendam, Ltd. His family could only afford education for his older brother, so Masters could not attend college.
Following his apprenticeship in diamond cutting, Masters travelled to many places to pursue his trade, including Amsterdam; Brussels; Belgium; South Africa, where he spent two years in 1947; and later, America. All of this followed Masters’ military service duringWorld War II, serving in the Royal Sussex Regiment of the British Army. During his time in Brighton, Masters saw a vaudeville stage hypnosis presentation where the hypnotist easily induced volunteer subjects to do strange and outlandish things. Masters distinctly remembers pondering the question: “Why can’t hypnotism be used to make people act sensibly, rather than foolishly?”
In 1949, Masters emigrated to the United States where he made a name for himself travelling throughout the country lecturing on diamond cutting under the auspices of the Diamond Council of America. He was often invited to participate in radio and TV interviews on the subject, and he hosted a daily radio show called, “Story of Your Diamond”. Within a short time, Masters had visited 40 of the 48 states. He met and married his wife, Ann, in Birmingham, Alabama, and they eventually moved to Houston, Texas where they started a family.
In the 1950s, excitement around Bridey Murphy drove friends to consult with Masters about hypnosis. Masters understood hypnosis to be a “duplication of life’s errors” and immediately realized no good can ever come from hypnotherapy. Masters sold his diamond cutting business and founded the Institute of Hypnosis where, unbeknownst to his clients, instead of hypnotizing them he “unhypnotized them”. Masters saw as many as thirty people a day for consultation. About his leaving the diamond cutting profession, Masters said, “I had my own business, but I left that lucrative work because I had a calling for this kind of work. I’m more interested in what I’m doing now than anything else.”
In Houston, Masters was once charged with practicing medicine without a license, which was to be a test case to determine the legality of non-medical practice of hypnosis. His short time spent in jail received notoriety because of his counseling of fellow inmates.Masters immediately returned to work and continued on for two years, during which time he produced the mindfulness meditation record, How Your Mind Can Keep You Well. His meditation exercise has long been used by professional counselors. On why it is effective, Masters said, “it enables you to become objective, a little bit separate and disentangled from all your troublesome thoughts, emotions, heartaches, fears and traumatic memories – and that, all by itself, is extremely helpful, and actually healing.”
Masters bought a house trailer and relocated his family to Los Angeles where he founded the Foundation of Human Understanding in 1961. That same year, Masters began America’s first talk radio show; the show’s theme was about overcoming stress “spiritually, psychologically [and] emotionally”. Masters continues to host the show, called Advice Line, which has been on the air continuously since its start.
Never one to mince words, Roy Masters is a man who says what he feels no matter what the cost. Perhaps that’s why his program remains, in his opinion, unsponsorable. As a youngster growing up in England, his almost painful honesty, his perception, and his relentless questioning of the adult world’s sham standards cast a chilling silence to many a family gathering. Outspoken and guileless, he was called tactless by his elders and it was hoped he would outgrow this annoying trait. He never did.
— William Wolff, Healers, Gurus, and Spiritual Guides, Sherbourne Press
Currently, Masters’ radio show is nationally syndicated and available for streaming online. His mindfulness meditation record has been transposed over mediums and is now used to treat stress in the U.S. military.
- 1964 The Secrets of Life and Death. :Devorss, 1964. ASIN B0007EPZIQ
- 1965 How To Be At Peace With Your Problems. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1965. ASIN B0007I59TM
- 1970 Sex, Sin & Solution. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1970. ASIN B0006CYIFU
- 1970 (Roy Masters Speaks On) Breaking Free of Psycho-therapy. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1970. ASIN B0006C2IRA
- 1972 The Secret of Life. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1972 ASIN B0006XQGMW and as Secret of Life. (pbk) 1977. [ASIN: B000KVIIQM]
- 1973 Your Mind Can Keep You Well, Fawcett Publications, 1973. (Mass Market paperback: ASIN B000B58D4O) (Essandess Special Edition, 1968. ASIN B0007F6DEK)
- 1974 (Roy Masters Speaks On) Understanding Meditation. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1974, ASIN B000710BE2
- 1975 How to Control Your Emotions. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1975. ASIN B0006CJDUA
- 1975 How to Conquer Negative Emotions (with Mel Tappan). Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1, 1975. ISBN 978-0-933900-01-1
- 1976 How to Conquer Suffering Without Doctors. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1976. ISBN 978-0-933900-04-2
- 1977 Sex, Sin & Salvation. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1977. ASIN B0006XSUVQ
- 1977 No One Has to Die! Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, 1977. ASIN B0006COJWM
- 1978 How Your Mind Can Keep You Well Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1, 1978. ISBN 978-0-933900-09-7 (Fawcett Crest Book, 1973, ASIN B000MFHWYA)
- 1979 The Satan Principle: Life Itself Is Hypnosis: Self-Defense Lessons to Help You Cope With Everyday Pressure. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1979. ISBN 978-0-933900-02-8 (Earlier version: Life Itself Is Hypnosis: The Satan Principle: Self-Defense Lessons to Help You Cope With Everyday Pressure, Foundation Books, 1978. ASIN B000NDXFO)
- 1982 How to Survive Your Parents: And Not Do to Your Children What Your Parents Did to You. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1, 1982. (pbk) ISBN 978-0-933900-10-3
- 1987 Eat No Evil (with Dorothy Baker). Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1987. (pbk) ISBN 978-0-933900-12-7
- 1988 Understanding Sexuality: The Mystery of Our Lost Identities (with Dorothy Baker). Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, rev. ed., Feb. 1988. ISBN 978-0-933900-13-4
- 1988 Beyond the Known (with Dorothy Baker). Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, Rev. Ed., June 1, 1988. ISBN 978-0-933900-03-5
- 1988 The Hypnosis of Life: Self-Defense Lessons to Help You Cope with Every Day Pressure. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1988. ISBN 978-0-933900-05-9
- 1988 The Secret Power of Words: Why Words Affect You So Deeply. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1, 1988. (pbk) ISBN 978-0-933900-14-1
- 1991 Surviving the Comfort Zone (with Dorothy Baker). Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, Aug. 1, 1991. ISBN 978-0-933900-15-8
- 1992 Secrets of a Parallel Universe: Why Our Deepest Problems Hold the Key to Ultimate Personal Success and Happiness. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, June 1992. ISBN 978-0-933900-17-2
- 1997 Finding God in Physics: Einstein’s Missing Relative (with Bob Just and Dorothy Baker). Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, ISBN 978-0-933900-19-6
- 2001 The Adam and Eve Sindrome. Oregon: Foundation of Human Understanding, Jan. 2001. ISBN 978-0-933900-11-0
- 2010 How Your Mind Will Make You Well (an updated version of How Your Mind Can Keep You Well). Oregon: CreateSpace, Dec 1, 2010 ISBN 1456353330
- 2011 Hypnotic States of Americans: A spiritual survival manual for every American family in a perilous world. Oregon: CreateSpace, May 11, 2011. ISBN 978-1-4609-3902-4
- 2012 Cure Stress: How Your Mind Will Make You Well. Oregon: CreateSpace, Dec 11, 2012 ISBN 1481221043
- “Introduction to Roy Masters”. Foundation of Human Understanding. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- “Diamond Cutting art comes to Birmingham”. The Birmingham News. 7 September 1952. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- “British Diamond Cutter Shows Skills of His Trade”. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- William Wolf, Healers, Gurus and Spiritual Guides (pdf), © 1969, 1975, 2005, published by the Foundation of Human Understanding (Originally published by Sherbourne Press, 1969)
- “Untitled”. Action (Savannah, Georgia). Junior Chamber of Commerce. 1950’s. Retrieved 19 May 2014. Check date values in:
- Amazon.com. “Roy Masters Biography”. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Metlova, Maria (1 September 1963). “Between You & Me”. Valley News. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- Kupelian, David (19 July 2014). “Military praises ‘fantastic’ new stress therapy”. WND. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- “Call Roy Masters on “Advice Line””. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
Millions have seen or heard Roy Masters on such popular shows as Sean Hannity’s WABC Show, CNN’s “Larry King Live,” “Sally Jesse Raphael,” “Crossfire,” and “The Drudge Report.”
- Official website
- Roy Masters’ Biography
- Roy Masters’s channel on YouTube
- Roy Masters on Twitter
- Roy Masters on Facebook
Roy Masters (commentator)
“Roy Masters (born April 2, 1928) is a radio commentator and author based in southern Oregon, United States. He discusses Christianity, psychology, and philosophy. His commentary is distributed through his Foundation for Human Understanding (FHU), which includes a radio program, books, audio and video recordings, web site, church services, and meetings.
Masters advocates decision-making principles for issues involving relationships, marriage, family life, and upsetting or traumatic experiences. Other topics he discusses include medicine, politics and science. …”
The Foundation of Human Understanding
“…The Foundation of Human Understanding was founded by Roy Masters in 1963. This worldwide foundation is dedicated to assisting anyone who is interested in perfecting their spiritual natures through the principles of Judeo Christianity. …”