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Queen – Another One Bites the Dust (Official Video)

President Trump Statement on Soleimani

Trump: Soleimani’s ‘reign of terror’ is over

Report: Top Iranian general killed in US air strike on Baghdad

Morell: Iran’s Qassem Soleimani was an “evil genius” who “had a lot of American blood on his hand‚Ķ

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Protesters leave US embassy compound in Baghdad

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Iran’s revolutionary guard explained

Pepsi Commercial HD – We Will Rock You (feat. Britney Spears, Beyonce, Pink & Enrique Iglesias)

We Will Rock You

Queen

""

[Verse 1]
Buddy, you’re a boy, make a big noise
Playing in the street, gonna be a big man someday

You got mud on your face, you big disgrace
Kicking your can all over the place, singing

[Chorus]
We will, we will rock you
We will, we will rock you

[Verse 2]
Buddy, you’re a young man, hard man
Shouting in the street, gonna take on the world someday

You got blood on your face, you big disgrace
Waving your banner all over the place

[Chorus]
We will, we will rock you
Sing it out
We will, we will rock you

[Verse 3]
Buddy, you’re an old man, poor man
Pleading with your eyes, gonna make you some peace someday

You got mud on your face, big disgrace
Somebody better put you back into your place

[Chorus]
We will, we will rock you, sing it
We will, we will rock you, everybody
We will, we will rock you, hmm
We will, we will rock you, alright

 

Queen – We Will Rock You (Official Video)

 

How Qassem Soleimani was ‘torn to shreds’ by a US missile and his body had to be identified by his RING: Pentagon drone launched four rockets at car carrying Iranian general after he arrived from Syria to meet ringleaders of embassy attack

  • US airstrike killed General Qassem Soleimani, the powerful head of Iran’s elite Quds Force, in Baghdad
  • The attack unfolded early on Friday local time in a precision strike on two cars that were carrying Soleimani¬†
  • Soleimani had just arrived in Baghdad on a flight from Syria and was leaving the airport when he was hit
  • Attack also killed¬†Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, leader of Iranian militias in Iraq which led attacks on US embassy

Four precision missiles were fired from a deadly remote-controlled 4,900 pound U.S. drone, decimating a convoy that¬†Qassem Soleimani, head of Iran’s Quds force, was traveling in and tearing his body ‘to shreds’.

Soleimani, commonly known as the second-most powerful man in Iran and tipped as a future president, was so badly maimed in the strike that he had to be identified by a large ring he wore on his finger.

He had just landed in Baghdad airport on a plane from either Syria or Lebanon around 12.30am when he was met on the tarmac by Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, deputy commander of the pro-Iran Popular Mobilization Forces in Iraq.

Muhandis pulled up to the aircraft steps in two cars before Soleimani and Mohammed Ridha Jabri, public relations chief for the PMF who had been traveling with him, climbed inside and were driven away.

Both vehicles were instantly reduced to smoldering wrecks Рkilling Soleimani, Muhandis, Jabri and two others who have yet to be identified.

Social media photos show burning wreckage of the US airstrike on two cars at Baghdad International Airport. Iranian officials and pro-Iran militia members were among those killed

This is the moment an American guided missile struck a convoy of cars carrying Iranian commander Qassem Soleimani along with two Islamic Revolutionary Guards generals, a colonel, and a captain, killing all five

The devastating US drone has a range of 1,150 miles and is able to to fly at altitudes of 50,000 feet. It is an ‘armed, multi-mission, medium-altitude, long-endurance’ remotely piloted aircraft.

It is primarily used to execute targets – such as Soleimani – and secondarily to collect intelligence, according to the U.S. Air Force.

The drone is capable of annihilating targets with AGM-114 Hellfire missiles which provide ‘highly accurate’ and ‘low-collateral damage’ capabilities.

An MQ-9 Reaper remotely piloted aircraft making a rare public sighting in Nevada in November

AGM-114 Hellfire missiles – which are laser guided and subsonic – are so powerful that they are used to take out tanks. They can also be used as an air-to-air weapon against helicopters and other aircraft.

Fired upon¬†Soleimani’s convoy, the¬†4,900-pound drone- which has a wingspan of 66 feet and a cruising speed of roughly 230mph – is said to have reduced two vehicles to smoldering wrecks and ‘torn to shreds’ the bodies of those inside.

The drone made a rare public sighting at¬†Nellis Air Force Base in southern Nevada in November. The Aviationist reports that it was ‘nearly silent’ and ‘sent a collective shiver up air show viewers‚Äô spines’.

Two officials from the PMF said Soleimani’s body was torn to pieces in the attack, while they did not find the body of al-Muhandis.

A senior politician said Soleimani’s body was identified by the ring he wore. Photos from the scene show a hand with large ring that looks identical to one Soleimani is seen wearing in old photos.

Local militia commander Abu Muntathar al-Hussaini told Reuters:

‘Haj Soleimani and Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis were riding in one vehicle when it was struck by two successive guided missiles launched from an American helicopter while they were on their way from the arrivals hall on the road that leads out of Baghdad Airport.’

He said the second vehicle was carrying bodyguards from the PMF and was hit by one rocket.

While American forces did not make it clear how they had tracked Soleimani’s location, he is thought to be kept under near-constant surveillance by US, Saudi and Israeli security forces.

The¬†New York Times¬†reported that Friday’s attack¬†drew upon a combination of highly classified information from informants, electronic intercepts, reconnaissance aircraft and other surveillance techniques.

The Defense Department said that the airstrike was justified to protect American lives.

‘General Soleimani was actively developing plans to attack American diplomats and service members in Iraq and throughout the region,’ the Pentagon statement said.

The statement added that Soleimani ‘orchestrated attacks on coalition bases in Iraq over the last several months’ including the embassy assault.

Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif said Soleimani’s assassination would strengthen resistance against the United States and Israel in the region and the world, Iranian state television reported.

‘The brutality and stupidity of American terrorist forces in assassinating Commander Soleimani … will undoubtedly make the tree of resistance in the region and the world more prosperous,’ Zarif said in a statement.

The high-profile assassinations are likely to be a massive blow to Iran, which has been locked in a long conflict with the United States that escalated sharply last week with an attack on the US embassy in Iraq by pro-Iranian militiamen.

A senior politician said Soleimani's body was identified by the ring (above) he often wore

The strike also killed Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis (center in sunglasses), the deputy commander of Iran-backed militias in Iraq known as the Popular Mobilization Forces, which were responsible for the recent attack on the U.S. embassy in Baghdad

Soleimani’s killing marks a dramatic escalation in the regional ‘shadow war’ between Iran and the US and its allies, principally Israel and Saudi Arabia, which could quickly ratchet up tit-for-tat attacks – all the way to the brink of all-out war.

The slain commander’s Quds Force, along with its stable of paramilitary proxies from Lebanon’s Hezbollah to the PMF in Iraq – battle-hardened militias armed with missiles – has ample means to launch a multi-barrelled response against its enemies.

In September, US officials blamed Iran for a devastating missiles and drones attack on oil installations of Saudi Aramco, the Saudi state energy giant and world’s largest oil exporter. The Trump administration did not respond, beyond heated rhetoric and threats.

Iran, for its part, has absorbed scores of air strikes and missile attacks, mainly carried out by Israel against its fighters and proxies in Syria and Iraq.

But analysts say Iran is likely to respond forcefully to the targeting of Soleimani, who it has built into a legend as its influence has spread across the region in the wake of the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 and subsequent occupation.

This photo released by the Iraqi Prime Minister Press Office shows a burning vehicle at the Baghdad International Airport following an airstrike, in Baghdad, Iraq, early Friday, Jan. 3, 2020

This photo released by the Iraqi Prime Minister Press Office shows a burning vehicle at the Baghdad International Airport following an airstrike, in Baghdad, Iraq, early Friday, Jan. 3, 2020

The Pentagon said Thursday that the U.S. military has killed Gen. Qassem Soleimani, the head of Iran's elite Quds Force

The Pentagon said Thursday that the U.S. military has killed Gen. Qassem Soleimani, the head of Iran’s elite Quds Force

Images taken after sunup on Friday show the twisted wreckage left behind by the US missile strike on two cars

 

Images taken after sunup on Friday show the twisted wreckage left behind by the US missile strike on two cars

PMF official said the dead also included its airport protocol officer, identifying him as Mohammed Reda (above)

Soleimani, who has led the foreign arm of the Revolutionary Guards and has had a key role in fighting in Syria and Iraq, acquired celebrity status at home and abroad.

The United States and Iran’s regional foes Saudi Arabia and Israel have struggled to keep Iran’s influence in check.

Soleimani survived several assassination attempts against him by Western, Israeli and Arab agencies over the past two decades.

His Quds Force, tasked with carrying out operations beyond Iran’s borders, shored up support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad when he looked close to defeat in the civil war raging since 2011 and also helped militiamen defeat Islamic State in Iraq.

He became head of the Quds Force in 1998, a position in which he kept a low profile for years while he strengthened Iran’s ties with Hezbollah in Lebanon, Syria’s government and Shi¬īite militia groups in Iraq.

Muhandis, who was killed with Soleimani, oversaw Iraq¬īs PMF, an umbrella grouping of paramilitary groups mostly consisting of Iran-backed Shi¬īite militias that was formally integrated into Iraqi armed forces.

Soleimani (right) is seen attending a religious ceremony with Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in a file photo. Soleimani was immensely popular in Iran and the Ayatollah has vowed 'harsh revenge'

Soleimani (right) is seen attending a religious ceremony with Iran’s supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in a file photo. Soleimani was immensely popular in Iran and the Ayatollah has vowed ‘harsh revenge’

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7847795/How-airstrike-Iranian-general-unfolded-Baghdad.html

Qasem Soleimani

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Qasem Soleimani
Qasem Soleimani with Zolfaghar Order.jpg

Soleimani in his official military dress with the Order of Zolfaghar in 2019
Native name
Ŕāōßō≥ŔÖ ō≥ŔĄŘĆŔÖōßŔÜŘĆ
Nickname(s) Haj¬†Qassem” (among supporters)[1]
“The Shadow Commander” (in the West)[2][3][4][5][6]
Born 11 March 1957
Qanat-e Malek, Kerman, Imperial State of Iran
Died 3 January 2020 (aged 62)[7]
Near Baghdad International Airport, Baghdad, Iraq
Allegiance Iran
Service/branch Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Years¬†of service 1979‚Äď2020
Rank Major general
Lieutenant general (posthumously)
Commands held 41st Tharallah Division of Kerman
Quds Force
Battles/wars

See battles
Awards Order of Zolfaghar (1)[17]
Order of Fath (3)[18]

Qasem Soleimani¬†(Persian:¬†Ŕāōßō≥ŔÖ ō≥ŔĄŘĆŔÖōßŔÜŘĆ‚Äé,¬†pronounced¬†[…Ę…íňźseme solejm…íňźniňź]; 11 March 1957 ‚Äď 3 January 2020), also spelled Qassem Suleimani or Qassim Soleimani, was an¬†Iranian¬†major general¬†in the¬†Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps¬†(IRGC) and from 1998 until his death, commander of its¬†Quds Force, a division primarily responsible for¬†extraterritorial military and clandestine operations.

Soleimani began his military career in the beginning of the¬†Iran‚ÄďIraq War¬†of the 1980s, during which he eventually commanded the¬†41st Division. He was later involved in extraterritorial operations, providing military assistance to¬†Hezbollah¬†in Lebanon. In 2012, Soleimani helped bolster the¬†Syrian¬†government, a key Iranian ally, during the¬†Syrian Civil War, particularly in its operations against¬†ISIS and its offshoots. Soleimani also assisted in the command of combined Iraqi government and¬†Shia militia forces¬†that advanced against the¬†Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant¬†(ISIL) in 2014‚Äď2015.

Soleimani was killed in a targeted U.S. drone strike on 3 January 2020 in Baghdad, Iraq. Also killed were Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces members and its deputy head, Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis.[19] Soleimani was posthumously promoted to lieutenant general.[20] Soleimani was suceeded by Esmail Ghaani as commander of the Quds Force.[21]

Early life

Soleimani was born on 11 March 1957 in the village of Qanat-e Malek, Kerman Province,[22] to an impoverished peasant family. In his youth, he moved to the city of Kerman and worked as a construction worker to help repay a debt his father owed. In 1975, he began working as a contractor for the Kerman Water Organization.[23][24] When not at work, he spent his time lifting weights in local gyms and attending the sermons of a traveling preacher, Hojjat Kamyab, a protege of Ayatollah Khomeini.[25]

Military career

Soleimani joined the Revolutionary war Guard (IRGC) in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution, which saw the Shah fall and Ayatollah Khomeini take power. Reportedly, his training was minimal, but he advanced rapidly. Early in his career as a guardsman, he was stationed in northwestern Iran, and participated in the suppression of a Kurdish separatist uprising in West Azerbaijan Province.[25]

On 22 September 1980, when¬†Saddam Hussein¬†launched an invasion of Iran, setting off the¬†Iran‚ÄďIraq War¬†(1980‚Äď1988), Soleimani joined the battlefield serving as the leader of a military company, consisting of men from Kerman whom he personally assembled and trained.[26]¬†He quickly earned a reputation for bravery,[27]¬†and rose through the ranks because of his role in the successful operations in retaking the lands Iraq had occupied, eventually becoming the commander of the¬†41st Sarallah Division¬†while still in his 20s, participating in most major operations. He was mostly stationed at the southern front.[26][28]¬†He was seriously injured in¬†Operation Tariq-ol-Qods. In a 1990 interview, he mentioned¬†Operation Fath-ol-Mobin¬†as “the best” operation he participated in and “very memorable”, due to its difficulties yet positive outcome.[29]¬†He was also engaged in leading and organizing¬†irregular warfare¬†missions deep inside Iraq carried out by the Ramadan Headquarters. It was at this point that Suleimani established relations with¬†Kurdish Iraqi¬†leaders and the Shia¬†Badr Organization, both of which were opposed to Iraq’s Saddam Hussein.[26]

On 17 July 1985, Soleimani opposed the IRGC leadership’s plan to deploy forces to two islands in western Arvandroud (Shatt al-Arab).[30]

After the war, during the 1990s, he was an IRGC commander in Kerman Province.[28]¬†In this region, which is relatively close to¬†Afghanistan, Afghan-grown opium travels to¬†Turkey¬†and on to Europe. Soleimani’s military experience helped him earn a reputation as a successful fighter against¬†drug trafficking.[25]

During the 1999 student revolt in Tehran, Soleimani was one of the IRGC officers who signed a letter to President Mohammad Khatami. The letter stated that if Khatami did not crush the student rebellion the military would, and it might also launch a coup against Khatami.[25][31]

Command of Quds Force

Qasem Soleimani Reading Quran in Memorial ceremony of Akbar Hashemi

The exact date of his appointment as commander of the IRGC’s¬†Quds Force¬†is not clear, but Ali Alfoneh cites it as between 10 September 1997 and 21 March 1998.[24]¬†He was considered one of the possible successors to the post of commander of the IRGC, when General¬†Yahya Rahim Safavi¬†left this post in 2007. In 2008, he led a group of Iranian investigators looking into the death of¬†Imad Mughniyah. Soleimani helped arrange a ceasefire between the Iraqi Army and¬†Mahdi Army¬†in March 2008.[32]

Following the¬†September 11 attacks¬†in 2001,¬†Ryan Crocker, a senior State Department official in the United States, flew to Geneva to meet with Iranian diplomats who were under the direction of Soleimani with the purpose of collaborating to destroy the¬†Taliban, which had targeted¬†Shia¬†Afghanis.[25]¬†This collaboration was instrumental in defining the targets of bombing operations in Afghanistan and in capturing key¬†Al-Qaeda¬†operatives, but abruptly ended in January 2002, when President¬†George W. Bush¬†named Iran as part of the “Axis of evil” in his State of the Union address.[25]

In 2009, a leaked report stated that General Soleimani met¬†Christopher R. Hill¬†and General¬†Raymond T. Odierno¬†(America’s two most senior officials in Baghdad at the time) in the office of Iraq‚Äôs president,¬†Jalal Talabani¬†(who knew General Soleimani for decades). Hill and General Odierno denied the occurrence of the meeting.[33]

On 24 January 2011, Soleimani was promoted to Major General by Supreme Leader¬†Ali Khamenei.[28][34]¬†Khamenei was described as having a close relationship with him, calling Soleimani a “living martyr” and helping him financially.[25]

Soleimani was described as “the single most powerful operative in the Middle East today” and the principal military strategist and tactician in Iran’s effort to combat Western influence and promote the expansion of¬†Shiite¬†and Iranian influence throughout the Middle East.[25]¬†In¬†Iraq, as the commander of the Quds force, he was believed to have strongly influenced the organization of the Iraqi government, notably supporting the election of previous Iraqi Prime Minister¬†Nuri Al-Maliki.[25][35]¬†Soleimani has even been described as being “Iran‚Äôs very own¬†Erwin Rommel“.[36]

According to some sources, Soleimani was the principal leader and architect of the military wing of the Lebanese Shia party Hezbollah since his appointment as Quds commander in 1998.[25] In an interview aired in October 2019, he said he was in Lebanon during the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war to oversee the conflict.[37]

Syrian Civil War

A map of Al-Qusayr and its environs. The Al-Qusayr offensive was allegedly masterminded by Soleimani[38]

According to several sources, including¬†Riad Hijab, a former Syrian premier who defected in August 2012, he was also one of the staunchest supporters of the Syrian government of¬†Bashar al-Assad¬†in the¬†Syrian Civil War.[25][35]¬†In the later half of 2012, Soleimani assumed personal control of the Iranian intervention in the Syrian Civil War, when Iranians became deeply concerned about the Assad government’s lack of ability to fight the opposition, and the fallout to the Islamic Republic if the Syrian government fell. He was reported to have coordinated the war from a base in¬†Damascus¬†at which a Lebanese Hezbollah commander and an Iraqi Shiite militia coordinator have been mobilized, in addition to Syrian and Iranian officers. Brigadier General¬†Hossein Hamadani, the¬†Basij‚Äôs former deputy commander, helped to run irregular militias that Soleimani hoped to continue the fight if Assad fell.[25]¬†Under Soleimani the command “coordinated attacks, trained militias, and set up an elaborate system to monitor rebel communications”. According to a Middle Eastern security official Dexter Filkins talked to, thousands of Quds Force and Iraqi Shiite militiamen in Syria were “spread out across the entire country.‚ÄĚ[25]¬†The¬†retaking of Qusayr¬†in May 2013 from rebel forces and¬†Al-Nusra Front[39]¬†was, according to John Maguire, a former¬†CIA¬†officer in Iraq, “orchestrated” by Soleimani.[25]

Soleimani was much credited in Syria for the strategy that assisted President Bashar al-Assad in finally repulsing rebel forces and recapture key cities and towns.[40] He was involved in the training of government-allied militias and the coordination of decisive military offensives.[25] The sighting of Iranian UAVs in Syria strongly suggested that his command, the Quds force, was involved in the civil war.[25] In a visit to the Lebanese capital Beirut on Thursday 29 January 2015, Soleimani laid wreaths at the graves of the slain Hezbollah members, including Jihad Mughniyah, the son of late Hezbollah commander Imad Mughniyah which strengthens some possibilities about his role in Hezbollah military reaction on Israel.[41]

Soleimani helped form of the National Defence Forces (NDF) in Syria.[42]

In October 2015, it was reported that he had been instrumental in devising during his visit to Moscow in July 2015 the¬†Russian‚ÄďIranian‚ÄďSyrian offensive¬†in October 2015.[43]

War on ISIS in Iraq

The east of Saladin Governorate in Iraq, where Qasem Soleimani was involved in breaking the Siege of Amirli by ISIL[44]

Qasem Soleimani was in the Iraqi city of¬†Amirli, to work with the Iraqi forces to push back militants from ISIL.[45][46]¬†According to the¬†Los Angeles Times, which reported that Amerli was the first town to successfully withstand an ISIS invasion, it was secured thanks to “an unusual partnership of Iraqi and Kurdish soldiers, Iranian-backed Shiite militias and U.S. warplanes”. The US acted as a force multiplier for a number of Iranian-backed armed groups‚ÄĒat the same time that was present on the battlefield.[47][48]

Iranian Major General Qasem Soleimani prays in the Syrian desert during a local pro-government offensive in 2017.

A senior Iraqi official told the BBC that when the city of Mosul fell, the rapid reaction of Iran, rather than American bombing, was what prevented a more widespread collapse.[10]¬†Qasem Soleimani also seems to have been instrumental in planning the operation to relieve¬†Amirli¬†in Saladin Governorate, where ISIL had laid siege to an important city.[44]¬†In fact the Quds force operatives under Soleimani’s command seem to have been deeply involved with not only the Iraqi army and Shi’ite militias but also the Kurdish in the¬†battle of Amirli,[49]¬†not only providing liaisons for intelligence sharing but also the supply of arms and munitions in addition to “providing expertise”.[50]

In the¬†operation to liberate Jurf Al Sakhar, he was reportedly “present on the battlefield”. Some Shia militia commanders described Soleimani as “fearless”‚ÄĒone pointing out that the Iranian general never wears a¬†flak jacket, even on the front lines.[51]

Soleimani was also intimately involved in the planning and execution of the operation to liberate Tikrit[52][53]

Hadi al-Amiri, the former Iraqi minister of transportation and the head of the Badr Organization [an official Iraqi political party whose military wing is one of the largest armed forces in the country] highlighted the pivotal role of General Qasem Soleimani in defending Iraq’s Kurdistan Region against the ISIL terrorist group, maintaining that if it were not for Iran, Heidar al-Ebadi’s government would have been a government-in-exile right now[54]¬†and he added there would be no Iraq if Gen. Soleimani hadn’t helped us.[55]

There were reports by some Western sources that Soleimani was seriously wounded in action against ISIL in Samarra. The claim was rejected by Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister for Arab and African Affairs Hossein Amir-Abdollahian.[56]

Soleimani played an integral role in the organisation and planning of the crucial operation to¬†retake the city of Tikrit¬†in Iraq from ISIS. The city of Tikrit rests on the left bank of the Tigris river and is the largest and most important city between Baghdad and Mosul, gifting it a high strategic value. The city fell to ISIS during 2014 when ISIS made immense gains in northern and central Iraq. After its capture, ISIL’s¬†massacre at Camp Speicher¬†led to 1,600 to 1,700 deaths of Iraqi Army cadets and soldiers. After months of careful preparation and intelligence gathering an offensive to encircle and capture Tikrit was launched in early March 2015.[53]¬†Soleimani was directing the operations on the eastern flank from a village about 35 miles from Tikrit called Albu Rayash, captured over the weekend.[citation needed]¬†The offensive was the biggest military operation in the Salahuddin region since the previous summer, when ISIS fighters killed hundreds of Iraq army soldiers who had abandoned their military base at Camp Speicher outside Tikrit.[citation needed]

Orchestration of military escalation in 2015

In 2015 Soleimani started to gather support from various sources in order to combat the newly resurgent ISIL and rebel groups which were both successful in taking large swathes of territory away from Assad’s forces. He was reportedly the main architect of the joint intervention involving Russia as a new partner with Assad and Hezbollah.[57][58][59]

According to Reuters, at a meeting in Moscow in July, Soleimani unfurled a map of Syria to explain to his Russian hosts how a series of defeats for President Bashar al-Assad could be turned into victory‚ÄĒwith Russia’s help. Qasem Soleimani’s visit to Moscow was the first step in planning for a Russian military intervention that has reshaped the Syrian war and forged a new¬†Iranian‚ÄďRussian alliance¬†in support of the Syrian (and Iraqi) governments. Iran’s supreme leader, Ali Khamenei also sent a senior envoy to Moscow to meet President Vladimir Putin. “Putin reportedly told the envoy ‘Okay we will intervene. Send Qassem Soleimani’. General Soleimani went to explain the map of the theatre and coordinate the strategic escalation of military forces in Syria.[58]

Operations in Aleppo

Map of the offensive.[60][61][62][63][64][65]

Soleimani had a decisive impact on the theatre of operations and led to a strong advance in southern Aleppo with the government and allied forces re-capturing two military bases and dozens of towns and villages in a matter of weeks. There was also a series of major¬†advances towards Kuweiris air-base¬†to the north-east.[66]¬†By mid-November, the Syrian army and its allies had gained ground in southern areas of Aleppo Governorate, capturing numerous rebel strongholds. Soleimani was reported to have personally led the drive deep into the southern Aleppo countryside where many towns and villages fell into government hands. He reportedly commanded the Syrian Arab Army‚Äôs 4th Mechanized Division, Hezbollah, Harakat Al-Nujaba (Iraqi), Kata’ib Hezbollah (Iraqi), Liwaa Abu Fadl Al-Abbas (Iraqi), and Firqa Fatayyemoun (Afghan/Iranian volunteers).[67]

Soleimani was lightly wounded while fighting in Syria, outside of Al-Eis. Reports initially speculated that he was seriously or gravely injured.[68]¬†He was quoted as saying, “Martyrdom is what I seek in mountains and valleys, but it isn’t granted yet”.[69]

In early February 2016, backed by Russian and Syrian air force airstrikes, the 4th Mechanized Division ‚Äď in close coordination with Hezbollah, the National Defense Forces (NDF), Kata’eb Hezbollah, and Harakat Al-Nujaba ‚Äď launched¬†an offensive¬†in Aleppo Governorate’s northern countryside,[70]¬†which eventually broke the three-year¬†siege of Nubl and Al-Zahraa¬†and cut off rebel’s main supply route from Turkey. According to a senior, non-Syrian security source close to Damascus, Iranian fighters played a crucial role in the conflict. “Qassem Soleimani is there in the same area”, he said.[71]¬†In December 2016, new photos emerged of Soleimani at the¬†Citadel of Aleppo, though the exact date of the photos is unknown.[72][73]

Operations in 2016 and 2017

In 2016, photos published by a Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF) source showed Iran’s Quds Force commander Qassem Suleimani and other PMF commanders discussing the¬†Battle of Fallujah.[74]

In late March 2017, Soleimani was seen in the northern Hama Governorate countryside, reportedly aiding Maj. Gen. Suheil al-Hassan in repelling a major rebel offensive.[16]

CIA chief¬†Mike Pompeo¬†said that he sent Soleimani and other Iranian leaders a letter holding them responsible for any attacks on US interests by forces under their control. According to Mohammad Mohammadi Golpayegani, a senior aide for Iran’s supreme leader, Soleimani ignored the letter when it was handed over to him during the¬†Abu Kamal offensive¬†against ISIL, saying “I will not take your letter nor read it and I have nothing to say to these people.”[75][76]

In politics

General Soleimani in civilian attire during a public ceremony in 2015

In 1999, Soleimani, along with other senior IRGC commanders, signed a letter to then-President¬†Mohammad Khatami¬†regarding the¬†student protests in July. They wrote “Dear Mr. Khatami, how long do we have to shed tears, sorrow over the events, practice democracy by chaos and insults, and have revolutionary patience at the expense of sabotaging the system? Dear president, if you don’t make a revolutionary decision and act according to your Islamic and national missions, tomorrow will be so late and irrecoverable that cannot be even imagined.”[77]

Iranian media reported in 2012 that he might be replaced as the commander of Quds Force in order to allow him to run in the¬†2013 presidential election.[78]¬†He reportedly refused to be nominated for the election.[77]¬†According to¬†BBC News, in 2015 a campaign started among¬†conservative¬†bloggers for Soleimani to stand for¬†2017 presidential election.[79]¬†In 2016, he was speculated as a possible candidate,[77][80]¬†however in a statement published on 15 September 2016, he called speculations about his candidacy as “divisive reports by the enemies” and said he will “always remain a simple soldier serving Iran and the Islamic Revolution”.[81]

In the summer of 2018, Soleimani and Tehran exchanged public remarks related to Red Sea shipping with American President Donald Trump which heightened tensions between the two countries and their allies in the region.[82]

Personal life

Qasem Soleimani while Praying

Soleimani was a¬†Persian¬†from¬†Kerman. His father was a farmer who died in 2017. His mother, Fatemeh, died in 2013.[83]¬†He came from a family of nine and had five sisters and one brother, Sohrab, who lived and worked with Soleimani in his youth.[84]¬†Sohrab Soleimani is a warden and former director general of the Tehran Prisons Organization. The United States imposed sanctions on Sohrab Soleimani in April 2017 “for his role in abuses in Iranian prisons”.[85]

Soleimani had Dan in karate and was a fitness trainer in his youth. He had four children: two sons and two daughters.[86]

Sanctions

In March 2007, Soleimani was included on a list of Iranian individuals targeted with sanctions in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747.[87] On 18 May 2011, he was sanctioned again by the United States along with Syrian president Bashar al-Assad and other senior Syrian officials due to his alleged involvement in providing material support to the Syrian government.[88]

On 24 June 2011, the¬†Official Journal of the European Union¬†said the three Iranian Revolutionary Guard members now subject to sanctions had been “providing equipment and support to help the Syrian government suppress protests in Syria”.[89]¬†The Iranians added to the EU sanctions list were two Revolutionary Guard commanders, Soleimani, Mohammad Ali Jafari, and the Guard’s deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb.[90]¬†Soleimani was also sanctioned by¬†the Swiss government¬†in September 2011 due to the same grounds cited by¬†the European Union.[91]

He was listed by the¬†United States¬†as a known terrorist, which forbade U.S. citizens from doing business with him.[32][92]¬†The list, published in the EU’s Official Journal on 24 June 2011, also included a Syrian property firm, an investment fund and two other enterprises accused of funding the Syrian government. The list also included¬†Mohammad Ali Jafari¬†and¬†Hossein Taeb.[93]

On 13 November 2018, the United States sanctioned an Iraqi military leader named Shibl Muhsin ‚ÄėUbayd Al-Zaydi and others who allegedly were acting on Qasem Soleimani’s behalf in financing military actions in Syria or otherwise providing support for terrorism in the region.[94]

Death

Qasem Soleimani (left) with Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis (right) at a 2017 ceremony commemorating the father of Soleimani, in Mosalla, Tehran.

Soleimani was killed on 3 January 2020 around 1 am local time (22:00 UTC on 2 January)[95], after missiles shot from American drones targeted his convoy near Baghdad International Airport.[96] He had just left his plane, which arrived in Iraq from Lebanon or Syria.[97] His body was identified using a ring he wore on his finger, with DNA confirmation still pending.[98] Also killed were four members of the Popular Mobilization Forces, including Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, the Iraqi-Iranian military commander who headed the PMF.[99]

The airstrike followed attacks on the American embassy in Baghdad by supporters of an Iran-backed Iraqi Shia militia and the 2019 K-1 Air Base attack.[100]

The¬†United States Department of Defense¬†issued a statement that said the U.S. strike was carried out “at the direction of the¬†President” and asserted that Soleimani had been planning further attacks on American diplomats and military personnel and had approved the attacks on the American embassy in Baghdad in response to¬†U.S. airstrikes in Iraq and Syria on 29 December 2019¬†and was meant to deter future attacks.[101][102]

Soleimani was posthumously promoted to lieutenant general.[103][20] He was suceeded by Esmail Ghaani as commander of the Quds Force.[21]

Cultural depictions

He was described as having “a calm presence”,[104]¬†and as carrying himself “inconspicuously and rarely rais[ing] his voice”, exhibiting “understated¬†charisma“.[27]¬†In Western sources, Suleimani’s personality was compared to the fictional characters¬†Karla,¬†Keyser S√∂ze,[27]¬†and¬†The Scarlet Pimpernel.[105]

Unlike other IRGC commanders, he usually did not appear in his official military clothing, even in the battlefield.[106][107]

In January 2015, Hadi Al-Ameri the head of the Badr Organization in Iraq said of him: “If Qasem Soleimani were not present in Iraq,¬†Haider al-Abadi¬†would not be able to form his cabinet within Iraq”.[108]

The British magazine The Week featured Soleimani in bed with Uncle Sam in 2015, which indicated to both sides fighting ISIS, although Soleimani was leading militant groups that killed hundreds of Americans during the Iraq War.[109]

The 2016 movie¬†Bodyguard, directed by¬†Ebrahim Hatamikia, was inspired by Soleimani’s activities.[110]

The 2016 Persian book Noble Comrades 17: Hajj Qassem, written by Ali Akbari Mozdabadi, contains memoirs of Qassem Soleimani.[111]

See also

References …

External links

How Trump decided to kill Iran’s Soleimani

The U.S. strike against Tehran’s feared paramilitary commander followed months of Iranian attacks.

Qassem Soleimani

Hours before the U.S. military sent a Reaper drone to kill one of the most wanted men on the planet, President Donald Trump was relaxing at his palatial Florida properties. In the morning, he played 18 holes at Trump International, his West Palm Beach golf club.

At around 3 p.m., he returned to Mar-a-Lago, the historic oceanfront estate he‚Äôs branded ‚Äúthe Winter White House,‚ÄĚ and waited, donning a navy blue suit with a powder-blue tie and an American flag pinned to his lapel.

He‚Äôd already made a risky‚ÄĒand potentially world-altering‚ÄĒdecision to allow the U.S. military to kill Qassem Soleimani, the leader of Iran‚Äôs elite paramilitary forces. Earlier this week, he‚Äôd been surrounded at Mar-a-Lago by top officials like Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mark Milley, acting White House chief of staff Mick Mulvaney, national security adviser Robert O‚ÄôBrien and Legislative Affairs Director Eric Ueland. Throughout the entire week, Trump sought input from other advisers by phone.

‚ÄúHe was calm, cool and collected,‚ÄĚ said conservative radio host Howie Carr, who spoke with Trump on Thursday at Mar-a-Lago soon after the news first broke, as the president dined with GOP House leader Kevin McCarthy. ‚ÄúI had no idea there was anything out of the ordinary going on until I got home.‚ÄĚ

As rocket attacks against U.S. bases in Iraq intensified over the last two months, the president had granted the Pentagon extraordinary latitude: The U.S. military had his permission to kill Soleimani the next time it had an opportunity to do so, according to a senior defense official who was not authorized to speak on the record.

‚ÄúWe had authority before the strike to take that action,‚ÄĚ said the official, who wouldn‚Äôt say how recently Trump gave the Pentagon that authorization‚ÄĒwhether it was hours, weeks or even months earlier. As recently as New Year‚Äôs Eve, the president was telling reporters that he didn‚Äôt want war with Iran.

For a man U.S. officials have portrayed as a terrorist mastermind, an evil genius responsible for the deaths of hundreds of Americans, Soleimani often flaunted his influence as he jetted between Tehran, Baghdad and Beirut for meetings with local potentates.

‚ÄúI don‚Äôt think it was so hard [to find him] because he was not below the radar in the last two or three years,‚ÄĚ said a former senior Israeli government official, who noted that Soleimani had previously moved around under strict operational secrecy. ‚ÄúBut the last two or three years, he worked in the open.‚ÄĚ

Former national security adviser John Bolton, a vocal advocate of regime change in Iran, described the killing of Soleimani as ‚Äúlong in the making.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúWe‚Äôve known every minute of every day where Soleimani is for years‚ÄĒthere‚Äôs no moment of any given day where five or six intelligence agencies can‚Äôt tell you where he is,‚ÄĚ a Republican foreign policy hand said. ‚ÄúIt‚Äôs been one of his talking points: The Americans can find me any time, they just don‚Äôt dare hit me.‚ÄĚ

That calculation proved misguided in the wee hours of January 3 in Iraq, where Soleimani landed amid spiraling tensions between U.S.- and Iranian-allied factions. ‚ÄúHe arrived at the airport and we had a target of opportunity, and based on the president‚Äôs direction, we took it,‚ÄĚ the senior defense official said.

U.S. officials had received ‚Äúan intelligence-based assessment that drove our decision-making process,‚ÄĚ Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said on Friday, describing how the recent killing of an American contractor had changed the Trump team‚Äôs calculations about the ‚Äúintelligence flow‚ÄĚ they were receiving about Soleimani‚Äôs activities in Iraq.

U.S. officials, briefing conservative think-tank experts on Friday, said the U.S. had “exquisite intelligence” on a plot to strike Americans in Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, according to someone familiar with the call. By killing Soleimani, the officials said, they disrupted such plans.

A night of confusion and rumors

The first dispatches from Baghdad on Thursday evening were cryptic. ‚ÄúSeveral Katyusha rockets have been fired at Baghdad airport, causing multiple casualties amid tensions with US,‚ÄĚ the AP alert read.

Then, suggestions that something major had just gone down began trickling in. Word that someone‚ÄĒpresumably the United States‚ÄĒhad just killed Iran‚Äôs pre-eminent strategist first posted online shortly before 7 p.m. in Washington.

As journalists scrambled to confirm and make sense of the rumors flying around, Iraqi state television announced that Soleimani, along with several of Iran’s top Iraqi allies, had been killed. A BBC reporter shared a grisly image purporting to show Soleimani’s mangled hand, complete with his signature ruby ring; other photographs claiming to be of the remains of the convoy he was traveling in circulated online.

Photographs taken around this time showed President Trump huddling with McCarthy and White House aides Jared Kushner, Hogan Gidley and Dan Scavino at Mar-a-Lago.

‚ÄúA memorable and historic evening at The Winter White House. Proud of our President!‚ÄĚ McCarthy¬†posted¬†later on his Instagram feed.

It wasn’t until 9:46 p.m. on Thursday that the U.S. government officially confirmed Soleimani’s death, in the form of a terse, 163-word Pentagon press release emailed to reporters.

‚ÄúAt the direction of the President, the U.S. military has taken decisive defensive action to protect U.S. personnel abroad by killing Qasem Soleimani, the head of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Quds Force, a U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization,‚ÄĚ the statement read.

But his television surrogates were quick to supply their inside accounts.

Dialing into Fox News from his vacation, conservative commentator Sean Hannity‚ÄĒa close Trump confidant‚ÄĒshared what he‚Äôd heard from ‚Äúone person familiar that was in the room.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúThe president said, ‚ÄėOur people will be protected. This will not be Benghazi,‚Äô‚ÄĚ Hannity relayed.

‚ÄúAt one point,‚ÄĚ the Fox host continued, ‚Äúthe president asked the question among some of his military and Cabinet and intelligence and State Department people, ‚ÄėWell, how long is it going to take to mobilize?‚Äô And the words [came back from the president], ‚ÄėThat‚Äôs not fast enough,‚Äô and everybody said, ‚ÄėYes, sir.‚Äô And they got it done in really record time.‚ÄĚ

Florida Rep. Matt Gaetz, another of the president‚Äôs close allies on Capitol Hill who was with him at Mar-a-Lago, described the president‚Äôs mood on Thursday evening as ‚Äúvery focused.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúI think he was really dialed into the ways in which Soleimani was planning to kill Americans, to harm our diplomats and to throw the entire region into civil war,‚ÄĚ Gaetz said on Fox News. ‚ÄúI think we understand that this is a big moment in time. He appreciates the gravity of that.‚ÄĚ

The White House seems to have informed only its closest congressional allies ahead of the move, with top Hill Democrats complaining that they hadn’t been informed in advance.

‚ÄúI was briefed about the potential operation when I was down in Florida,‚ÄĚ Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), who was with the president at Mar-a-Lago earlier this week, told Fox News on Friday morning. ‚ÄúI appreciate being brought into the orbit.‚ÄĚ

Defense Secretary Mark Esper appeared to warn Iran of the coming strikes hours beforehand on Thursday, amid a discussion of the recent attacks on U.S. bases by Iraqi militias tied to Iran.

In what might have been a sign of preparation for the strike, Pompeo cancelled a trip to Ukraine and several other countries this week to monitor the tensions in Iraq.

State Department officials summoned the Iraqi ambassador to the U.S. for a meeting Thursday afternoon, according to a person familiar with the situation. It was not clear what exactly was discussed.

‚ÄúI think it‚Äôs been in the works for a while because I don‚Äôt think it was a last-minute thing,‚ÄĚ a Middle Eastern official said. ‚ÄúI don‚Äôt think they were like, ‚ÄėOh we just found him, let‚Äôs take him out.’ I think it was to mitigate an action that was actually in the works.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúTracking Solemani was likely something that was being done from at least May, when the major stream of threats emerged,‚ÄĚ a former defense official said.

Actually targeting Soleimani posed a more formidable challenge, though, according to retired Lt. Gen. Michael Nagata, a former senior special operations commander in the Middle East who retired as strategy head at the National Counterterrorism Center last summer. ‚ÄúThat depends on being able to know not only where he is, but where he‚Äôs going to be at a specific time in the future,‚ÄĚ Nagata said.

That, in part, was why ‚Äúwe never decided to go after him personally‚ÄĚ before, Nagata said ‚Äď especially in earlier years when Soleimani maintained a lower profile and traveled less often, the military was reluctant to devote surveillance assets to a target few believed any president would ever allow to be struck.

‚ÄúSoleimani was the spider at the center of the web, so there were recurring conversations over the years about what it would take to do something about him,‚ÄĚ Nagata explained. ‚ÄúBut what you had to grapple with was, ‚ÄėThis is going to divert time, energy and resources from other tasks, and for a mission that I have no confidence we‚Äôre going to go through with.‚Äô‚ÄĚ

Consultation with Israel

Pompeo held several phone calls with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in recent weeks, suggesting that Israel was not surprised by the strike against Soleimani.

Before departing on Thursday morning for Greece, Netanyahu told reporters in Israel, ‚ÄúWe are in continuous contact with our great friend the U.S., including my conversation yesterday afternoon. I want to make one thing clear: We fully support all of the steps that the U.S. has taken as well as its full right to defend itself and its citizens.‚ÄĚ

By Friday morning, Pompeo was dialing up his counterparts in foreign capitals, including Moscow and Beijing, to stress that the strike was a ‚Äúdefensive action‚ÄĚ and that the U.S. hopes for a de-escalation in the crisis.

Iranian officials were warning of a severe reaction, and the Parliament in Baghdad was voting to bar U.S. troops from Iraq even as U.S. officials were planning to send more forces to the region. European diplomats traded anxious phone calls, warning about the potential for further regional chaos.

And Trump himself was finally weighing in, explaining and justifying the decision with a barrage of tweets and retweets. ‚ÄúHe should have been taken out many years ago!‚ÄĚ the president wrote.

Asked about the U.S. plan for managing the potential blowback from Iran, a U.S. defense official said, ‚ÄúYour guess is as good as mine. The ball‚Äôs in Iran‚Äôs court at this time. We‚Äôre waiting to see what their response is.‚ÄĚ

Nancy Cook, Quint Forgey and Caitlin Oprysko contributed reporting.

https://www.politico.com/news/2020/01/03/donald-trump-iran-soleimani-093371

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America’s Generations — Videos

Posted on October 29, 2019. Filed under: American History, Anthropology, Banking, Blogroll, Books, Communications, Computers, Crisis, Culture, Demographics, Economics, Economics, Elections, Employment, Faith, Family, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Freedom, Generations, Health, history, History of Economic Thought, Illegal, Immigration, Language, Legal, liberty, Life, Links, Literacy, Macroeconomics, Mastery, media, Media Streamers, Mobile Phones, Monetary Policy, Narcissism, Non-Fiction, People, Philosophy, Photos, Political Correctness, Politics, Psychology, Psychology, Radio, Rants, Raves, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulations, Religious, Resources, Social Sciences, Sociology, Speech, Spying, Tax Policy, Technology, Television, Unemployment, Video, War, Wealth, Welfare, Wisdom, Work, Writing | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

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The Who – My Generation

Generations: America’s 5 living generations

Who Are the Generations?

Generations Throughout History

Generations and the Next America: Paul Taylor

Generations: The History of America’s Future

Neil Howe & William Strauss discuss the Silent Generation on Chuck Underwood’s Generations | 2001

Neil Howe & William Strauss discuss the book “Generations” on CSPAN | 1991

The Fourth Turning: Why American ‘Crisis’ May Last Until 2030

Neil Howe Interview: ‚ÄúWe Are 8 Years Into the Fourth Turning‚ÄĚ What’s Next? | MWC 2017

Neil Howe: The World Is on the Verge of Generational Crisis

The Zeitgeist According to Steve Bannon’s Favorite Demographer Neil Howe

Neil Howe: Is Trump America‚Äôs ‚ÄėGray Champion‚Äô Like Lincoln or FDR?

Neil Howe: It’s going to get worse; more financial crises coming

Neil Howe discusses the Fourth Turning with Don Krueger of The Motley Fool | 2011

Are Generations Real? The History, The Controversy.

Generations and the Next America: Panel 1, Family and Society

Generations and the Next America: Panel 2, Politics and Policy

Jordan Peterson to Millennials: “Don’t Be A Damn Victim!”

Our Generation Is FAILING, Why Jordan Peterson Is One Remedy

Jordan Peterson Explains WHY The Youth Today are So Unhappy + Why you Shouldn’t Lie!

Jordan B. Peterson | Full interview | SVT/TV 2/Skavlan

The Next America: Generations

Barry McGuire – Eve of Destruction

EVOLUTION OF DANCE

Neil Howe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Neil Howe¬†(born October 21, 1951) is an American author and consultant. He is best known for his work with¬†William Strauss¬†on¬†social generations¬†regarding a theorized generational cycle in American history. Howe is currently the managing director of demography at Hedgeye and he is president of Saeculum Research and LifeCourse Associates, consulting companies he founded with Strauss to apply¬†Strauss‚ÄďHowe generational theory. He is also a senior associate at the¬†Center for Strategic and International Studies‘ Global Aging Initiative, and a senior advisor to the¬†Concord Coalition.

Biography

Howe was born in Santa Monica, California. His grandfather was the astronomer Robert Julius Trumpler. His father was a physicist and his mother was a professor of occupational therapy. He attended high school in Palo Alto, California, and earned a BA in English Literature at U.C. Berkeley in 1972. He studied abroad in France and Germany, and later earned graduate degrees in economics (M.A., 1978) and history (M.Phil., 1979) from Yale University.[1]

After receiving his degrees, Howe worked in Washington, D.C., as a public policy consultant on global aging, long-term fiscal policy, and migration. His positions have included advisor on public policy to the Blackstone Group, policy advisor to the Concord Coalition, and senior associate for the Global Aging Initiative at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).[2][3]

During the 1990s, Howe developed a second career as an author, historian and pop sociologist,[4] examining how generational differences shape attitudes, behaviors, and the course of history. He has since written nine books on social generations, mostly with William Strauss. In 1997 Strauss and Howe founded LifeCourse Associates, a publishing, speaking, and consulting company built on their generational theory. As president of LifeCourse, Howe currently provides marketing, personnel, and government affairs consulting to corporate and nonprofit clients, and writes and speaks about the collective personalities of today’s generations.

Howe lives in Great Falls, Virginia, and has two young adult children.[citation needed]

Work

Howe has written a number of non-academic books on generational trends. He is best known for his books with William Strauss on generations in American history. These include¬†Generations¬†(1991) and¬†The Fourth Turning¬†(1997) which examine historical generations and describe a theorized cycle of recurring mood eras in American History (now described as the¬†Strauss‚ÄďHowe generational theory).[5][6]¬†The book made a deep impression on¬†Steve Bannon, who wrote and directed¬†Generation Zero¬†(2010), a¬†Citizens United Productions¬†film on the book’s theory, prior to his becoming¬†White House Chief Strategist.[7]

Howe and Strauss also co-authored¬†13th Gen¬†(1993) about¬†Generation X, and¬†Millennials Rising¬†(2000) about the¬†Millennial Generation.[8][9]¬†Eric Hoover has called the authors pioneers in a burgeoning industry of consultants, speakers and researchers focused on generations. He wrote a critical piece about the concept of “generations” and the “Millennials” (a term coined by Strauss and Howe) for the Chronicle of Higher Education.¬†Michael Lind¬†offered his critique of Howe’s book “Generations” for¬†The New York Times Book Review.[10][11]

Howe has written a number of application books with Strauss about the Millennials’ impact on various sectors, including Millennials Go to College (2003, 2007), Millennials and the Pop Culture (2006), and Millennials and K-12 Schools (2008). After Strauss died in 2007, Howe authored Millennials in the Workplace (2010).[12]

In 1988, he coauthored On Borrowed Time with Peter G. Peterson, one of the early calls for budgetary reform (the book was reissued 2004). Since the late 1990s, Howe has also coauthored a number of academic studies published by CSIS, including the Global Aging Initiative’s Aging Vulnerability Index and The Graying of the Middle Kingdom: The Economics and Demographics of Retirement Policy in China. In 2008, he co-authored The Graying of the Great Powers with Richard Jackson.[12]

Selected bibliography

  • On Borrowed Time¬†(1988)
  • Generations¬†(1991)
  • 13th-GEN¬†(1993)
  • The Fourth Turning¬†(1997)
  • Global Aging: The Challenge of the Next Millennium¬†(1999)
  • Millennials Rising¬†(2000)
  • The 2003 Aging Vulnerability Index¬†(2003)
  • Millennials Go To College (2003, 2007)
  • The Graying of the Middle Kingdom¬†(2004)
  • Millennials and the Pop Culture¬†(2005)
  • Long-Term Immigration Projection Methods¬†(2006)
  • Millennials and K-12 Schools¬†(2008)
  • The Graying of the Great Powers¬†(2008)
  • Millennials in the Workplace¬†(2010)

Notes

  1. ^¬†Howe, Neil.¬†“Profile”. LinkedIn. Retrieved¬†4 October¬†2010.
  2. ^ Howe, Neil; Jackson, Richard; Rebecca Strauss; Keisuke Nakashima (2008). The Graying of the Great Powers. Center for Strategic and International Studies. p. 218. ISBN978-0-89206-532-5.
  3. ^¬†“Neil Howe”. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from¬†the original¬†on 2010-10-08. Retrieved¬†4 October2010.
  4. ^¬†“Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation”. Publisher Weekly. Retrieved¬†8 February¬†2017.
  5. ^¬†Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1991).¬†Generations:The History of America’s Future 1584-2069. New York: William Morrow and Company.¬†ISBN0-688-08133-9.
  6. ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1997). The Fourth Turning. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN0-7679-0046-4.
  7. ^¬†Peters, Jeremy W. (9 April 2017).¬†“Bannon’s Views Can Be Traced to a Book That Warns, ‘Winter Is Coming.¬†The New York Times. p.¬†A20. Retrieved¬†13 April¬†2017.
  8. ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1993). 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?. New York: Vintage Print. ISBN0-679-74365-0.
  9. ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (2000). Millennials Rising. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN0-375-70719-0.
  10. ^¬†Hoover, Eric (2009-10-11).¬†“The Millennial Muddle: How stereotyping students became a thriving industry and a bundle of contradictions”.¬†The Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc. Retrieved¬†2011-01-11.
  11. ^¬†Michael Lind¬†(January 26, 1997).¬†“Generation Gaps”.¬†The New York Times Book Review. Retrieved¬†1 November¬†2010.
  12. ^ Jump up to:ab Howe, Neil; Reena Nadler (2010). Millennials in the Workplace. LifeCourse Associates. p. 246. ISBN978-0-9712606-4-1.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Howe

 

William Strauss

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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William Strauss
William Strauss.jpg
Born December 5, 1947

Died December 18, 2007 (aged 60)

Nationality American
Alma mater Harvard University
Occupation
  • author
  • playwright
  • theatre director
  • lecturer
Known¬†for Strauss‚ÄďHowe generational theory,¬†Capitol Steps,¬†Cappies

William Strauss¬†(December 5, 1947 ‚Äď December 18, 2007) was an American author, playwright, theater director, and lecturer. As an author, he is known for his work with¬†Neil Howe¬†on social generations and for¬†Strauss‚ÄďHowe generational theory. He is also known as the co-founder and director of the satirical musical theater group the¬†Capitol Steps, and as the co-founder of the¬†Cappies, a critics and awards program for high school theater students.

 

Biography

Strauss was born in Chicago and grew up in Burlingame, California. He graduated from Harvard University in 1969. In 1973, he received a JD from Harvard Law School and a master’s in public policy from Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government,[1] where he was a member of the program’s first graduating class.[2]

After receiving his degrees, Strauss worked in Washington, DC as a policy aid to the Presidential Clemency Board, directing a research team writing a report on the impact of the Vietnam War on the generation that was drafted. In 1978, Strauss and Lawrence Baskir co-authored two books on the Vietnam War, Chance and Circumstance, and Reconciliation after Vietnam. Strauss later worked at the U.S. Department of Energy and as a committee staffer for Senator Charles Percy, and in 1980 he became chief counsel and staff director of the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Government Processes.[1]

In 1981, Strauss organized a group of senate staffers to perform satirical songs at the annual office Christmas party of his employer, Senator Percy. The group was so successful that Strauss went on to co-found a professional satirical troupe, the Capitol Steps, with Elaina Newport. The Capitol Steps is now a $3 million company with more than 40 employees who perform at venues across the country.[1] As director, Strauss wrote many of the songs, performed regularly off Broadway, and recorded 27 albums.

External video
 Booknotes interview with Strauss and Neil Howe on Generations, April 14, 1991, C-SPAN

During the 1990s, Strauss developed another career as an historian and pop sociologist,[3] examining how generational differences shape attitudes, behaviors, and the course of history. He wrote seven books on social generations with Neil Howe, beginning with Generations in 1991.[4] In 1997, Strauss and Howe founded LifeCourse Associates, a publishing, speaking, and consulting company built on their generational theory. As a partner at LifeCourse, Strauss worked as a corporate, nonprofit, education, and government affairs consultant.

In 1999, Strauss received a diagnosis of¬†pancreatic cancer. This prompted him to found the¬†Cappies, a program to inspire the next generation of theater performers and writers.[1]¬†Now an international program including hundreds of high schools, Cappies allows students to attend and review each other’s plays and musicals, publish reviews in major newspapers, and hold Tonys-style Cappies award Galas, in which Strauss acted as MC for the Fairfax County program. Strauss also founded¬†Cappies International Theater, a summer program in which top Cappies winners perform plays and musicals written by teenagers.[5]¬†In 2006 and 2007, Strauss advised creative teams of students who wrote two new musicals,¬†Edit:Undo¬†and¬†Senioritis.¬†Senioritis¬†was made into a movie that was released in 2007.[6]

Death

Strauss died of pancreatic cancer in his home in McLean, Virginia. His wife of 34 years, Janie Strauss, lives in McLean and is a member of the Fairfax County School Board. They have four grown children.

Work

Strauss authored multiple books on social generations, as well as a number of plays and musicals.

In 1978, he and Lawrence Baskir co-authored¬†Chance and Circumstance, a book about the Vietnam-era draft. Their second book,¬†Reconciliation After Vietnam¬†(1978) “was said to have influenced” President¬†Jimmy Carter‘s blanket¬†pardon¬†of¬†Vietnam draft resisters.[1]

Strauss’s books with Neil Howe include¬†Generations¬†(1991) and¬†The Fourth Turning¬†(1997), which examine historical generations and describe a theorized cycle of recurring mood eras in American History (now described as the¬†Strauss-Howe generational theory).[7][8]¬†The book made a deep impression on¬†Steve Bannon, who wrote and directed¬†Generation Zero¬†(2010), a¬†Citizens United Productions¬†film on the book’s theory, prior to his becoming¬†White House Chief Strategist.[9]

Howe and Strauss also co-authored 13th Gen (1993) about Generation X, and Millennials Rising (2000) about the Millennial Generation.[10][11]

Eric Hoover has called the authors pioneers in a burgeoning industry of consultants, speakers and researchers focused on generations. He wrote a critical piece about the concept of “generations” and the “Millennials” (a term coined by Strauss and Howe) for the Chronicle of Higher Education.[12]¬†Michael Lind offered his critique of Howe’s book “Generations” for the New York Times.[13]

Strauss also wrote a number of application books with Howe about the Millennials’ impact on various sectors, including Millennials Go to College (2003, 2007), Millennials in the Pop Culture (2005), and Millennials in K-12 Schools (2008).

Strauss wrote three musicals, MaKiddo, Free-the-Music.com, and Anasazi, and two plays, Gray Champions and The Big Bump, about various themes in the books he has co-authored with Howe. He also co-wrote two books of political satire with Elaina Newport, Fools on the Hill (1992) and Sixteen Scandals (2002).[14]

Selected bibliography

Books

  • Chance and Circumstance¬†(1978)
  • Reconciliation After Vietnam¬†(1978)
  • Generations¬†(1991)
  • Fools on the Hill¬†(1992)
  • 13th-GEN¬†(1993)
  • The Fourth Turning¬†(1997)
  • Millennials Rising¬†(2000)
  • Sixteen Scandals¬†(2002)
  • Millennials Go To College¬†(2003, 2007)
  • Millennials and the Pop Culture¬†(2006)
  • Millennials and K-12 Schools¬†(2008)

Plays and musicals

  • MaKiddo¬†(2000)
  • Free-the-Music.com¬†(2001)
  • The Big Bump¬†(2001)
  • Anasazi¬†(2004)
  • Gray Champions¬†(2005)

Notes

  1. ^¬†Jump up to:a¬†b¬†c¬†d¬†e¬†Holley, Joe (December 19, 2007).¬†“Bill Strauss, 60; Political Insider Who Stepped Into Comedy”.¬†Washington Post.
  2. ^¬†“Harvard Kennedy School-History”. Retrieved¬†October 5,2010.
  3. ^¬†“Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation”. Publisher Weekly. Retrieved¬†February 8,¬†2017.
  4. ^¬†“William Strauss, Founding Partner”. LifeCourse Associates. Retrieved¬†October 5,¬†2010.
  5. ^¬†Martin, Noah (August 5, 2008).¬†“The Joy of Capppies”.¬†Centre View Northern Edition. Retrieved¬†October 5,¬†2010.
  6. ^¬†Toppo, Gregg (July 31, 2007).¬†“A School Musical in Their Own Words”.¬†USA Today. Retrieved¬†October 5,¬†2010.
  7. ^¬†Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1991).¬†Generations:The History of America’s Future 1584‚Äď2069. New York: William Morrow and Company.¬†ISBN¬†0-688-08133-9.
  8. ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1997). The Fourth Turning. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-0046-4.
  9. ^¬†Peters, Jeremy W. (April 9, 2017).¬†“Bannon’s Views Can Be Traced to a Book That Warns, ‘Winter Is Coming.¬†The New York Times. p.¬†A20. Retrieved¬†April 13,¬†2017.
  10. ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (1993). 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?. New York: Vintage Print. ISBN 0-679-74365-0.
  11. ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (2000). Millennials Rising. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-70719-0.
  12. ^¬†Hoover, Eric (October 11, 2009).¬†“The Millennial Muddle: How stereotyping students became a thriving industry and a bundle of contradictions”.¬†The Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc. Retrieved¬†January 11,¬†2011.
  13. ^¬†Lind, Michael (January 26, 1997).¬†“Generation Gaps”.¬†New York Times Review of Books. Retrieved¬†November 1,¬†2010.
  14. ^¬†“William Strauss”.¬†williamstrauss.com. Retrieved¬†October 5,2010.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Strauss

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Dian Fossey — When you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate more on the preservation of the future — Videos

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The Lost Film of Dian Fossey DOCUMENTARY (2002)

Dian’s Active Conservation | Dian Fossey: Secrets in the Mist

Dian Fossey Narrates Her Life With Gorillas in This Vintage Footage | National Geographic

Dian Fossey, Digit’s death

Mountain Gorillas’ Survival: Dian Fossey‚Äôs Legacy Lives On | Short Film Showcase

Who Killed Dian Fossey? | Dian Fossey: Secrets in the Mist

Gorillas In The Mountain Mist [Gorilla Survival Documentary] | Real Wild

Dian Fossey: Secrets in the Mist | National Geographic

Mountain Gorillas’ Survival: Dian Fossey‚Äôs Legacy Lives On | Short Film Showcase

Dina Fossey Exibit Board Project

Dian Fossey: No One Loved Gorillas More

Dian Fossey Biography and Tribute by Grace Stevens

Maybe It Wasn’t Poachers? | Dian Fossey: Secrets in the Mist

Dian Fossey’s death

New documentary reveals who they believe killed gorilla campaigner dian fossey

In loving memory of Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey’s Grave Visited by Friends in Rwanda September 4, 2017

Mountain gorilla researcher Dian Fossey died in 1985, yet nearly two years later her grave at her Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda had no headstone. Evelyn Gallardo and David Root held fundraisers in Manhattan Beach and Hermosa Beach California where their friends and neighbors raised $10,000 to send a bronze grave marker and to hire a anti-poaching patrol to protect the mountain gorillas Dian had devoted her life to

Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International 50th Anniversary Video

The Diana Fossey Gorilla Fund

 

Dian Fossey’s Early Days

dianhistoric3244Dian Fossey was born in San Francisco, Calif., in 1932. Her parents divorced when she was young, so Dian grew up with her mother and stepfather. By all accounts, she was an excellent student and was extremely interested in animals from a very young age. At age 6, she began horseback riding lessons and in high school earned a letter on the riding team.

When Dian enrolled in college courses at Marin Junior College, she chose to focus on business, following the encouragement of her stepfather, a wealthy businessman. She worked while in school, and at age 19, on the summer break following her freshman year of college, she went to work on a ranch in Montana. At the ranch, she fell in love with and developed an attachment to the animals, but she was forced to leave early when she contracted chicken pox.

Even so, the experience convinced Dian to follow her heart and return to school as a pre-veterinary student at the University of California. She found some of the chemistry and physics courses quite challenging, and ultimately, she turned her focus to a degree in occupational therapy at San Jose State College, from which she graduated in 1954.

1948Following graduation, Dian interned at various hospitals in California, working with tuberculosis patients. After less than a year she moved to Louisville, Ky., where she was hired as director of the occupational therapy department at Kosair Crippled Children Hospital. She enjoyed working with the people of Kentucky and lived outside the city limits in a cottage on a farm where the owners encouraged her to help work with the animals.

Dian enjoyed her experience on the farm, but she dreamed of seeing more of the world and its abundant wildlife. A friend traveled to Africa and brought home pictures and stories of her exciting vacation. Once Dian saw the photos and heard the stories, she decided that she must travel there herself.

She spent many years longing to visit Africa and realized that if her dream were to be realized, she would have to take matters into her own hands. Therefore, in 1963, Dian took out a bank loan and began planning her first trip to Africa. She hired a driver by mail and prepared to set off to the land of her dreams.

Dian Fossey Tours Africa (1963)

It took Dian Fossey’s entire life savings, in addition a bank loan, to make her dream a reality. In September 1963, she arrived in Kenya. Her trip included visits to Kenya, Tanzania (then Tanganyika), Congo (then Zaire), and Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia). John Alexander, a British hunter, served as her guide. The route he planned included Tsavo, Africa’s largest national park; the saline lake of Manyara, famous for attracting giant flocks of flamingos; and the Ngorongoro Crater, well-known for its abundant wildlife.

The final two sites on her tour were Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania ‚ÄĒ the archaeological site of Louis and Mary Leakey ‚ÄĒ and Mt. Mikeno in Congo, where in 1959 American zoologist Dr. George Schaller carried out a pioneering study of the mountain gorilla. Schaller was the first person to conduct a reliable field study of the mountain gorillas, and his efforts paved the way for the research that would become Dian Fossey‚Äôs life work.

A Turning Point: Dian Fossey Visits Dr. Louis Leakey

‚ÄúI believe it was at this time the seed was planted in my head, even if unconsciously, that I would someday return to Africa to study the gorillas of the mountains.‚Ä̬†¬†‚ÄĒ ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist‚ÄĚ

Dr. Louis B. LeakeyVisiting with Dr. Louis Leakey at Olduvai Gorge was an experience that Dian would later point to as a pivotal moment in her life. During their visit, Leakey talked to Dian about Jane Goodall’s work with chimpanzees in Tanzania, which at the time was only in its third year. He also shared with her his belief in the importance of long-term field studies with the great apes.

Leakey gave Dian permission to have a look around some newly excavated sites while she was at Olduvai. Unfortunately, in her excitement, she slipped down a steep slope, fell onto a recently excavated dig and broke her ankle. The impending climb that would take Dian to the mountain gorillas was at risk, but she would not be discouraged so easily. By her own account, after her fall, she was more resolved than ever to get to the gorillas.

Dian Fossey’s First Encounter with Gorillas

On Oct. 16, Dian visited the Travellers Rest, a small hotel in Uganda, close to the Virunga Mountains and their mountain gorillas. The hotel was owned by Walter Baumgartel, an advocate for gorilla conservation and among the first to see the benefits that tourism could bring to the area.

Baumgartel recommended that Dian meet with Joan and Alan Root, wildlife photographers from Kenya, who were collecting footage of the mountain gorillas for a photographic documentary. The Roots allowed Dian to camp behind their cabin and, after a few days, took her into the forest to search for gorillas. When they did come upon a group of gorillas and Dian was able to observe and photograph them, she developed a firm resolve to come back and study these beautiful creatures, As she describes in ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist‚ÄĚ:

‚ÄúIt was their individuality combined with the shyness of their behavior that remained the most captivating impression of this first encounter with the greatest of the great apes. I left Kabara with reluctance but with never a doubt that I would, somehow, return to learn more about the gorillas of the misted mountains.‚ÄĚ

Following her visit to the Virungas, Dian remained in Africa a while longer, staying with friends in Rhodesia. Upon arriving home in Kentucky, she resumed her work at Kosair Children‚Äôs Hospital, in order to repay the loan she had taken out for her trip to Africa ‚Äď all the while dreaming of the day she would return.

Dian Fossey Sets Off to Study the Mountain Gorillas

As Dian Fossey continued her work in Kentucky at Kosair Children’s Hospital, she also found time to publish a number of articles and photographs from her Africa trip. These would serve her well in the spring of 1966, when a lecture tour brought Dr. Louis Leakey to Louisville. Dian joined the crowd and waited in line to speak with Leakey. When her turn came, she showed him some of the published articles.

This got his attention and during the conversation that followed, Leakey spoke to Dian about heading a long-term field project to study the gorillas in Africa. Leakey informed Dian that if she were to follow through, she would first have to have her appendix removed. Perhaps it was a sign of her strong will that she proceeded to do exactly that, only to later hear from Leakey that his suggestion was mainly his way of gauging her determination!

It was eight months before Leakey was able to secure the funding for the study. Dian used that time to finish paying off her initial trip to Africa and to study. She focused on a ‚ÄúTeach Yourself Swahili‚ÄĚ grammar book and George Schaller‚Äôs books about his own field studies with the mountain gorillas. Saying goodbye to family, friends, and her beloved dogs proved difficult:

‚ÄúThere was no way that I could explain to dogs, friends, or parents my compelling need to return to Africa to launch a long-term study of the gorillas. Some may call it destiny and others may call it dismaying. I call the sudden turn of events in my life fortuitous.‚Ä̬†‚ÄĒ ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist‚ÄĚ

Jane Goodall, Birute GaldikasIn December 1966, Dian was again on her way to Africa. She arrived in Nairobi, and with the help of Joan Root, she acquired the necessary provisions. She set off for the Congo in an old canvas-topped Land Rover named ‚ÄúLily,‚ÄĚ that Dr. Leakey had purchased for her. On the way, Dian made a stop to visit the Gombe Stream Research Centre to meet Jane Goodall and observe her research methods with chimpanzees.

Kabara: Beginnings (1966/1967)

Alan Root accompanied Dian Fossey from Kenya to the Congo and was instrumental in helping her obtain the permits she needed to work in the Virungas. He helped her recruit two African men who would stay and work with her at camp, as well as porters to carry her belongings and gear to the Kabara meadow. Root also helped her set up camp and gave her a brief introduction to gorilla tracking. It was only when he left, and after two days at Kabara that Dian realized just how alone she was. Soon, however, tracking the mountain gorillas would become her single focus, to the exclusion even of simple camp chores.

On her first day of trekking, after only a 10-minute walk, Dian was rewarded with the sight of a lone male gorilla sunning himself. The startled gorilla retreated into the vegetation as she approached, but Dian was encouraged by the encounter. Shortly thereafter, Senwekwe, an experienced gorilla tracker, who had worked with Joan and Alan Root in 1963, joined Dian, and the prospects for more sightings improved.

Slowly, Dian settled into life at Kabara. Space was limited; her 7-by-10-foot tent served as bedroom, bath, office and clothes-drying area (an effort that often seemed futile in the wet climate of the rainforest). Meals were prepared in a run-down wooden building and rarely included local fruits and vegetables, other than potatoes. Dian‚Äôs mainstay was tinned food and potatoes cooked in every way imaginable. Once a month, she would hike down the mountain to her Land Rover, ‚ÄúLily,‚ÄĚ and make the two-hour drive to the village of Kikumba to restock the pantry.

Senwekwe proved invaluable as a tracker and taught Dian much of what she came to know about tracking. With his help and considerable patience, she eventually identified three gorilla groups in her area of study along the slopes of Mt. Mikeno.

Dian Fossey Learns to Habituate the Gorillas

‚ÄúThe Kabara groups taught me much regarding gorilla behavior. From them I learned to accept the animals on their own terms and never to push them beyond the varying levels of tolerance they were willing to give. Any observer is an intruder in the domain of a wild animal and must remember that the rights of that animal supersede human interests.‚Ä̬†‚ÄĒ ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist‚ÄĚ

highres_dianfosseyhistoric0014Initially, the gorillas would flee into the vegetation as soon as Dian approached. Observing them openly and from a distance, over time, she gained their acceptance. She put the gorillas at ease by imitating regular activities like scratching and feeding, and copying their contentment vocalizations.

Through her observations, she began to identify the individuals that made up each group. Like George Schaller before her, Dian relied heavily on the gorillas‚Äô individual ‚Äúnoseprints‚ÄĚ for purposes of identification. She sketched the gorillas and their noseprints from a distance and slowly came to recognize individuals within the three distinct groups in her study area. She learned much from their behavior and kept detailed records of their daily encounters.

Escape from Zaire

Dian Fossey worked tirelessly, every day carrying a pack weighing nearly 20 pounds (some days nearly double that) until the day she was driven from camp by the worsening political situation in Congo. On July 9, 1967, she and Senwekwe returned to camp to find armed soldiers waiting for them. There was a rebellion in the Kivu Province of Zaire and the soldiers had come to ‚Äúescort‚ÄĚ her down the mountain to safety.

She spent two weeks in Rumangabo under military guard until, on July 26, she was able to orchestrate her escape. She offered the guards cash if they would simply take her to Kisoro, Uganda, to register ‚ÄúLily‚ÄĚ properly and then bring her back. The guards could not resist and agreed to provide an escort. Once in Kisoro, Dian went straight to the Travellers Rest Hotel, where Walter Baumg√§rtel immediately called the Ugandan military. The soldiers from Zaire were arrested, and Dian was safe.

In Kisoro, Dian was interrogated and warned not to return to Zaire. After more questioning in Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, she finally flew back to Nairobi where she met with Dr. Leakey for the first time in seven months. There they decided, against the advice of the U.S. Embassy, that Dian would continue her work on the Rwandan side of the Virungas.

Dian Fossey founds Karisoke (1967)

‚ÄúMore than a decade later as I now sit writing these words at camp, the same stretch of alpine meadow is visible from my desk window. The sense of exhilaration I felt when viewing the heartland of the Virungas for the first time from those distant heights is as vivid now as though it had occurred only a short time ago. I have made my home among the mountain gorillas.‚Ä̬†‚ÄĒ ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist‚ÄĚ

Much of Dian Fossey’s success in the study of mountain gorillas came from the help of people she met along the way. This would prove true once again as she moved her focus to Volcanoes National Park on the Rwandan side of the Virungas. In Rwanda, Dian met a woman named Rosamond Carr, who had lived in Rwanda for some years and was familiar with the country.

Carr introduced Dian to a Belgian woman, Alyette DeMunck, who was born in the Kivu Province of Zaire and lived in the Congo from an early age, remaining there with her husband until the political situation forced them to move to Rwanda. Alyette and Dian became fast friends, and Alyette became one of Dian’s staunchest supporters in the years to come.

Alyette DeMunck knew a great deal about Rwanda, its people, and their ways. She offered to help Dian find an appropriate site for her new camp and renewed study of the mountain gorillas of the Virungas. At first, Dian was disappointed to find the slopes of Mt. Karisimbi crowded with herds of cattle and frequent signs of poachers. She was rewarded, however, after nearly two weeks, when Dian reached the alpine meadow of Karisimbi, where she had a view of the entire Virunga chain of extinct volcanoes.

KarisokeSo it was, on Sept. 24, 1967, that Dian Fossey established the Karisoke Research Center ‚ÄĒ ‚ÄúKari‚ÄĚ for the first four letters of Mt. Karisimbi that overlooked her camp from the south and ‚Äúsoke‚ÄĚ for the last four letters of Mt. Visoke, the slopes of which rose to the north, directly behind camp.

‚ÄúLittle did I know then that by setting up two small tents in the wilderness of the Virungas I had launched the beginnings of what was to become an internationally renowned research station eventually to be utilized by students and scientists from many countries.‚Ä̬†‚ÄĒ ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist‚ÄĚ

Dian Fossey’s Work at Karisoke Gets Underway

Dian faced a number of challenges while setting up camp at Karisoke. Upon the departure of her friend Alyette, she was left with no interpreter. Dian spoke Swahili and the Rwandan men she had hired spoke only Kinyarwanda. Slowly, and with the aid of hand gestures and facial expressions, they learned to communicate. A second and very significant challenge was that of gaining ‚Äúacceptance‚ÄĚ among the gorillas in the area so that meaningful research could be done in close proximity to them. This would require that the gorillas overcome their shy nature and natural fear of humans.

dianhistoric3259George Schaller’s earlier work served as a basis for the techniques Dian would use to habituate the gorillas to her presence. Schaller laid out suggestions in his book, The Mountain Gorilla, which Fossey used to guide herself through the process of successfully habituating six groups of gorillas in the Kabara region.

At Karisoke, Dian continued to rely on Schaller‚Äôs work and the guidelines he set forth. She also came to depend on the gorillas‚Äô natural curiosity in the habituation process. While walking or standing upright increased their apprehension, she was able to get quite close when she ‚Äúknuckle-walked.‚ÄĚ She would also chew on celery when she was near the groups, to draw them even closer to her. Through this process, she partially habituated four groups of gorillas in 1968.

It was also in 1968 that the National Geographic Society sent photographer Bob Campbell to photograph her work. Initially, Dian saw his presence as an intrusion, but they would eventually become close friends. His photographs of Fossey among the mountain gorillas launched her into instant celebrity, forever changing the image of the gorillas from dangerous beasts to gentle beings and drawing attention to their plight.

Gaining Scientific Credentials

Dian Fossey never felt entirely up to the scientific aspects of studying the mountain gorillas because she did not have, in her view, adequate academic qualifications.

To rectify this, she enrolled in the department of animal behavior at Darwin College, Cambridge, in 1970. There, she studied under Dr. Robert Hinde, who had also been Jane Goodall’s supervisor. She traveled between Cambridge and Africa until 1974, when she completed her Ph.D.

Armed with the degree, she believed that she could be taken more seriously. It also enhanced her ability to continue her work, command respect, and most importantly, secure more funding.

Protecting the Gorillas

Even as Dian celebrated her daily achievements in collecting data and gaining acceptance among both the mountain gorillas and the world at large, she became increasingly aware of the threats the gorillas faced from poachers and cattle herders. Although gorillas were not usually the targets, they became ensnared in traps intended for other animals, particularly antelope or buffalo.

Dian fought both poachers and encroachment by herds of cattle through unorthodox methods: wearing masks to scare poachers, burning snares, spray-painting cattle to discourage herders from bringing them into the park, and, on occasion, taking on poachers directly, forcing confrontation.

She referred to her tactics as ‚Äúactive conservation,‚ÄĚ convinced that without immediate and decisive action, other long-term conservation goals would be useless as there would eventually be nothing left to save.

These tactics were not popular among locals who were struggling to get by. Additionally, the park guards were not equipped to enforce the laws protecting the forest and its inhabitants.

As a last resort, Dian used her own funds to help purchase boots, uniforms, food and provide additional wages to encourage park wardens to be more active in enforcing anti-poaching laws. These efforts spawned the first Karisoke anti-poaching patrols, whose job was to protect the gorillas in the research area.

Dian Fossey and Digit

Digit - 1st proximal contactIn the course of her years of research, Dian established herself as a true friend of the mountain gorilla.  However, there was one gorilla with whom she formed a particularly close bond. Named Digit, he was roughly 5 years old and living in Group 4 when she encountered him in 1967. He had a damaged finger on his right hand (hence, the name) and no playmates his age in his group. He was drawn to her and her to him. Over time, a true friendship would form.

Tragically, on Dec. 31, 1977, Digit was killed by poachers. He died helping to defend his group, allowing them to escape safely. He was stabbed multiple times and his head and hands were severed. Eventually, there would be more deaths, including that of the dominant silverback Uncle Bert, and Group 4 would disband. It was then that Dian Fossey declared war on the poachers.

Digit had been part of a famous photo shoot with Bob Campbell and, as a result, had served as the official representative of the park‚Äôs mountain gorillas, appearing on posters and in travel bureaus throughout the world. After much internal debate, Dian used his celebrity and his tragic death to gain attention and support for gorilla conservation. She established the Digit Fund to raise money for her ‚Äúactive conservation‚ÄĚ and anti-poaching initiatives. The Digit Fund would later be renamed the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International (Fossey Fund).

Dian and DIgit

In 1980, Dian moved to Ithaca, New York, as a visiting associate professor at Cornell University. She used the time away from Karisoke to focus on the manuscript for her book, ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist.‚ÄĚ Published in 1983, the book is an account of her years in the rainforest with the mountain gorillas. Most importantly, it underscores the need for concerted conservation efforts. The book was well received and, like the movie of the same name, remains popular to this day.

Field Museum, Chicago

Dian Fossey’s Death (1985)

Dian had not been back in Rwanda long when, a few weeks before her 54th birthday, she was murdered. Her body was found in her cabin on the morning of Dec. 27, 1985. She was struck twice on the head and face with a machete. There was evidence of forced entry but no signs that robbery had been the motive.

Dian Fossey's graveTheories about Dian Fossey’s murder are varied but have never been fully resolved. She was laid to rest in the graveyard behind her cabin at Karisoke, among her gorilla friends and next to her beloved Digit.

‚ÄúWhen you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate on the preservation of the future.‚Ä̬†‚ÄĒ ‚ÄúGorillas in the Mist‚ÄĚ

 

 

Continue Dian Fossey’s legacy by supporting the Fossey Fund’s gorilla protection work.

Dian Fossey Biography

The Gorilla KingMore on Dian Fossey and Her Research

It was from a small hut in Rwanda that researcher and conservationist Dian Fossey observed that while gorillas may sometimes act tough, they are really gentle giants.

Fossey is one of the most famous scientists in the world, but her path to greatness was a meandering one. While she had always been interested in animals, her bachelor’s degree was in occupational therapy. One year, after hearing stories and seeing pictures from a friend’s vacation in Africa, Fossey decided that she would visit there herself. In 1963, she gathered all of her savings and took out a three-year loan. She set a course for Africa, planning stops in Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, and Zimbabwe. She didn’t know it yet, but this trip would change her life forever.

At Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, one of the final stops on her journey, Fossey met archaeologist Louis Leakey. During the visit, Dr. Leakey told Fossey of Jane Goodall’s research with chimps, which at that point had just barely begun. They also discussed the importance of long-term research on the great apes. Fossey later said that this meeting planted the idea in her head that she would one day return to study the gorillas of Africa.

Early Research

Fossey began her long-term study of mountain gorillas in 1966, eventually establishing her ‚ÄúKarisoke‚ÄĚ Research Center camp on Sept. 24, 1967, in an area between Mt. Visoke and Mt. Karisimbi, merging the names of the two volcanoes to create the name ‚ÄúKarisoke.‚ÄĚ

She lived among the mountain gorillas for nearly 20 years keeping detailed journals to record everything she observed, and forging close relationships with individual gorillas as she gained their trust. She shared her thoughts and the results of her findings with the world, teaching us that gorillas are not monsters but social beings full of curiosity and affection. Her work paved the way for international support of mountain gorilla conservation and research, but her life was tragically cut short as a result of her efforts. She was found murdered in her cabin in Karisoke on December 26, 1985.

In 1988, the life and work of Fossey were portrayed in a movie based on her book. In the film Gorillas in the Mist, Sigourney Weaver starred as Fossey and later became the honorary chairperson of what is now the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International.

The film started a wave of curiosity about mountain gorillas and started a whole new industry of ‚Äúgorilla tourism,‚ÄĚ which has been a financial boon for conservation efforts, as well as a deterrent against poachers fearful of being discovered.

Fossey and Other Close Encounters

Dian Fossey with a gorillaDian Fossey started a process of ‚Äėhabituation‚Äô that enabled her to work closely with the gorillas.

Just last year, in the Bwindi National Park in Uganda, a group of eight tourists quietly observed a family of mountain gorillas just a few yards away. After fifty-five minutes, a large male approached one of the tourists and gave him a big ‚Äúhigh-five.‚ÄĚ

‚ÄúThe gorilla probably approached him because he had a lot of body hair,‚ÄĚ said Chuck Nichols, who ran the two-week gorilla tour in Uganda. Nichols owns a tour company based in Moab, Utah that specializes in small-group adventure tours around the world.

‚ÄúThe gorillas are not scary,‚ÄĚ Nichols said, explaining that, actually, he has to make sure the gorillas are not the ones running scared. ‚ÄúA tracker must accompany the group, and people are only allowed to observe the gorillas for one hour,‚ÄĚ he said. He also makes sure the groups are healthy since he does not want to stand the chance of passing on infectious diseases to the animals.

Sadly, these peaceful animals may not survive into the next century. Ape conservationists say time is running out, as there are only about 720 mountain gorillas left in the world, and the majority of gorilla populations are plummeting.

From the beginning, Fossey focused attention on the gorillas’ plight and saw clearly that they were doomed unless people could learn how to share forest resources with these great apes. She understood that they needed our protection if they were to survive, and gave her life in the struggle to protect them from poachers.

Like Fossey, biologists are becoming activists by necessity and are putting their lives on the line to save these great apes. In fact, conservation professionals and many national park staff have lost their lives in the course of duty because until now, their efforts have been poorly enforced. Today, ape conservation organizations, like the Great Apes Survival Project (GRASP) have come together to partner with Fossey’s Gorilla Fund in a last-ditch effort to unify existing conservation efforts.

In the mountains east of the Congo River Basin, human-transmitted pathogens have taken a heavy toll, and the hope is that GRASP will succeed in protecting the gorillas. Gorillas are closely related to humans and susceptible to the same diseases that we are; however, they have not developed the immunities to resist human diseases, making them vulnerable to infections that could spread and severely deplete an entire population.

Habituated gorilla groups (those that are visited by tourists) have the greatest risk, which is why tourists are not permitted to go near the gorillas if they feel sick. But, according to Melanie Virtue, a team leader for GRASP, this is hard to enforce, especially due to the amount of money that is spent to view these animals.

‚ÄúYou can imagine that a tourist traveling a great distance to see these animals, of which they have probably dreamed their entire lives, is going to be quite hesitant to say, ‚ÄėNo, I am not feeling well and don‚Äôt want to endanger them,’‚ÄĚ Virtue explains.

Today, the Karisoke Research Center that Fossey established is conducting a Tourism Impact Study, using both behavioral and physiological data (urine and fecal samples) to assess the impact of tourism on the Virunga mountain gorilla population.

‚ÄúAlmost certainly the biggest factor in the conservation success with this species has been the income they generate from gorilla tourism, so if you can afford it, going to see these amazing animals in the wild really is helping to ensure their survival,‚ÄĚ said David Jay, senior officer of Born Free, an ape conservation organization that works with GRASP.

The future of these great apes will certainly depend on tourists’ interest in seeing these apes first-hand and that people show continued concern for their safety, according to Jay.

Fossey had the courage to follow gorillas among the steep ravines of a 14,000-foot volcano over 40 years ago, and so made it possible for all of us to follow in her footsteps.

More on Dian Fossey and Her Research

Gorillas in the Mist The Story of Dian Fossey (1988)

See the source imageSee the source imageSee the source imageSee the source imageSee the source imageSee the source image

Gorillas in the Mist ‚ÄĘ Behind the Scenes Featurette

Baby Mountain Gorilla | Gorillas Revisited with Sigourney Weaver | BBC

Destroying Snares | Gorillas Revisited with Sigourney Weaver | BBC

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Gorilla Manners | Gorillas Revisited with Sigourney Weaver | BBC

Sigourney Weaver Teaches Ellen How to Interact with Gorillas

Among Mountain Gorillas

Touched by a Wild Mountain Gorilla (short)

NEW – (short version) – An incredible chance encounter with a family of wild Mountain Gorillas in Uganda. Check blog.commonflat.com for more photos and background on this once in a lifetime experience.

Mountain Gorilla: A Shattered Kingdom! | Real Wild

Titus Gorilla King documentary english in HD part 1

Titus Gorilla King documentary english in HD part 2

Titus Gorilla King documentary english in HD part 3

Gorillas and Wildlife of Uganda HD

Saving Mountain Gorillas, for NTV Kenya

When Mountain Gorillas Attack

Gorillas – Kings of the jungle

Goodall, Fossey & Galdikas: Great Minds

One of “Leakey’s Angels”: Galdikas’ Quest to Save the Red Ape (Birute Galdikas)

Orangutan – Man Of The Forest HD

Orangutan National Geographic Documentary HD

Saving Baby Orangutans From Smuggling | Foreign Correspondent

Dr. Birute’ Mary Galdikas speaks at CWU

Gorilla Documentary – Gorillas: 98.6% Human | Explore Films

Heart-warming moment Damian Aspinall’s wife Victoria is accepted by wild gorillas OFFICIAL VIDEO

Dian Fossey

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Dian Fossey
Dian Fossey.jpg

Dian Fossey in November 1984
Born January 16, 1932

Died c.‚ÄČDecember 26, 1985¬†(aged¬†53)

Cause of death Murder
Resting place Karisoke Research Center
Citizenship United States
Alma mater
Known for Study and conservation of the mountain gorilla
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
Thesis The behaviour of the mountain gorilla (1976)
Doctoral advisor Robert Hinde
Influences

Dian Fossey¬†(/da…™ňą√¶n/; January 16, 1932 ‚Ästc.‚ÄČDecember 26, 1985) was an American¬†primatologist¬†and conservationist known for undertaking an extensive study of¬†mountain gorilla¬†groups from 1966 until her 1985 murder.[1]¬†She studied them daily in the mountain forests of¬†Rwanda, initially encouraged to work there by¬†paleoanthropologist¬†Louis Leakey.¬†Gorillas in the Mist, a book published two years before her death, is Fossey’s account of her scientific study of the gorillas at¬†Karisoke Research Center¬†and prior career. It was adapted into a¬†1988 film of the same name.[2]

Fossey was one of the foremost primatologists in the world, a member of the so-called¬†“Trimates”, a group formed of prominent female scientists originally sent by Leakey to study great apes in their natural environments, along with¬†Jane Goodall¬†who studied¬†chimpanzees, and¬†Birutńó Galdikas, who studied¬†orangutans.¬†[3][4]

During her time in Rwanda, she actively supported conservation efforts, strongly opposed poaching and tourism in wildlife habitats, and made more people acknowledge sapient gorillas. Fossey and her gorillas were victims of mobbing; she was brutally murdered in her cabin at a remote camp in Rwanda in December 1985. It has been theorized that her murder was linked to her conservation efforts, probably by a poacher.

Contents

Life and career

Fossey was born in¬†San Francisco,¬†California, the daughter of Kathryn “Kitty” (n√©e¬†Kidd), a fashion model, and George E. Fossey III, an insurance agent.[2]¬†Her parents divorced when she was six.[5]¬†Her mother remarried the following year, to businessman Richard Price. Her father tried to keep in full contact, but her mother discouraged it, and all contact was subsequently lost.[6]¬†Fossey’s stepfather, Richard Price, never treated her as his own child. He would not allow Fossey to sit at the dining room table with him or her mother during dinner meals.[7]¬†A man adhering to strict discipline, Richard Price offered Fossey little to no emotional support.[8]¬†Struggling with personal insecurity, Fossey turned to animals as a way to gain acceptance.[9]¬†Her love for animals began with her first pet goldfish and continued throughout her entire life.[7]¬†At age six, she began riding horses, earning a letter from her school; by her graduation in 1954, Fossey had established herself as an¬†equestrienne.

Education

Educated at¬†Lowell High School, following the guidance of her stepfather she enrolled in a business course at the¬†College of Marin. However, spending her summer on a ranch in¬†Montana¬†at age 19 rekindled her love of animals, and she enrolled in a pre-veterinary¬†course in biology at the¬†University of California, Davis. In defiance to her stepfather’s wishes that she attend a business school, Dian wanted to spend her professional life working with animals. As a consequence, Dian’s parents failed to give her any substantial amount of financial support throughout her adult life.[7]¬†She supported herself by working as a clerk at¬†White Front¬†(a department store), doing other clerking and laboratory work, and laboring as a¬†machinist¬†in a factory.

Although Fossey had always been an exemplary student, she had difficulties with basic sciences including¬†chemistry¬†and¬†physics, and failed her second year of the program. She transferred to¬†San Jose State College, where she became a member of¬†Kappa Alpha Theta¬†sorority, to study¬†occupational therapy, receiving her¬†bachelor’s degree¬†in 1954.[10]¬†Initially following her college major, Fossey began a career in occupational therapy. She interned at various hospitals in California and worked with¬†tuberculosis¬†patients.[11]¬†Fossey was originally a prizewinning equestrian, which drew her to¬†Kentucky¬†in 1955, and a year later took a job as an occupational therapist at the¬†Kosair Crippled Children’s Hospital¬†in¬†Louisville.[12]

Her shy and reserved personality allowed her to work well with the children at the hospital.[13]¬†Fossey became close with her coworker Mary White “Gaynee” Henry, secretary to the hospital’s chief administrator and the wife of one of the doctors, Michael J. Henry. The Henrys invited Fossey to join them on their family farm, where she worked with livestock on a daily basis and also experienced an inclusive family atmosphere that had been missing for most of her life.[6][14]¬†During her free time she would pursue her love of horses.[15]

Interest in Africa

Fossey turned down an offer to join the Henrys on an African tour due to lack of finances,[6]¬†but in 1963 she borrowed $8,000 (one year’s salary), took out her life savings[16]¬†and went on a seven-week visit to Africa.[5]¬†In September 1963, she arrived in¬†Nairobi,¬†Kenya.[11]¬†While there, she met actor¬†William Holden, owner of¬†Treetops Hotel,[5]¬†who introduced her to her safari guide, John Alexander.[5]¬†Alexander became her guide for the next seven weeks through Kenya,¬†Tanzania,¬†Democratic Republic of Congo, and¬†Rhodesia. Alexander’s route included visits to¬†Tsavo, Africa’s largest national park; the saline lake of¬†Manyara, famous for attracting giant flocks of¬†flamingos; and the¬†Ngorongoro¬†Crater, well known for its abundant wildlife.[11]¬†The final two sites for her visit were¬†Olduvai Gorge¬†in Tanzania (the archeological site of¬†Louis¬†and¬†Mary Leakey); and¬†Mt. Mikeno¬†in Congo, where in 1959, American zoologist¬†George Schaller¬†had carried out a yearlong pioneering study of the mountain gorilla. At Olduvai Gorge, Fossey met the Leakeys while they were examining the area for¬†hominid¬†fossils. Leakey talked to Fossey about the work of¬†Jane Goodall¬†and the importance of long-term research of the great apes.[11]

Although Fossey had broken her ankle while visiting the Leakeys,[11]¬†by October 16, she was staying in Walter Baumgartel’s small hotel in¬†Uganda, the Travellers Rest. Baumgartel, an advocate of gorilla conservation, was among the first to see the benefits that tourism could bring to the area, and he introduced Fossey to Kenyan wildlife photographers¬†Joan¬†and¬†Alan Root. The couple agreed to allow Fossey and Alexander to camp behind their own camp, and it was during these few days that Fossey first encountered wild mountain gorillas.[11]¬†After staying with friends in Rhodesia, Fossey returned home to Louisville to repay her loans. She published three articles in¬†The Courier-Journal¬†newspaper, detailing her visit to Africa.[5][11]

Research in the Congo

Gorilla mother with cub in Virunga National Park in the Congo

When Leakey made an appearance in Louisville while on a nationwide lecture tour, Fossey took the color supplements that had appeared about her African trip in The Courier-Journal to show to Leakey, who remembered her and her interest in mountain gorillas. Three years after the original safari, Leakey suggested that Fossey could undertake a long-term study of the gorillas in the same manner as Jane Goodall had with chimpanzees in Tanzania.[7] Leakey lined up funding for Fossey to research mountain gorillas, and Fossey left her job to relocate to Africa.[17]

After studying¬†Swahili¬†and auditing a class on¬†primatology¬†during the eight months it took to get her visa and funding, Fossey arrived in Nairobi in December 1966. With the help of Joan Root and Leakey, Fossey acquired the necessary provisions and an old canvas-topped¬†Land Rover¬†which she named “Lily”. On the way to the Congo, Fossey visited the¬†Gombe Stream Research Centre¬†to meet Goodall and observe her research methods with chimpanzees.[11]¬†Accompanied by photographer Alan Root, who helped her obtain work permits for the¬†Virunga Mountains, Fossey began her field study at¬†Kabara, in the Congo in early 1967, in the same meadow where Schaller had made his camp seven years earlier.[18]¬†Root taught her basic gorilla tracking, and his tracker Sanwekwe later helped in Fossey’s camp. Living in tents on mainly tinned produce, once a month Fossey would hike down the mountain to “Lily” and make the two-hour drive to the village of¬†Kikumba¬†to restock.[11]

Fossey identified three distinct groups in her study area, but could not get close to them. She eventually found that mimicking their actions and making grunting sounds assured them, together with submissive behavior and eating of the local celery plant.[18]¬†She later attributed her success with habituating gorillas to her experience working as an occupational therapist with autistic children.[7]¬†Like George Schaller, Fossey relied greatly on individual “noseprints” for identification, initially via sketching and later by camera.[11]

Fossey had arrived in the Congo in locally turbulent times. Known as the¬†Belgian Congo¬†until its independence in June 1960, unrest and rebellion plagued the new government until 1965, when Lieutenant General¬†Joseph-D√©sir√© Mobutu, by then commander-in-chief of the national army, seized control of the country and declared himself president for five years during what is now called the¬†Congo Crisis. During the political upheaval, a rebellion and battles took place in the¬†Kivu¬†Province. On July 9, 1967, soldiers arrived at the camp to escort Fossey and her research workers down, and she was interred at¬†Rumangabo¬†for two weeks. Fossey eventually escaped through bribery to Walter Baumg√§rtel’s Travellers Rest Hotel in¬†Kisoro, where her escort was arrested by the Ugandan military.[11][19]¬†Advised by the Ugandan authorities not to return to Congo, after meeting Leakey in Nairobi, Fossey agreed with him against US Embassy advice to restart her study on the Rwandan side of the Virungas.[11]¬†In Rwanda, Fossey had met local American expatriate¬†Rosamond Carr, who introduced her to¬†Belgian¬†local Alyette DeMunck; DeMunck had a local’s knowledge of Rwanda and offered to find Fossey a suitable site for study.[11]

Conservation work in Rwanda

Fossey established her research camp on the foothills of Mount Bisoke.

On September 24, 1967, Fossey founded the¬†Karisoke¬†Research Center, a remote¬†rainforest¬†camp nestled in¬†Ruhengeri¬†province in the saddle of two volcanoes. For the research center’s name, Fossey used “Kari” for the first four letters of¬†Mount Karisimbi¬†that overlooked her camp from the south, and “soke” for the last four letters of¬†Mount Bisoke, the slopes of which rose to the north, directly behind camp.[11]¬†Established 3,000 metres (9,800¬†ft) up Mount Bisoke, the defined study area covered 25 square kilometres (9.7¬†sq¬†mi).[20]¬†She became known by locals as Nyirmachabelli, or Nyiramacibiri, roughly translated as “The woman who lives alone on the mountain.”[21]

Unlike the gorillas from the Congo side of the Virungas, the Karisoke area gorillas had never been partially habituated by Schaller’s study; they knew humans only as poachers, and it took longer for Fossey to be able to study the Karisoke gorillas at a close distance.[22]

Many research students left after not being able to handle the cold, dark, and extremely muddy conditions around Karisoke on the slopes of the Virunga Volcanoes, where paths usually had to be cut through six-foot-tall grass with a machete.[23]

Opposition to poaching

While¬†hunting¬†had been illegal in the national park of the¬†Virunga Volcanoes¬†in Rwanda since the 1920s, the law was rarely enforced by park conservators, who were often bribed by¬†poachers¬†and paid a salary less than Fossey’s own African staff.[7]¬†On three occasions, Fossey wrote that she witnessed the aftermath of the capture of infant gorillas at the behest of the park conservators for zoos; since gorillas will fight to the death to protect their young, the kidnappings would often result in up to 10 adult gorillas’ deaths.[7]¬†Through the Digit Fund, Fossey financed patrols to destroy poachers’ traps in the Karisoke study area. In four months in 1979, the Fossey patrol consisting of four African staffers destroyed 987 poachers’ traps in the research area’s vicinity.[24]¬†The official Rwandan national park guards, consisting of 24 staffers, did not eradicate any poachers’ traps during the same period.[24]¬†In the eastern portion of the park not patrolled by Fossey, poachers virtually eradicated all the park’s¬†elephants¬†for ivory and killed more than a dozen gorillas.[24]

Fossey helped in the arrest of several poachers, some of whom served or are serving long prison sentences.[25]

In 1978, Fossey attempted to prevent the export of two young gorillas, Coco and Pucker, from Rwanda to the¬†zoo¬†in¬†Cologne, Germany. During the capture of the infants at the behest of the Cologne Zoo and Rwandan park conservator, 20 adult gorillas had been killed.[26]¬†The infant gorillas were given to Fossey by the park conservator of the¬†Virunga Volcanoes¬†for treatment of injuries suffered during their capture and captivity. With considerable effort, she restored them to some approximation of health. Over Fossey’s objections, the gorillas were shipped to Cologne, where they lived nine years in captivity, both dying in the same month.[7]¬†She viewed the holding of animals in “prison” (zoos) for the entertainment of people as unethical.[27]

While gorillas from rival gang groups on the mountains that were not part of Fossey’s study had often been found poached five to ten at a time, and had spurred Fossey to conduct her own anti-poaching patrols, Fossey’s study groups had not been direct victims of poaching until Fossey’s favorite gorilla Digit was killed in 1978. Later that year, the¬†silverback¬†of Digit’s Group 4, named for Fossey’s Uncle Bert, was shot in the heart while trying to save his son, Kweli, from being seized by poachers cooperating with the Rwandan park conservator.[28]¬†Kweli’s mother, Macho, was also killed in the raid, but Kweli was not captured due to Uncle Bert’s intervention; however, three-year-old Kweli died slowly and painfully of¬†gangrene, from being brushed by a poacher’s bullet.[27][28]

According to Fossey’s letters, ORTPN (the Rwandan national park system), the¬†World Wildlife Fund,¬†African Wildlife Foundation, Fauna Preservation Society, the Mountain Gorilla Project and some of her former students tried to wrest control of the Karisoke research center from her for the purpose of tourism, by portraying her as unstable. In her last two years, Fossey claims not to have lost any gorillas to poachers; however, the Mountain Gorilla Project, which was supposed to patrol the¬†Mount Sabyinyo¬†area, tried to cover up gorilla deaths caused by poaching and diseases transmitted through tourists. Nevertheless, these organizations received most of the public donations directed toward gorilla conservation.[7]¬†The public often believed their money would go to Fossey, who was struggling to finance her anti-poaching and bushmeat hunting patrols, while organizations collecting in her name put it into tourism projects and as she put it “to pay the airfare of so-called conservationists who will never go on anti-poaching patrols in their life.” Fossey described the differing two philosophies as her own “active conservation” or the international conservation groups’ “theoretical conservation.”[25]

Opposition to tourism

Fossey strongly opposed¬†wildlife tourism, as gorillas are very susceptible to¬†human anthroponotic diseases¬†like¬†influenza¬†for which they have no immunity. Fossey reported several cases in which gorillas died because of diseases spread by tourists. She also viewed tourism as an interference into their natural wild behavior.[7]¬†Fossey also criticized tourist programs, often paid for by international conservation organizations, for interfering with both her research and the peace of the mountain gorillas’ habitat, and was concerned Jane Goodall, who actually joined a chimpanzee society as a member, was inappropriately changing her study subjects’ behavior.[25]

Today, however, the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International promotes tourism, which they say helps to create a stable and sustainable local community dedicated to protecting the gorillas and their habitat.[29]

Preservation of habitat

Fossey is responsible for the revision of a European Community project that converted parkland into pyrethrum farms. Thanks to her efforts, the park boundary was lowered from the 3,000-meter line to the 2,500-meter line.[7]

Digit Fund

The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International in Rwanda

Sometime during the day on¬†New Year’s Eve¬†1977, Fossey’s favorite gorilla, Digit, was killed by poachers. As the sentry of study group 4, he defended the group against six poachers and their dogs, who ran across the gorilla study group while checking¬†antelope¬†traplines. Digit took five spear wounds in ferocious self-defence and managed to kill one of the poachers’ dogs, allowing the other 13 members of his group to escape.[30]¬†Poachers sell gorilla hands as delicacies, magic charms or to make ash trays.[31]¬†Digit was decapitated, and his hands cut off for ashtrays, for the price of $20.[citation needed]¬†After his mutilated body was discovered by research assistant¬†Ian Redmond, Fossey’s group captured one of the killers. He revealed the names of his five accomplices, three of whom were later imprisoned.[32]

Fossey subsequently created the¬†Digit Fund¬†(now the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International in the US)[33]¬†to raise money for anti-poaching patrols.[27]¬†In addition, a consortium of international gorilla funds arose to accept donations in light of Digit’s death and increased attention on poaching.[28]¬†Fossey mostly opposed the efforts of the international organizations, which she felt inefficiently directed their funds towards more equipment for Rwandan park officials, some of whom were alleged to have ordered some of the gorilla poachings in the first place.[28]

The deaths of some of her most studied gorillas caused Fossey to devote more of her attention to preventing poaching and less on scientific publishing and research.[28] Fossey became more intense in protecting the gorillas and began to employ more direct tactics: she and her staff cut animal traps almost as soon as they were set; frightened, captured and humiliated the poachers; held their cattle for ransom; burned their hunting camps and even mats from their houses.[5][better source needed]

Personal life

During her African safari, Fossey met Alexie Forrester, the brother of a Rhodesian she had been dating in Louisville; Fossey and Forrester later became engaged. In her later years, Fossey became involved with¬†National Geographic¬†photographer¬†Bob Campbell¬†after a year of working together at Karisoke, with Campbell promising to leave his wife.[5]¬†Eventually the pair grew apart through her dedication to the gorillas and Karisoke, along with his need to work further afield and on his marriage. In 1970, studying for her Ph.D. at¬†Darwin College,¬†University of Cambridge, she discovered she was pregnant and had an abortion, later commenting that “you can’t be a cover girl for¬†National Geographic¬†magazine and be pregnant.” She graduated with a Doctor of Philosophy in¬†Zoology¬†in 1976.[5][failed verification]¬†Fossey had other relationships throughout the years and always had a love for children.[4]¬†Since Fossey would rescue any abused or abandoned animal she saw in Africa or near Karisoke, she acquired a menagerie in the camp, including a monkey who lived in her cabin, Kima, and a dog, Cindy. Fossey held Christmas parties every year for her researchers, staffers, and their families, and she developed a genuine friendship with¬†Jane Goodall.[34]

Fossey had been plagued by lung problems from an early age and, later in her life, suffered from advanced¬†emphysema¬†brought on by years of heavy¬†cigarette smoking.[35][36]¬†As the debilitating disease progressed‚ÄĒfurther aggravated by the high mountain altitude and damp climate‚ÄĒFossey found it increasingly difficult to conduct field research, frequently suffering from shortness of breath and requiring the help of an oxygen tank when climbing or hiking long distances.[37]

Death

In the early morning of December 27, 1985, Fossey was discovered murdered in the bedroom of her cabin located at the far edge of the camp in the¬†Virunga Mountains,¬†Rwanda.[38]¬†Her body was found face-up near the two beds where she slept, roughly 7 feet (2¬†m) away from a hole that her assailant(s) had apparently cut in the wall of the cabin. Wayne Richard McGuire, Fossey’s last research assistant at Karisoke, was summoned to the scene by Fossey’s house servant and found her bludgeoned to death, reporting that “when I reached down to check her vital signs, I saw her face had been split, diagonally, with one machete blow.”[38]¬†The cabin was littered with broken glass and overturned furniture, with a 9-mm handgun and ammunition beside her on the floor.[38]¬†Robbery was not believed to be the motive for the crime, as Fossey’s valuables were still in the cabin, including her passport, handguns, and thousands of dollars in U.S. bills and traveler’s checks.[38][39]

The last entry in her diary read:[40]

When you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate more on the preservation of the future.

Fossey’s grave at Karisoke, alongside those of her gorilla friends

Fossey is buried at Karisoke,[41][42] in a site that she herself had constructed for her deceased gorilla friends. She was buried in the gorilla graveyard next to Digit, and near many gorillas killed by poachers. Memorial services were also held in New York, Washington, and California.[43]

A will purporting to be Fossey’s bequeathed all of her estate (including the proceeds from the film¬†Gorillas in the Mist) to the Digit Fund to underwrite anti-poaching patrols. Fossey did not mention her family in the will, which was unsigned. Her mother, Hazel Fossey Price, challenged the will and was successful.[7]¬†Supreme Court Justice Swartwood threw out the will and awarded the estate to her mother, including about $4.9 million in royalties from a recent book and upcoming movie, stating that the document “was simply a draft of her purported will and not a will at all.” Price said she was working on a project to preserve the work her daughter had done for the mountain gorillas in Rwanda, located in eastern central Africa south of Uganda.[44]

Aftermath

After Fossey’s death, her entire staff were arrested. This included Rwandan Emmanuel Rwelekana, a tracker who had been fired from his job after he allegedly tried to kill Fossey with a machete, according to the government’s account of McGuire’s trial. All were later released except Rwelekana, who was later found dead in prison, supposedly having hanged himself.[7][45]

Rwandan courts later tried and convicted Wayne McGuire¬†in absentia¬†for her murder. The alleged motive was that McGuire murdered Fossey in order to steal the manuscript of the sequel to her 1983 book,¬†Gorillas in the Mist. At the trial investigators said McGuire was not happy with his own research and wanted to use “any dishonest means possible” to complete his work. McGuire had returned to the United States in July 1987,[45]¬†and because no¬†extradition¬†treaty exists between the U.S. and Rwanda, McGuire, whose guilt is still widely questioned, has not served his sentence.[7]

Following his return to the U.S., McGuire gave a brief statement at a news conference in¬†Century City, Los Angeles, saying Fossey had been his “friend and mentor”, calling her death “tragic” and the charges “outrageous”.[46]¬†Thereafter, McGuire was largely absent from public notice until 2005, when news broke that he had been accepted for a job with the Health and Human Services division of the¬†State of Nebraska. The job offer was revoked upon discovery of his relation to the Fossey case.[47]

Several subsequent books, including¬†Farley Mowat‘s biography of Fossey,¬†Woman in the Mists¬†(New York, NY: Warner Books, 1987), have suggested alternative theories regarding her murder including intimations that she may have been killed by financial interests linked to tourism or illicit trade.

Controversy

Fossey was reported to have captured and held Rwandans whom she suspected of poaching. She allegedly beat a poacher’s testicles with stinging nettles.[48]¬†She also kidnapped a local child for a time.[49]¬†After her murder, Fossey’s¬†National Geographic¬†editor, Mary Smith, told Shlachter that on visits to the United States, Fossey would “load up on firecrackers, cheap toys and magic tricks as part of her method to mystify the (Africans) hold them at bay.”[50]

Writing in¬†The Wall Street Journal¬†in 2002, the journalist¬†Tunku Varadarajan¬†described Fossey at the end of her life as colorful, controversial, and “a racist alcoholic who regarded her gorillas as better than the African people who lived around them”.[5][51]

Scientific achievements 

Fossey made discoveries about gorillas including how females transfer from group to group over the decades, gorilla vocalization, hierarchies and social relationships among groups, rare infanticide, gorilla diet, and how gorillas recycle nutrients.[52]¬†Fossey’s research was funded by the Wilkie Foundation and the Leakey Home, with primary funding from the¬†National Geographic Society.[53]

By 1980, Fossey, who had obtained her PhD at¬†Cambridge University¬†in the UK, was recognized as the world’s leading authority on the physiology and behavior of mountain gorillas, defining gorillas as being “dignified, highly social, gentle giants, with individual personalities, and strong family relationships.”[6]¬†Fossey lectured as professor at Cornell University in 1981‚Äď83. Her bestselling book¬†Gorillas in the Mist¬†was praised by¬†Nikolaas Tinbergen, the Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who won the 1973¬†Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Her book remains the best-selling book about gorillas.[7]

Legacy

After her death, Fossey’s Digit Fund in the US was renamed the¬†Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International.[54]¬†The¬†Karisoke Research Center¬†is operated by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, and continues the daily gorilla monitoring and protection that she started.

Shirley McGreal, a friend of Fossey,[55]¬†continues to work for the protection of primates through the work of her¬†International Primate Protection League¬†(IPPL) one of the few wildlife organizations that according to Fossey effectively promotes “active conservation”.

Between Fossey’s death and the 1994¬†Rwandan genocide, Karisoke was directed by former students, some of whom had opposed her.[7]¬†During the genocide and subsequent period of insecurity, the camp was completely¬†looted¬†and destroyed. Today only remnants are left of her cabin. During the¬†civil war, the¬†Virunga National Park¬†was filled with refugees, and¬†illegal logging¬†destroyed vast areas.

In 2014, the 82nd anniversary of Fossey’s birth was marked by a¬†Google Doodle¬†appearing on its search homepage worldwide.[56]¬†The doodle depicted a group of mountain gorillas, with one touching Dian Fossey‚Äôs hair while she made notes in a journal.[57]

Biographies

Mowat’s¬†Virunga¬†(1987), whose British and U.S. editions are called¬†Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa, was the first book-length biography of Fossey, and it serves as an insightful counterweight to the many omissions in Fossey’s own story, being derived from Fossey’s actual letters and entries in her journals.¬†Harold Hayes‘s book¬†The Dark Romance of Dian Fossey¬†was published in 1989 after extensive interviews with people who lived and worked with Fossey. Haye’s book shows Fossey in a less positive or romanticized light than previous accounts had done. The film¬†Gorillas in the Mist¬†was based on Hayes’ 1987 article in¬†Life¬†magazine, as cited in the film’s credits, instead of Fossey’s self-edited autobiography by that title.

No One Loved Gorillas More¬†(2005) was written by Camilla de la Bedoyere and published by¬†National Geographic¬†in the¬†United States¬†and¬†Palazzo Editions¬†in the¬†United Kingdom.¬†Gorilla Dreams: The Legacy of Dian Fossey¬†was written by the investigative journalist Georgianne Nienaber and published in 2006. This account of Fossey’s story is told as if in her own words from beyond the grave. Fossey is also prominently featured in a book by¬†Vanity Fair¬†journalist¬†Alex Shoumatoff¬†called¬†African Madness, in which the author expands on Fossey’s controversial behaviors, implying that Fossey provoked her own murder by way of her private and public inflammatory interactions with people. The author also wrote a lengthy article titled “The Fatal Obsession of Dian Fossey”.[58]

A Forest in the Clouds: My Year among the Mountain Gorillas in the Remote Enclave of Dian Fossey, by John Fowler, is a first-person account from inside Dian Fossey’s camp. The author gives a candid and vivid portrait of Fossey’s mercurial personality, her ill treatment of staff and research students, and her alcohol-fueled tirades. The book also shows the daily workings of camp, Fossey’s dependence on her students and the movement to remove her from Karisoke years before her brutal murder.[59]

In media

The Kentucky Opera Visions Program, in Louisville, has written an opera about Fossey, entitled Nyiramachabelli; it premiered on May 23, 2006.

Universal Studios¬†bought the film rights to¬†Gorillas in the Mist¬†from Fossey in 1985, and¬†Warner Bros. Studios¬†bought the rights to the Hayes article, despite its having been severely criticized by¬†Rosamond Carr. As a result of a legal battle between the two studios, a co-production was arranged. Portions of the story and the Hayes article were adapted for the film¬†Gorillas in the Mist, starring¬†Sigourney Weaver,¬†Bryan Brown, and John Omirah Miluwi. The book covers Fossey’s scientific career in great detail and omits material on her personal life, such as her affair with photographer¬†Bob Campbell. In the film, the affair with Campbell (played by¬†Bryan Brown) forms a major subplot. The Hayes article preceding the movie portrayed Fossey as a woman obsessed with gorillas, who would stop at nothing to protect them. The film includes scenes of Fossey’s ruthless dealings with poachers, including a scene in which she sets fire to a poacher’s home.

In the 2011 BBC documentary All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace, Adam Curtis uses Fossey as a symbol of the ideology of ecology, a balance of nature and western post-colonial political exploits in Africa.

In December 2017,¬†Dian Fossey: Secrets in the Mist, a three-hour series, aired on the¬†National Geographic Channel, The series tells the story of Fossey’s life, work, murder and legacy, using archive footage and still images, interviews with people who knew and worked with her, specially shot footage and reconstruction.[60]

Selected bibliography

Books

Scholarly articles

  • ‚ÄĒ‚ÄĒ (Summer 1982). “An amiable giant: Fuertes’s gorilla”.¬†The Living Bird: 21‚Äď22.¬†ISSN0459-6137.¬†OCLC1783015.
  • ‚ÄĒ‚ÄĒ (1982). “Mountain gorilla research, 1974”.¬†Research Reports – National Geographic Society. Washington, DC.¬†14: 243‚Äď258.¬†ISSN0077-4626.¬†OCLC1586425.
  • ‚ÄĒ‚ÄĒ (1980). “Mountain gorilla research, 1971‚Äď1972”. Projects.¬†Research Reports – National Geographic Society 1971. Washington, DC.¬†12: 237‚Äď255.¬†ISSN0077-4626.¬†OCLC1586425.
  • ‚ÄĒ‚ÄĒ (1978). “Mountain gorilla research, 1969‚Äď1970”. Projects.¬†Research Reports – National Geographic Society 1969. Washington, DC.¬†11: 173‚Äď176.¬†ISSN0077-4626.¬†OCLC1586425.
  • ‚ÄĒ‚ÄĒ (1976).¬†The Behaviour of the Mountain Gorilla¬†(Thesis). University of Cambridge.¬†OCLC60364345,¬†500444186.
  • closed access¬†‚ÄĒ‚ÄĒ (August 1974). “Observations on the home range of one group of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringel)”.¬†Animal Behaviour.¬†22¬†(3): 568‚Äď581.¬†doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(74)80002-3.¬†ISSN0003-3472.¬†OCLC191252756.
  • closed access¬†‚ÄĒ‚ÄĒ (March 1972). “Vocalizations of the mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)”.¬†Animal Behaviour.¬†20¬†(1): 36‚Äď53.¬†doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(72)80171-4.¬†ISSN0003-3472.¬†OCLC191252756.

References …

Sources

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dian_Fossey

Gorilla

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Gorillas[1]
Male gorilla in SF zoo.jpg
Western gorilla
(Gorilla gorilla)
Scientific classificatione
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Gorillini
Genus: Gorilla
I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1852
Type species
Troglodytes gorilla

Savage, 1847
Species
Gorilla gorilla
Gorilla beringei
Distibución gorilla.png
Distribution of gorillas
Synonyms
  • Pseudogorilla¬†Elliot, 1913

Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa. The genus Gorilla is divided into two species: the eastern gorillas and the western gorillas (both critically endangered), and either four or five subspecies. They are the largest living primates. The DNA of gorillas is highly similar to that of humans, from 95 to 99% depending on what is included, and they are the next closest living relatives to humans after the chimpanzees and bonobos.

Gorillas’ natural habitats cover tropical or subtropical forests in¬†Sub-Saharan Africa. Although their range covers a small percentage of Sub-Saharan Africa, gorillas cover a wide range of elevations. The¬†mountain gorilla¬†inhabits the¬†Albertine Rift¬†montane¬†cloud forests¬†of the¬†Virunga Volcanoes, ranging in altitude from 2,200 to 4,300 metres (7,200 to 14,100¬†ft). Lowland gorillas live in dense forests and lowland swamps and marshes as low as¬†sea level, with¬†western lowland gorillas¬†living in Central West African countries and¬†eastern lowland gorillas¬†living in the¬†Democratic Republic of the Congo¬†near its border with¬†Rwanda.[2]

Contents

Etymology

The word “gorilla” comes from the history of¬†Hanno the Navigator, (c.¬†500 BC) a¬†Carthaginian¬†explorer on an expedition on the west¬†African¬†coast to the area that later became¬†Sierra Leone.[3][4]¬†Members of the expedition encountered “savage people, the greater part of whom were women, whose bodies were hairy, and whom our interpreters called Gorillae”.[5][6]¬†The word was then later used as the species name, though it is unknown whether what these ancient¬†Carthaginians¬†encountered were truly gorillas, another species of ape or monkeys, or humans.[7]

The American physician and missionary¬†Thomas Staughton Savage¬†and naturalist¬†Jeffries Wyman¬†first described the¬†western gorilla¬†(they called it¬†Troglodytes gorilla) in 1847 from specimens obtained in¬†Liberia.[8]¬†The name was derived from¬†Ancient Greek¬†őďŌĆŌĀőĻőĽőĽőĪőĻ¬†(gorillai), meaning ‘tribe of hairy women’,[9]¬†described by Hanno.

Evolution and classification

The closest relatives of gorillas are the other two Homininae genera, chimpanzees and humans, all of them having diverged from a common ancestor about 7 million years ago.[10] Human gene sequences differ only 1.6% on average from the sequences of corresponding gorilla genes, but there is further difference in how many copies each gene has.[11] Until recently, gorillas were considered to be a single species, with three subspecies: the western lowland gorilla, the eastern lowland gorilla and the mountain gorilla.[7][12] There is now agreement that there are two species, each with two subspecies. More recently, a third subspecies has been claimed to exist in one of the species. The separate species and subspecies developed from a single type of gorilla during the Ice Age, when their forest habitats shrank and became isolated from each other.[2]

Primatologists continue to explore the relationships between various gorilla populations.[7] The species and subspecies listed here are the ones upon which most scientists agree.[citation needed]

Taxonomy of genus Gorilla[1] Phylogeny of superfamily Hominoidea[13](Fig. 4)
 Hominoidea
humans (genus Homo)
chimpanzees (genus Pan)
gorillas (genus Gorilla)
orangutans (genus Pongo)
gibbons (family Hylobatidae)

The proposed third subspecies of Gorilla beringei, which has not yet received a trinomen, is the Bwindi population of the mountain gorilla, sometimes called the Bwindi gorilla.

Some variations that distinguish the classifications of gorilla include varying density, size, hair colour, length, culture, and facial widths.[2] Population genetics of the lowland gorillas suggest that the western and eastern lowland populations diverged ~261 thousand years ago.[14]

Physical characteristics

Male gorilla skull

Gorillas move around by¬†knuckle-walking, although they sometimes walk bipedally for short distances while carrying food or in defensive situations,[15]¬†and some Mountain Gorillas use other parts of their hand to aid locomotion (studies of 77 Mountain Gorillas published in 2018 showed 61% only used knuckle walking, but the remainder used knuckle walking plus other parts of their hand‚ÄĒfist walking in ways that do not use the knuckles, using the backs of their hand, and using their palms).[16]¬†Wild male gorillas weigh 136 to 195¬†kg (300 to 430¬†lb), while adult females usually weigh about half as much as adult males at 68‚Äď113¬†kg (150‚Äď250¬†lb).

Western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei)

Adult males are 1.4 to 1.8 m (4 ft 7 in to 5 ft 11 in) tall, with an arm span that stretches from 2.3 to 2.6 m (7 ft 7 in to 8 ft 6 in). Female gorillas are shorter at 1.25 to 1.5 m (4 ft 1 in to 4 ft 11 in), with smaller arm spans.[17][18][19][20][21] Groves (1970) calculates that average weight of the 47 wild adult male gorillas is 143 kg, while Smith and Jungers(1997) found that the average weight of the 19 wild adult male gorillas is 169 kg.[22] Adult male gorillas are known as silverbacks due to the characteristic silver hair on their backs reaching to the hips. The tallest gorilla recorded was a 1.95 m (6 ft 5 in) silverback with an arm span of 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in), a chest of 1.98 m (6 ft 6 in), and a weight of 219 kg (483 lb), shot in Alimbongo, northern Kivu in May 1938.[21] The heaviest gorilla recorded was a 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) silverback shot in Ambam, Cameroon, which weighed 267 kg (589 lb).[21] Males in captivity are noted to be capable of reaching weights up to 310 kg (683 lb).[21] Gorilla facial structure is described as mandibular prognathism, that is, the mandible protrudes farther out than the maxilla. Adult males also have a prominent sagittal crest.

The eastern gorilla is more darkly coloured than the western gorilla, with the mountain gorilla being the darkest of all. The mountain gorilla also has the thickest hair. The western lowland gorilla can be brown or grayish with a reddish forehead. In addition, gorillas that live in lowland forests are more slender and agile than the more bulky mountain gorillas. The eastern gorilla also has a longer face and broader chest than the western gorilla.[23]

Studies have shown gorilla blood is not reactive to anti-A and anti-B monoclonal antibodies, which would, in humans, indicate type O blood. Due to novel sequences, though, it is different enough to not conform with the human ABO blood group system, into which the other great apes fit.[24] Like humans, gorillas have individual fingerprints.[25][26] Their eye colour is dark brown, framed by a black ring around the iris.

Distribution and habitat

Young gorilla climbing

Gorillas have a patchy distribution. The range of the two species is separated by the¬†Congo River¬†and its¬†tributaries. The western gorilla lives in west central Africa, while the eastern gorilla lives in east central Africa. Between the species, and even within the species, gorillas live in a variety of habitats and elevations. Gorilla habitat ranges from¬†montane forests¬†to swamps. Eastern gorillas inhabit montane and submontane forests between 650 and 4,000¬†m (2,130 and 13,120¬†ft) above sea level.[27]¬†Mountain gorillas live in the montane forests at the higher ends of the elevation range, while eastern lowland gorillas live in submontane forests at the lower ends of the elevation range. In addition, eastern lowland gorillas live in montane bamboo forests, as well as lowland forests ranging from 600‚Äď3,308¬†m (1,969‚Äď10,853¬†ft) in elevation.[28]¬†Western gorillas live in both lowland swamp forests and montane forests, and elevations ranging from sea level to 1,600¬†m (5,200¬†ft).[27]¬†Western lowland gorillas live in swamp and lowland forests ranging up to 1,600¬†m (5,200¬†ft), and Cross River gorillas live in low-lying and submontane forests ranging from 150‚Äď1,600¬†m (490‚Äď5,250¬†ft).

Nesting

Gorilla night nest constructed in a tree

Gorillas construct nests for daytime and night use. Nests tend to be simple aggregations of branches and leaves about 2 to 5 ft (0.61 to 1.52 m) in diameter and are constructed by individuals. Gorillas, unlike chimpanzees or orangutans, tend to sleep in nests on the ground. The young nest with their mothers, but construct nests after three years of age, initially close to those of their mothers.[29] Gorilla nests are distributed arbitrarily and use of tree species for site and construction appears to be opportunistic.[30] Nest-building by great apes is now considered to be not just animal architecture, but as an important instance of tool use.[30]

Food and foraging

A gorilla’s day is divided between rest periods and travel or feeding periods. Diets differ between and within species. Mountain gorillas mostly eat foliage, such as leaves, stems, pith, and shoots, while fruit makes up a very small part of their diets.[31]¬†Mountain gorilla food is widely distributed and neither individuals nor groups have to compete with one another. Their home ranges vary from 3 to 15¬†km2¬†(1.16 to 5.79¬†mi2), and their movements range around 500¬†m (0.31¬†mi) or less on an average day.[31]¬†Despite eating a few species in each habitat, mountain gorillas have flexible diets and can live in a variety of habitats.[31]

Gorillas moving in habitat

Gorilla foraging

Eastern lowland gorillas have more diverse diets, which vary seasonally. Leaves and pith are commonly eaten, but fruits can make up as much as 25% of their diets. Since fruit is less available, lowland gorillas must travel farther each day, and their home ranges vary from 2.7‚Äď6.5¬†km2¬†(1.04 to 2.51¬†mi2), with day ranges 154‚Äď2,280¬†m (0.096‚Äď1.417¬†mi). Eastern lowland gorillas will also eat insects, preferably ants.[32]¬†Western lowland gorillas depend on fruits more than the others and they are more dispersed across their range.[33]¬†They travel even farther than the other gorilla subspecies, at 1,105¬†m (0.687¬†mi) per day on average, and have larger home ranges of 7‚Äď14¬†km2¬†(2.70‚Äď5.41¬†mi2).[33]¬†Western lowland gorillas have less access to terrestrial herbs, although they can access aquatic herbs in some areas. Termites and ants are also eaten.

Gorillas rarely drink water “because they consume succulent vegetation that is comprised of almost half water as well as morning dew”,[34]¬†although both mountain and lowland gorillas have been observed drinking.

Behaviour

Social structure

File:Mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) and his family.webm

Mountain gorilla family

Gorillas live in groups called troops. Troops tend to be made of one adult male or silverback, multiple adult females and their offspring.[35][36][37] However, multiple-male troops also exist.[36] A silverback is typically more than 12 years of age, and is named for the distinctive patch of silver hair on his back, which comes with maturity. Silverbacks also have large canine teeth that also come with maturity. Both males and females tend to emigrate from their natal groups. For mountain gorillas, females disperse from their natal troops more than males.[35][38] Mountain gorillas and western lowland gorillas also commonly transfer to second new groups.[35]

Mature males also tend to leave their groups and establish their own troops by attracting emigrating females. However, male mountain gorillas sometimes stay in their natal troops and become subordinate to the silverback. If the silverback dies, these males may be able to become dominant or mate with the females. This behaviour has not been observed in eastern lowland gorillas. In a single male group, when the silverback dies, the females and their offspring disperse and find a new troop.[38][39] Without a silverback to protect them, the infants will likely fall victim to infanticide. Joining a new group is likely to be a tactic against this.[38][40] However, while gorilla troops usually disband after the silverback dies, female eastern lowlands gorillas and their offspring have been recorded staying together until a new silverback transfers into the group. This likely serves as protection from leopards.[39]

Silverback gorilla

The silverback is the center of the troop’s attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites, and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. Younger males subordinate to the silverback, known as blackbacks, may serve as backup protection. Blackbacks are aged between 8 and 12 years[37]¬†and lack the silver back hair. The bond that a silverback has with his females forms the core of gorilla social life. Bonds between them are maintained by grooming and staying close together.[41]¬†Females form strong relationships with males to gain mating opportunities and protection from predators and infanticidal outside males.[42]¬†However, aggressive behaviours between males and females do occur, but rarely lead to serious injury. Relationships between females may vary. Maternally related females in a troop tend to be friendly towards each other and associate closely. Otherwise, females have few friendly encounters and commonly act aggressively towards each other.[35]

Females may fight for social access to males and a male may intervene.[41] Male gorillas have weak social bonds, particularly in multiple-male groups with apparent dominance hierarchies and strong competition for mates. Males in all-male groups, though, tend to have friendly interactions and socialise through play, grooming, and staying together,[37] and occasionally they even engage in homosexual interactions.[43] Severe aggression is rare in stable groups, but when two mountain gorilla groups meet, the two silverbacks can sometimes engage in a fight to the death, using their canines to cause deep, gaping injuries.[44]

Competition

One possible predator of gorillas is the leopard. Gorilla remains have been found in leopard scat, but this may be the result of scavenging.[45] When the group is attacked by humans, leopards, or other gorillas, an individual silverback will protect the group, even at the cost of his own life.[46]

Reproduction and parenting

Young gorilla riding on mother

Females mature at 10‚Äď12 years (earlier in captivity), and males at 11‚Äď13 years. A female‚Äôs first ovulatory cycle occurs when she is six years of age, and is followed by a two-year period of adolescent infertility.[47]¬†The estrous cycle lasts 30‚Äď33 days, with outward ovulation signs subtle compared to those of chimpanzees. The gestation period lasts 8.5 months. Female mountain gorillas first give birth at 10 years of age and have four-year interbirth intervals.[47]¬†Males can be fertile before reaching adulthood. Gorillas mate year round.[48]

Females will purse their lips and slowly approach a male while making eye contact. This serves to urge the male to mount her. If the male does not respond, then she will try to attract his attention by reaching towards him or slapping the ground.[49]¬†In multiple-male groups, solicitation indicates female preference, but females can be forced to mate with multiple males.[49]¬†Males incite copulation by approaching a female and displaying at her or touching her and giving a “train grunt”.[48]¬†Recently, gorillas have been observed engaging in¬†face-to-face sex, a trait once considered unique to humans and¬†bonobos.[50]

Mother gorilla with 10-day-old infant

Gorilla infants are vulnerable and dependent, thus mothers, their primary caregivers, are important to their survival.[40] Male gorillas are not active in caring for the young, but they do play a role in socialising them to other youngsters.[51] The silverback has a largely supportive relationship with the infants in his troop and shields them from aggression within the group.[51] Infants remain in contact with their mothers for the first five months and mothers stay near the silverback for protection.[51] Infants suckle at least once per hour and sleep with their mothers in the same nest.[52]

Infants begin to break contact with their mothers after five months, but only for a brief period each time. By 12 months old, infants move up to five meters (16 feet) from their mothers. At around 18‚Äď21 months, the distance between mother and offspring increases and they regularly spend time away from each other.[53]¬†In addition, nursing decreases to once every two hours.[52]¬†Infants spend only half of their time with their mothers by 30 months. They enter their juvenile period at their third year, and this lasts until their sixth year. At this time, gorillas are weaned and they sleep in a separate nest from their mothers.[51]¬†After their offspring are weaned, females begin to ovulate and soon become pregnant again.[51][52]¬†The presence of play partners, including the silverback, minimizes conflicts in weaning between mother and offspring.[53]

Communication

Twenty-five distinct vocalisations are recognised, many of which are used primarily for group communication within dense vegetation. Sounds classified as grunts and barks are heard most frequently while traveling, and indicate the whereabouts of individual group members.[54] They may also be used during social interactions when discipline is required. Screams and roars signal alarm or warning, and are produced most often by silverbacks. Deep, rumbling belches suggest contentment and are heard frequently during feeding and resting periods. They are the most common form of intragroup communication.[44]

For this reason, conflicts are most often resolved by displays and other threat behaviours that are intended to intimidate without becoming physical. The ritualized charge display is unique to gorillas. The entire sequence has nine steps: (1) progressively quickening hooting, (2) symbolic feeding, (3) rising bipedally, (4) throwing vegetation, (5) chest-beating with cupped hands, (6) one leg kick, (7) sideways running, two-legged to four-legged, (8) slapping and tearing vegetation, and (9) thumping the ground with palms to end display.[55]

Lifespan

A gorilla’s lifespan is normally between 35 and 40 years, although zoo gorillas may live for 50 years or more.¬†Colo, a female western gorilla at the¬†Columbus Zoo and Aquarium¬†was the¬†oldest known gorilla, at 60 years of age when she died on January 17, 2017.[56]

Intelligence

A female gorilla exhibiting tool use by using a tree trunk as a support whilst fishing herbs

Gorillas are considered highly intelligent. A few individuals in captivity, such as¬†Koko, have been taught a subset of¬†sign language. Like the other¬†great apes, gorillas can laugh, grieve, have “rich emotional lives”, develop strong family bonds, make and use tools, and think about the past and future.[57]¬†Some researchers believe gorillas have spiritual feelings or religious sentiments.[2]¬†They have been shown to have cultures in different areas revolving around different methods of food preparation, and will show individual¬†colour preferences.[2]

Tool use

The following observations were made by a team led by Thomas Breuer of the Wildlife Conservation Society in September 2005. Gorillas are now known to use tools in the wild. A female gorilla in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in the Republic of Congo was recorded using a stick as if to gauge the depth of water whilst crossing a swamp. A second female was seen using a tree stump as a bridge and also as a support whilst fishing in the swamp. This means all of the great apes are now known to use tools.[58]

In September 2005, a two-and-a-half-year-old gorilla in the¬†Republic of Congo¬†was discovered using rocks to smash open palm nuts inside a game sanctuary.[59]¬†While this was the first such observation for a gorilla, over 40 years previously, chimpanzees had been seen using tools in the wild ‘fishing’ for termites. Great¬†apes¬†are endowed with semiprecision grips, and have been able to use both simple tools and even weapons, such as improvising a club from a convenient fallen branch.

Scientific study

American physician and missionary Thomas Staughton Savage obtained the first specimens (the skull and other bones) during his time in Liberia.[8] The first scientific description of gorillas dates back to an article by Savage and the naturalist Jeffries Wyman in 1847 in Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History,[60][61] where Troglodytes gorilla is described, now known as the western gorilla. Other species of gorilla were described in the next few years.[7]

Drawing of French explorer Paul Du Chaillu at close quarters with a gorilla

The explorer Paul Du Chaillu was the first westerner to see a live gorilla during his travel through western equatorial Africa from 1856 to 1859. He brought dead specimens to the UK in 1861.[62][63][64]

The first systematic study was not conducted until the 1920s, when Carl Akeley of the American Museum of Natural History traveled to Africa to hunt for an animal to be shot and stuffed. On his first trip, he was accompanied by his friends Mary Bradley, a mystery writer, her husband, and their young daughter Alice, who would later write science fiction under the pseudonym James Tiptree Jr. After their trip, Mary Bradley wrote On the Gorilla Trail. She later became an advocate for the conservation of gorillas, and wrote several more books (mainly for children). In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Robert Yerkes and his wife Ava helped further the study of gorillas when they sent Harold Bigham to Africa. Yerkes also wrote a book in 1929 about the great apes.

After World War II, George Schaller was one of the first researchers to go into the field and study primates. In 1959, he conducted a systematic study of the mountain gorilla in the wild and published his work. Years later, at the behest of Louis Leakey and the National Geographic, Dian Fossey conducted a much longer and more comprehensive study of the mountain gorilla. When she published her work, many misconceptions and myths about gorillas were finally disproved, including the myth that gorillas are violent.

Western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) are believed to be one of the zoonotic origins of HIV/AIDS. The SIVgor Simian immunodeficiency virus that infects them is similar to a certain strain of HIV-1.[65][66][67][68]

Genome sequencing

The gorilla became the next-to-last great ape genus to have its genome sequenced. The first gorilla genome was generated with short read and Sanger sequencing using DNA from a female western lowland gorilla named Kamilah. This gave scientists further insight into the evolution and origin of humans. Despite the chimpanzees being the closest extant relatives of humans, 15% of the human genome was found to be more like that of the gorilla.[69]¬†In addition, 30% of the gorilla genome “is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression.”[70]¬†Analysis of the gorilla genome has cast doubt on the idea that the rapid evolution of hearing genes gave rise to language in humans, as it also occurred in gorillas.[71]

Cultural references

Since coming to the attention of western society in the 1860s,[64] gorillas have been a recurring element of many aspects of popular culture and media. For example, gorillas have featured prominently in monstrous fantasy films such as King Kong. Additionally, pulp fiction stories such as Tarzan and Conan the Barbarian have featured gorillas as physical opponents of the titular protagonists.

Conservation status

Eastern Lowland Gorilla in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo

All species (and sub-species) of gorilla are listed as¬†Critically Endangered¬†on the¬†IUCN Red List.[72]¬†Now, over 100,000 western lowland gorillas are thought to exist in the wild, with 4,000 in zoos; eastern lowland gorillas have a population of under 5,000 in the wild and 24 in zoos. Mountain gorillas are the most severely endangered, with an estimated population of about 880 left in the wild and none in zoos.[2][72]¬†Threats to gorilla survival include¬†habitat destruction¬†and¬†poaching¬†for the¬†bushmeat¬†trade. In 2004, a population of several hundred gorillas in the¬†Odzala National Park,¬†Republic of Congo¬†was essentially wiped out by the¬†Ebola virus.[73]¬†A 2006 study published in¬†Science¬†concluded more than 5,000 gorillas may have died in recent outbreaks of the Ebola virus in central Africa. The researchers indicated in conjunction with commercial hunting of these apes, the virus creates “a recipe for rapid¬†ecological extinction“.[74]¬†Conservation efforts include the¬†Great Apes Survival Project, a partnership between the¬†United Nations Environment Programme¬†and the¬†UNESCO, and also an international treaty, the¬†Agreement on the Conservation of Gorillas and Their Habitats, concluded under UNEP-administered¬†Convention on Migratory Species. The¬†Gorilla Agreement¬†is the first legally binding instrument exclusively targeting gorilla conservation; it came into effect on 1 June 2008.

See also

References …

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorilla

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Clive Thompson — Coders: The Making of A New Tribe and The Remaking of The World — Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for The Better — Videos

Posted on September 4, 2019. Filed under: American History, Anthropology, Blogroll, Books, College, Congress, Cult, Culture, Data, Economics, Education, Employment, High School, history, Journalism, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Literacy, Math, media, Medicine, Money, Non-Fiction, People, Philosophy, Photos, Programming, Psychology, Psychology, Radio, Radio, Rants, Raves, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Resources, Sociology | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

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Clive Thompson

CLIVE THOMPSON: HOW TECH REMADE THE WORLD

Clive Thompson: Where do Big Ideas Come From?

Smarter Than You Think | Clive Thompson

Clive Thompson’s New Book Smarter Than You Think | Keen On…

Smarter Than You Think by Clive Thompson | Animated Book Review

Smarter Than You Think by Clive Thompson Audiobook

Coding Culture

‚ÄúLearning to Code is Not Just for Coders‚ÄĚ | Ali Partovi | TEDxSausalito

TEDx Talks

Published on Dec 1, 2016
COFOUNDER, CODE.ORG, ILIKE, & LINKEXCHANGE “Every child in America deserves access to Computer Science.” Described by the San Jose Mercury News as one of ‚ÄúSilicon Valley‚Äôs top angel investors,‚ÄĚ Ali Partovi has backed Airbnb, Dropbox, Facebook, Uber, and Zappos. In 2013, Partovi helped his twin brother Hadi launch Code.org, which promotes computer science education and has introduced 200 million kids to computer programming via the ‚ÄúHour of Code.‚ÄĚ Early in his career he cofounded LinkExchange and later iLike.

How I taught myself to code | Litha Soyizwapi | TEDxSoweto

Learn the basics. Learn by doing. Apply Knowledge.

What do programmers actually do?

Programmer: Reality vs Expectations (Computer Programmer) Part 1

Programmer: Reality vs Expectations (Computer Programmer) Part 2

Rags to Microsoft Software Developer – My Life Story

Microsoft laid me off after 15 years of service. My life after Microsoft?

Microsoft ruined MY weekend… MY LAN party & My LIFE! WHY!

Microsoft ruined MY weekend… MY LAN party & My LIFE! WHY!

The Real Story of the Homeless Coder | Mashable Docs

Top 10 Worst Things about Programming

here i listed them all:
10-commute 9-your work doesn’t exist 8-constant changing 7-meetings 6-your company changes 5-visibility office politics 4-sitting at desk all day 3-stress 2-arrogant people 1-bad code/manager

Top 10 Programmer Benefits

Learn Programming | Best Tips & Secrets

Top 10 Questions Coders Need to ASK in Interviews!

It’s The Culture Stupid | Coder Radio 336

Uncle Bob Martin – The Clean Coder

“Uncle” Bob Martin – “The Future of Programming”

Published on May 18, 2016

How did our industry start, what paths did it take to get to where we are, and where is it going. What big problems did programmers encounter in the past? How were they solved? And how do those solutions impact our future? What mistakes have we made as a profession; and how are we going to correct them. In this talk, Uncle Bob describes the history of software, from it’s beginnings in 1948 up through the current day; and then beyond. By looking at our past trajectory, we try to plot out where our profession is headed, and what challenges we’ll face along the way. Robert C. Martin (Uncle Bob) has been a programmer since 1970. He is the Master Craftsman at 8th Light inc, an acclaimed speaker at conferences worldwide, and the author of many books including: The Clean Coder, Clean Code, Agile Software Development: Principles, Patterns, and Practices, and UML for Java Programmers.

The Future of Programming – .NET Oxford – April 2019

Published on May 1, 2019

The Future of Programming 2019 Update How did our industry start, what paths did it take to get to where we are, and where is it going. What big problems did programmers encounter in the past? How were they solved? And how do those solutions impact our future? What mistakes have we made as a profession; and how are we going to correct them. In this talk, Uncle Bob describes the history of software, from it’s beginnings in 1948 up through the current day; and then beyond. By looking at our past trajectory, we try to plot out where our profession is headed, and what challenges we’ll face along the way. Robert Martin visited .NET Oxford in the UK, where this talk was recorded. For more information about the .NET Oxford user-group, please visit https://www.meetup.com/dotnetoxford.

Interview With Bob Martin (Uncle Bob)

Artificial Intelligence, the History and Future – with Chris Bishop

A New Philosophy on Artificial Intelligence | Kristian Hammond | TEDxNorthwesternU

Why Is Deep Learning Hot Right Now?

Deep Learning Tutorial with Python | Machine Learning with Neural Networks [Top Udemy Instructor]

Elon Musk: Tesla Autopilot | Artificial Intelligence (AI) Podcast

Eric Weinstein: Revolutionary Ideas in Science, Math, and Society | Artificial Intelligence Podcast

Tom Lehrer – Poisoning Pigeons In The Park

Tom Lehrer – We Will All Go Together When We Go

Tom Lehrer: The Vatican Rag (concert live) (1965)

Tom Lehrer – The Irish Ballad – LIVE FILM From Copenhagen in 1967

Tom Lehrer Full Copenhagen Performance

Tom Lehrer Interview NPR January 4, 1979

MIT Self-Driving Cars: State of the Art (2019)

MIT Deep Learning Basics: Introduction and Overview

Published on Jan 11, 2019

An introductory lecture for MIT course 6.S094 on the basics of deep learning including a few key ideas, subfields, and the big picture of why neural networks have inspired and energized an entire new generation of researchers. For more lecture videos on deep learning, reinforcement learning (RL), artificial intelligence (AI & AGI), and podcast conversations, visit our website or follow TensorFlow code tutorials on our GitHub repo.

MIT 6.S094: Introduction to Deep Learning and Self-Driving Cars

Google’s Deep Mind Explained! – Self Learning A.I.

Artificial Intelligence: Mankind’s Last Invention

Top 10 Computer Science Schools in the World

Coders: The Making of a New Art and the Remaking of the World

Clive Thompson. Penguin Press, $28 (448p) ISBN 978-0-7352-2056-0

In this revealing exploration of programming, programmers, and their far-reaching influence, Wired columnist Thompson (Smarter Than You Think) opens up an insular world and explores its design philosophy‚Äôs consequences, some of them unintended. Through interviews and anecdotes, Thompson expertly plumbs the temperament and motivations of programmers. Thompson explains how an avowedly meritocratic profession nevertheless tends to sideline those who are not white male graduates of prestigious university computer science programs, tracing this male-dominated culture back to 1960s and early ‚Äô70s MIT, where the ‚Äúhacker ethic‚ÄĚ was first born. Remarkably, though, he makes clear that programming is an unusual field in that successful practitioners are often self-taught, many having started out with only simple tools, such as a Commodore computer running the BASIC programming language. This book contains possibly the best argument yet for how social media maneuvers users into more extreme political positions, since ‚Äúany ranking system based partly on tallying up the reactions to posts will wind up favoring intense material.‚ÄĚ Impressive in its clarity and thoroughness, Thompson‚Äôs survey shines a much-needed light on a group of people who have exerted a powerful effect on almost every aspect of the modern world. (Apr.)

Reviewed on: 12/24/2018
Release date: 03/26/2019
Genre: Nonfiction
Ebook – 978-0-7352-2057-7
Paperback – 448 pages – 978-0-7352-2058-4

 

 

KIRKUS REVIEW

Of computer technology and its discontents.

Computers can do all kinds of cool things. The reason they can, writes tech journalist Thompson (Smarter than You Think: How Technology is Changing Our Minds for the Better, 2013), is that a coder has gotten to the problem. ‚ÄúProgrammers spend their days trying to get computers to do new things,‚ÄĚ he writes, ‚Äúso they‚Äôre often very good at understanding the crazy what-ifs that computers make possible.‚ÄĚ Some of those things, of course, have proven noxious: Facebook allows you to keep in touch with high school friends but at the expense of spying on your every online movement. Yet they‚Äôre kind of comprehensible, since they‚Äôre based on language: Coding problems are problems of words and thoughts and not numbers alone. Thompson looks at some of the stalwarts and heroes of the coding world, many of them not well-known‚ÄĒRuchi Sanghvi, for example, who worked at Facebook and Dropbox before starting a sort of think tank ‚Äúaimed at convincing members to pick a truly new, weird area to examine.‚ÄĚ If you want weird these days, you get into artificial intelligence, of which the author has a qualified view. Humans may be displaced by machines, but the vaunted singularity probably won‚Äôt happen anytime soon.¬†Probably. Thompson is an enthusiast and a learned scholar alike: He reckons that BASIC is one of the great inventions of history, being one of the ways ‚Äúfor teenagers to grasp, in such visceral and palpable ways, the fabric of¬†infinity.‚ÄĚ Though big tech is in the ascendant, he writes, there‚Äôs a growing number of young programmers who are attuned to the ethical issues surrounding what they do, demanding, for instance, that Microsoft not provide software to the Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency. Those coders, writes Thompson, are ‚Äúthe one group of people VCs and CEOs cannot afford to entirely ignore,‚ÄĚ making them the heroes of the piece in more ways than one.

Fans of Markoff, Levy, Lanier et al. will want to have a look at this intriguing portrait of coding and coders.

About this book

https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/clive-thompson/coders/

Book Summary

To understand the world today, we need to understand code and its consequences. With Coders, Thompson gives a definitive look into the heart of the machine.

Hello, world.

Facebook’s algorithms shaping the news. Self-driving cars roaming the streets. Revolution on Twitter and romance on Tinder. We live in a world constructed of code – and coders are the ones who built it for us. From acclaimed tech writer Clive Thompson comes a brilliant anthropological reckoning with the most powerful tribe in the world today, computer programmers, in a book that interrogates who they are, how they think, what qualifies as greatness in their world, and what should give us pause. They are the most quietly influential people on the planet, and¬†Coders¬†shines a light on their culture.

In pop culture and media, the people who create the code that rules our world are regularly portrayed in hackneyed, simplified terms, as ciphers in hoodies. Thompson goes far deeper, dramatizing the psychology of the invisible architects of the culture, exploring their passions and their values, as well as their messy history. In nuanced portraits,¬†Coders¬†takes us close to some of the great programmers of our time, including the creators of Facebook’s News Feed, Instagram, Google’s cutting-edge AI, and more. Speaking to everyone from revered “10X” elites to neophytes, back-end engineers and front-end designers, Thompson explores the distinctive psychology of this vocation – which combines a love of logic, an obsession with efficiency, the joy of puzzle-solving, and a superhuman tolerance for mind-bending frustration.

Along the way,¬†Coders¬†thoughtfully ponders the morality and politics of code, including its implications for civic life and the economy. Programmers shape our everyday behavior: When they make something easy to do, we do more of it. When they make it hard or impossible, we do less of it. Thompson wrestles with the major controversies of our era, from the “disruption” fetish of Silicon Valley to the struggle for inclusion by marginalized groups.

In his accessible, erudite style, Thompson unpacks the surprising history of the field, beginning with the first coders Рbrilliant and pioneering women, who, despite crafting some of the earliest personal computers and programming languages, were later written out of history. Coders introduces modern crypto-hackers fighting for your privacy, AI engineers building eerie new forms of machine cognition, teenage girls losing sleep at 24/7 hackathons, and unemployed Kentucky coal-miners learning a new career.

At the same time, the book deftly illustrates how programming has become a marvelous new art form – a source of delight and creativity, not merely danger. To get as close to his subject as possible, Thompson picks up the thread of his own long-abandoned coding skills as he reckons, in his signature, highly personal style, with what superb programming looks like.

https://www.bookbrowse.com/bb_briefs/detail/index.cfm/ezine_preview_number/13867/coders

Praise

‚ÄúFascinating. Thompson is an excellent writer and his subjects are themselves gripping. . . . [W]hat Thompson does differently is to get really close to the people he writes about: it‚Äôs the narrative equivalent of Technicolor, 3D and the microscope. . . . People who interact with coders routinely, as colleagues, friends or family, could benefit tremendously from these insights.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒNature

‚ÄúWith an anthropologist‚Äôs eye, [Thompson] outlines [coders‚Äô] different personality traits, their history and cultural touchstones. He explores how they live, what motivates them and what they fight about. By breaking down what the actual world of coding looks like . . . he removes the mystery and brings it into the legible world for the rest of us to debate. Human beings and their foibles are the reason the internet is how it is‚ÄĒfor better and often, as this book shows, for worse.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒTheNew York Times Book Review

‚ÄúAn outstanding author and long-form journalist. . . . I particularly enjoyed [Thompson‚Äôs] section on automation.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒTim Ferriss

‚Äú[An] enjoyable primer on the world of computer programmers. . . . Coders are building the infrastructure on which twenty-first century society rests, and their work has every chance of surviving as long, and being as important, as the Brooklyn Bridge‚ÄĒor, for that matter, the Constitution.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒBookforum

‚ÄúThompson delivers again with this well-written narrative on coders, individual histories, and the culture of coder life, at home and work. . . . In addition to analyzing the work-life of coders, he brilliantly reveals several examples of how they live in their respective relationships. Throughout, Thompson also does a great job exploring the various drivers that permeate the industry: merit, openness of code, long coding stints without sleep, and how the culture tends toward start-up culture even when companies are established. This engaging work will appeal to readers who wish to learn more about the intersection of technology and culture, and the space in which they blur together.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒLibrary Journal, starred review

‚ÄúThompson offers a broad cultural view of the world of coders and programmers from the field‚Äôs origins in the mid-twentieth century to the present. In this highly readable and entertaining narrative, he notes the sense of scale and logical efficiency in coding and the enthusiasm with which programmers go about creating new features and finding bugs. . . . [A] comprehensive look at the people behind the digital systems now essential to everyday life.‚ÄĚ‚ÄĒBooklist

‚ÄúLooks at some of the stalwarts and heroes of the coding world, many of them not well-known. . . . Thompson is an enthusiast and a learned scholar alike. . . . Fans of Markoff, Levy, Lanier, et al. will want to have a look at this intriguing portrait of coding and coders.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒKirkus

‚ÄúIn this revealing exploration of programming, programmers, and their far-reaching influence, Wired columnist Thompson opens up an insular world and explores its design philosophy‚Äôs consequences, some of them unintended. Through interviews and anecdotes, Thompson expertly plumbs the temperament and motivations of programmers. . . . [Coders] contains possibly the best argument yet for how social media maneuvers users into more extreme political positions. . . . Impressive in its clarity and thoroughness, Thompson‚Äôs survey shines a much-needed light on a group of people who have exerted a powerful effect on almost every aspect of the modern world.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒPublishers Weekly, starred review

‚ÄúAs a person who has spent a lot of time writing code, I can confirm that you need to be a little bit of a weirdo to love it. Clive Thompson‚Äôs book is an essential field guide to the eccentric breed of architects who are building the algorithms that shape our future, and the AIs who will eventually rise up and enslave us. Good luck, humans!‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒJonathan Coulton, musician

‚ÄúClive Thompson is more than a gifted reporter and writer. He is a brilliant social anthropologist. And, in this masterful book, he illuminates both the fascinating coders and the bewildering technological forces that are transforming the world in which we live.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒDavid Grann, author of The Lost City of Z and Killers of the Flower Moon

‚ÄúWith his trademark clarity and insight, Clive Thompson gives us an unparalleled vista into the mind-set and culture of programmers, the often-invisible architects and legislators of the digital age.‚ÄĚ ¬†‚ÄĒSteven Johnson, author of How We Got to Now

‚ÄúIf you have to work with programmers, it‚Äôs essential to understand that programming has a culture. This book will help you understand what programmers do, how they do it, and why. It decodes the culture of code.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒKevin Kelly, senior maverick for Wired

‚ÄúClive Thompson is the ideal guide to who coders are, what they do, and how they wound up taking over the world. For a book this important, inspiring, and scary, it‚Äôs sinfully fun to read.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒSteven Levy, author of In the Plex

‚ÄúIt‚Äôs a delight to follow Clive Thompson‚Äôs roving, rollicking mind anywhere. When that ‚Äėanywhere‚Äô is the realm of the programmers, the pleasure takes on extra ballast. Coders is an engrossing, deeply clued-in ethnography, and it‚Äôs also a book about power, a new kind: where it comes from, how it feels to wield it, who gets to try‚ÄĒand how all that is changing.‚ÄĚ ¬†‚ÄĒRobin Sloan, author of Mr. Penumbra‚Äôs 24-Hour Bookstore

‚ÄúClive Thompson has deftly picked apart the myth of a tech meritocracy. Guiding readers through the undercovered history of programming‚Äôs female roots, Coders points with assurance to the inequities that have come to define coding today, as both a profession and the basis of the technology that shapes our lives. Readable, revealing, and in many ways infuriating.‚ÄĚ ¬†‚ÄĒRebecca Traister, author of Good and Mad

‚ÄúCode shapes coders, and coders shape the code that changes how we think, every day of our lives. If you want to create a more humanistic digital world, read this book to get started.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒSherry Turkle, professor at MIT; author of Reclaiming Conversation and Alone Together

‚ÄúThompson has accomplished the nearly impossible task of portraying the coding world exactly as it is: messy, inspiring, naive, and‚ÄĒat times‚ÄĒshameful. Coders is a beautifully written and refreshingly fair portrayal of a young industry that‚Äôs accomplished so much and still has a lot to learn.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒSaron Yitbarek, CEO and founder of CodeNewbie

Coding Has Become Pop Culture

Exactly what I did not want to become …

But programming has not. And let me dive right into it.

Fifteen years ago when people suggested I should become a programmer because of my introverted and shy personality, analytical mind and complete lack of social life, I laughed and shamelessly flipped them off. But I was a teenager, and in my teenage mind a programmer lived forever with their parents, in the basement, with pimples and large ugly glasses, has never had a girlfriend but plenty of wet dreams about princess Leia. Repeatedly. And that image did not sit well with me. Plus, I actually had a girlfriend, and a hot one at that.

Forward six years, and I was in Budapest airport casually reading a book about HTML…

Add another 6 years and I landed my first full-stack web developer job at a Northern Irish startup. Yes, I took my time, I guess. But how much time? I don‚Äôt quite know to be honest. But it was a lot. Was it the mythical 10.000 hours? No. If I would have to make a rough estimation, I would say, to date I have ‚Äúcoded‚ÄĚ about 8000 hours. Technically, according to the 10.000 hour rule, in 2000 hours worth of ‚Äúcoding‚ÄĚ, I shall be an expert in my field.

Or will I?

Here’s what I have done in those 8000 hours. Grab a seat, as this is going to be long and hard to follow. I have written code in the following languages: C, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Java (Android), Swift, PHP, Ruby, Python, Chuck, SQL to work with the following frameworks: Node, Angular, Bootstrap, Foundation, React, Rails, CodeIgniter, Ionic while building landing pages, websites, WordPress sites, eCommerce solutions, eLearning content, Moodle sites, Totara sites, Mahara sites, Common Cartridge packages, SCORM packages, Android apps, iOS apps, hybrid apps, in-house web applications, eBooks, magazines, games, and board-game companion apps. So what am I getting at?

Well, what I am trying to say is that there is no field, therefore becoming an expert in it, becomes unattainable. Coding is not a field. Computer Science is, but that’s an entirely different slice of cheese.

Coding is what presidents, educators, parents and employers and companies herd the young generations into, like cattle onto the holy grail of golden fields of opportunity.

The promise is a dream, the propaganda is well-crafted and simple-worded, heck it‚Äôs not even worded any more, it‚Äôs dumbed down to simple images for them lovely wee ‚Äúrugrats‚ÄĚ who definitely must learn logical thinking before learning how to feed themselves‚Ää‚ÄĒ‚Ääplease note the sarcasm.

Just 15 years later, coding has become the ‚Äúpop-culturized‚ÄĚ version of programming and what everybody now hopes will be the future army of coders upon which we shall build our AI controlled home, traffic, retail, entertainment, medical, industrial, sexual, illusional and delusional revolution, will turn out to be an absolute shit-show‚Ää‚ÄĒ‚Ääand there truly is no better word for that. And all this, because programming is being sold as ‚Äúcoding‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúcoding‚ÄĚ is supposedly easy. Couldn‚Äôt be further away from the truth‚Ķ

So here‚Äôs the fine-print. The ‚Äúfactualised‚ÄĚ myth that anyone can learn a programming language in mere hours is only true up to a point and that point happens to be very early on in the learning process. Indeed, a and any programming language can be learnt in a single day. In fact if one‚Äôs goal is to become a programming polyglot in a month (while having a job), 8‚Äď10 languages can be learnt by studying during the weekends. But here‚Äôs the catch. Every programming language has its libraries and, its syntactic sugar and personality, and none of that can really be learnt quickly or easily or in a weekend. In fact, in the real world, every programming language becomes the least of your problems.

Just because you speak English, it doesn’t mean you’re good at writing novels, or even short stories. Same goes for coding.

Just because you‚Äôve learnt the language, does not mean you know how to program. Add to that the myriad of frameworks, plugins, libraries, pre-processors, post-processors, coding standards, industry standards, TDD, BDD, content management systems, file versioning, CI, deployment and release management, debugging, ticketing, waterfall, agile, scrum and their combination thereof‚Ķ and I am not even sure I‚Äôve touched on everything. The point is, being a ‚Äúcoder‚ÄĚ involves more or less all of the above. And programming itself is just a tiny tiny part of it. A crucial part, but nevertheless, tiny.

Yet programming is still continuously being dumbed-down …

Apple launched Playgrounds, MIT launched Scratch, Lego is launching Boost, all in an attempt to sell ‚Äúcoding‚ÄĚ to younger and younger age-groups as if that will fill the quota of millions of new programmers by 202x.

The message is pretty much ‚Äúdon‚Äôt worry about the code, take these virtual puzzle pieces and off you go, you can program‚ÄĚ. If only that were true. Here‚Äôs the thing about programming. It‚Äôs text-based. Has been, and will be for many more years to come. Kids who play with Lego Boost, Playgrounds or Scratch won‚Äôt be better programmers by the age of 22 than those who started learning programming at 16 and did it in an actual programming language. In fact, why should they be? I would not expect my child to be a bread-earning individual until the age of 22. Learn ‚Äúcoding‚ÄĚ for 6 years, and I guarantee she/he will land a job in no-time.

GUI has also nothing to do with the real programming world, and logical thinking can be transferred to a kid in many other ways. When was the last time you saw a kid do a 1000 piece puzzle on the dining-room table? Exactly…

Kids are by default very logical human beings, in fact that’s how they learn how the world works.

They learn the value of the if-else-statement the first day they‚Äôre born. ‚ÄúIf I cry, mum will make it stop, else I keep crying until dad shows up (who will probably make everything 10 times worse, but heck, I‚Äôm gonna t(c)ry anyway‚Ķ).‚ÄĚ Kids are very logical, hence their often brutal sincerity. You call it innocence, they call it a black-and-white world. There are no multiple switch statements yet. There are no shades of grey. That comes later. Both literally and literarily (in 3 volumes no less‚Ķ).¬†ūüėČ Bottom line, they are more than equipped with logical thinking, but put them in front of the TV, or hand them a tablet for 6 hours a day, and all that is going to become a pile of corrupted values as often there is very little thinking involved.

‚ÄúCoding‚ÄĚ is not a musical art, a piano or a violin that a child might need to develop muscle-memory for. It‚Äôs engineering.

What programming requires is analytical thinking, problem-solving attitude, stamina for failed attempts at coming up with the right solution, passion for technology, pride in your own code, but maturely accepting someone else’s improvements and observations, and a sense of responsibility for any code you write or contribute to.

Correct me if I am wrong, but none of these traits are easy to cultivate and develop. Certainly not at the age of 5! Yet, nobody seems to sell ‚Äúcoding‚ÄĚ as it really is‚Ää‚ÄĒ‚Ääa fun but difficult journey of discovery, success and failure and all that ‚Äúda capo‚ÄĚ, all year, every year.

Just because ‚Äúcoding‚ÄĚ sounds cool, it does not mean it‚Äôs not the same ole‚Äô hard-core programming. If anything, it‚Äôs even more so today than 15 years ago. Except we now all wear skinny jeans, walk around with even skinnier laptops, moved out of the basement and with all the ‚Äúfill the gender-gap‚ÄĚ hype, we might even end up with decent looking girlfriends.

P.S. Some things don‚Äôt change. The ugly glasses stayed. But they‚Äôre trendy now, so it‚Äôs all good.¬†ūüėČ

https://hackernoon.com/coding-has-become-a-pop-culture-939100f84b0c

The ugly underbelly of coder culture

Today’s developers are overwhelmingly young and male, and they’re barring the door from a more diverse workforce

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Alfred Adler — Understanding Human Nature — Videos

Posted on July 22, 2019. Filed under: Articles, Biology, Blogroll, Books, Culture, Economics, Education, liberty, Life, Links, Literacy, Love, media, Non-Fiction, People, Philosophy, Photos, Raves, Science, Social Sciences, Wealth, Welfare, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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Alfred Adler on film (1929)

Alfred Adler Psych of Personality

Adlerian Theory and Psychotherapy: A History and Detailed Description

The Psychology of Alfred Adler: Superiority, Inferiority, and Courage

Adler the father of Individiual Psychology

Alfred Adler: 1. Life and Times

Alfred Adler: 2. The Inferiority Complex and the Break with Freud

Alfred Adler: 3. Key Concepts and Insights

What is Adlerian Therapy?

5 Adlerian Therapy

Adlerian Therapy –

Adlerian Counseling

Adlerian Psychology and Conversation

Four Stages of Adlerian Therapy

Adler

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Alfred Adler

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Alfred Adler
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Austrian psychiatrist.jpg

Alfred Adler
Born
Alfred Adler

7 February 1870

Rudolfsheim¬†near¬†Vienna,¬†Austria-Hungary¬†(now¬†Rudolfsheim-F√ľnfhaus, Vienna,¬†Austria)
Died 28 May 1937 (aged 67)

Residence Austria
Nationality Austrian
Alma mater University of Vienna
Known for Individual psychology
Superiority complex
Inferiority complex
Style of life
Spouse(s) Raissa Epstein
Children Alexandra Adler, Kurt Adler, Valentine Adler, Cornelia Adler
Scientific career
Fields Psychotherapist, psychiatrist
Part of a series of articles on
Psychoanalysis
Freud's couch, London, 2004 (2).jpeg

Alfred Adler¬†(/ňą√¶dl…ôr/;[1]¬†German:¬†[ňąaňźdl…ź]; 7 February 1870 ‚Äď 28 May 1937) was an¬†Austrian¬†medical doctor,¬†psychotherapist, and founder of the school of¬†individual psychology.[2]¬†His emphasis on the importance of feelings of inferiority,[3]¬†the¬†inferiority complex, is recognized as an isolating element which plays a key role in personality development.[4]¬†Alfred Adler considered a human being as an individual whole, therefore he called his psychology “Individual Psychology” (Orgler 1976).

Adler was the first to emphasize the importance of the social element in the re-adjustment process of the individual and who carried psychiatry into the community.[5] A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Adler as the 67th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century.[6]

Early life

Alfred Adler was born at¬†Mariahilfer Stra√üe¬†208[7]¬†in¬†Rudolfsheim, then a village on the western fringes of¬†Vienna, and today part of¬†Rudolfsheim-F√ľnfhaus, the 15th district of the city. He was second of the seven children of a¬†Hungarian-born,¬†Jewish¬†grain merchant and his wife.[8][9]¬†Alfred’s younger brother died in the bed next to him, when Alfred was only three years old.[10]

Alfred was an active, popular child and an average student who was also known for his competitive attitude toward his older brother, Sigmund.

Early on, he developed¬†rickets, which kept him from walking until he was four years old. At the age of four, he developed pneumonia and heard a doctor say to his father, “Your boy is lost”. At that point, he decided to be a physician.[11]¬†He was very interested in the subjects of psychology, sociology and philosophy.[12]¬†After studying at¬†University of Vienna, he specialized as an¬†eye doctor, and later in neurology and psychiatry.[12]

Career

Adler began his medical career as an¬†ophthalmologist, but he soon switched to general practice, and established his office in a less affluent part of Vienna across from the Prater, a combination amusement park and circus. His clients included circus people, and it has been suggested[11]¬†that the unusual strengths and weaknesses of the performers led to his insights into “organ inferiorities” and “compensation”.

In 1902 Adler received an invitation from¬†Sigmund Freud¬†to join an informal discussion group that included Rudolf Reitler and Wilhelm Stekel. The group, the “Wednesday Society” (Mittwochsgesellschaft), met regularly on Wednesday evenings at Freud’s home and was the beginning of the psychoanalytic movement, expanding over time to include many more members. Each week a member would present a paper and after a short break of coffee and cakes, the group would discuss it. The main members were Otto Rank, Max Eitingon, Wilhelm Stekel, Karl Abraham, Hanns Sachs, Fritz Wittels, Max Graf, and Sandor Ferenczi. In 1908, Adler presented his paper, ‚ÄĚThe aggressive instinct in life and in neurosis‚ÄĚ, at a time when Freud believed that early sexual development was the primary determinant of the making of character, with which Adler took issue. Adler proposed that the sexual and aggressive drives were ‚ÄĚtwo originally separate instincts which merge later on‚ÄĚ. Freud at the time disagreed with this idea.

When Freud later proposed his dual instinct theory of libido and aggressive drives in Freud‚Äôs 1920) Beyond the Pleasure Principle, without citing Adler, he was reproached that Adler had proposed the aggressive drive in his 1908 paper (Eissler, 1971). Freud later commented in a 1923 footnote he added to the Little Hans case that, ‚ÄĚI have myself been obliged to assert the existence of an aggressive instinct‚ÄĚ (1909, p. 140, 2), while pointing out that his conception of an aggressive drive differs from that of Adler. A long-serving member of the group, he made many more beyond this 1908 pivotal contribution to the group, and Adler became president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society eight years later (1910). He remained a member of the Society until 1911, when he and a group of his supporters formally disengaged from Freud’s circle, the first of the great dissenters from orthodox psychoanalysis (preceding¬†Carl Jung‘s split in 1914).[13]¬†This departure suited both Freud and Adler, since they had grown to dislike each other. During his association with Freud, Adler frequently maintained his own ideas which often diverged from Freud’s. While Adler is often referred to as “a pupil of Freud”, in fact this was never true; they were colleagues, Freud referring to him in print in 1909 as “My colleague Dr Alfred Adler”.[14]¬†In 1929 Adler showed a reporter with the¬†New York Herald¬†a copy of the faded postcard that Freud had sent him in 1902. He wanted to prove that he had never been a disciple of Freud’s but rather that Freud had sought him out to share his ideas.

Adler founded the Society for Individual Psychology in 1912 after his break from the psychoanalytic movement. Adler’s group initially included some orthodox Nietzschean adherents (who believed that Adler’s ideas on power and inferiority were closer to Nietzsche than Freud’s). Their enmity aside, Adler retained a lifelong admiration for Freud’s ideas on dreams and credited him with creating a scientific approach to their clinical utilization (Fiebert, 1997). Nevertheless, even regarding dream interpretation, Adler had his own theoretical and clinical approach. The primary differences between Adler and Freud centered on Adler’s contention that the social realm (exteriority) is as important to psychology as is the internal realm (interiority). The dynamics of power and compensation extend beyond sexuality, and gender and politics can be as important as libido. Moreover, Freud did not share Adler’s¬†socialist¬†beliefs, the latter’s wife being for example an intimate friend of many of the Russian Marxists such as¬†Leon Trotsky.[15]

The Adlerian school

Following Adler’s break from Freud, he enjoyed considerable success and celebrity in building an independent¬†school of psychotherapy¬†and a unique¬†personality theory. He traveled and lectured for a period of 25 years promoting his socially oriented approach. His intent was to build a movement that would rival, even supplant, others in psychology by arguing for the holistic integrity of psychological well-being with that of social equality. Adler’s efforts were halted by¬†World War I, during which he served as a doctor with the¬†Austro-Hungarian Army. After the conclusion of the war, his influence increased greatly. In the 1920s, he established a number of child guidance clinics. From 1921 onwards, he was a frequent lecturer in¬†Europe¬†and the¬†United States, becoming a visiting professor at¬†Columbia University¬†in 1927. His clinical treatment methods for adults were aimed at uncovering the hidden purpose of symptoms using the therapeutic functions of insight and meaning.

Adler was concerned with the overcoming of the superiority/inferiority dynamic and was one of the first psychotherapists to discard the analytic couch in favor of two chairs. This allows the clinician and patient to sit together more or less as equals. Clinically, Adler’s methods are not limited to treatment after-the-fact but extend to the realm of prevention by preempting future problems in the child. Prevention strategies include encouraging and promoting social interest, belonging, and a cultural shift within families and communities that leads to the eradication of pampering and neglect (especially corporal punishment). Adler’s popularity was related to the comparative optimism and comprehensibility of his ideas. He often wrote for the lay public. Adler always retained a pragmatic approach that was task-oriented. These “Life tasks” are occupation/work, society/friendship, and love/sexuality. Their success depends on cooperation. The tasks of life are not to be considered in isolation since, as Adler famously commented, “they all throw cross-lights on one another”.[16]

In his bestselling book,¬†Man’s Search for Meaning,¬†Dr. Viktor E. Frankl¬†compared his own “Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy” (after Freud’s and Adler’s schools) to Adler’s analysis:

According to¬†logotherapy, the striving to find a meaning in one’s life is the primary motivational force in man. That is why I speak of a¬†will to meaning¬†in contrast to the “pleasure principle” (or, as we could also term it, the¬†will to pleasure) on which Freudian psychoanalysis is centered, as well as in contrast to the¬†will to power¬†stressed by Adlerian psychology.[17]

Emigration

In the early 1930s, after most of Adler’s Austrian clinics had been closed due to his Jewish heritage (despite his conversion to Christianity), Adler left Austria for a professorship at the¬†Long Island College of Medicine¬†in the US. Adler died from a heart attack in 1937 in¬†Aberdeen, Scotland, during a lecture tour, although his¬†remains¬†went missing and were unaccounted for until 2007.[18]¬†His death was a temporary blow to the influence of his ideas, although a number of them were subsequently taken up by¬†neo-Freudians. Through the work of¬†Rudolf Dreikurs¬†in the United States and many other adherents worldwide, Adlerian ideas and approaches remain strong and viable more than 70 years after Adler’s death.

Around the world there are various organizations promoting Adler’s orientation towards mental and social well-being. These include the International Committee of Adlerian Summer Schools and Institutes (ICASSI), the¬†North American Society of Adlerian Psychology(NASAP) and the International Association for Individual Psychology. Teaching institutes and programs exist in Austria, Canada, England, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Switzerland, the United States, Jamaica, Peru, and Wales.

Basic principles

Adler was influenced by the mental construct ideas of the philosopher¬†Hans Vaihinger¬†(The Philosophy of ‘As if’) and the literature of¬†Dostoyevsky. While still a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society he developed a theory of organic inferiority and compensation that was the prototype for his later turn to phenomenology and the development of his famous concept, the inferiority complex.

Adler was also influenced by the philosophies of¬†Immanuel Kant,¬†Friedrich Nietzsche,¬†Rudolf Virchow¬†and the statesman¬†Jan Smuts¬†(who coined the term “holism“). Adler’s School, known as “Individual Psychology”‚ÄĒan arcane reference to the Latin¬†individuus¬†meaning indivisibility, a term intended to emphasize holism‚ÄĒis both a social and community psychology as well as a depth psychology. Adler was an early advocate in psychology for prevention and emphasized the training of parents, teachers, social workers and so on in democratic approaches that allow a child to exercise their power through reasoned decision making whilst co-operating with others. He was a social idealist, and was known as a socialist in his early years of association with psychoanalysis (1902‚Äď1911).[19]

Adler was pragmatic and believed that lay people could make practical use of the insights of psychology. Adler was also an early supporter of¬†feminism¬†in psychology and the social world, believing that feelings of superiority and inferiority were often gendered and expressed symptomatically in characteristic masculine and feminine styles. These styles could form the basis of psychic compensation and lead to mental health difficulties. Adler also spoke of “safeguarding tendencies” and neurotic behavior[20]¬†long before¬†Anna Freudwrote about the same phenomena in her book¬†The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense.

Adlerian-based scholarly, clinical and social practices focus on the following topics:[citation needed]

  • Social interest and community feeling
  • Holism and the creative self
  • Fictional finalism, teleology, and goal constructs
  • Psychological and social encouragement
  • Inferiority, superiority and compensation
  • Life style/style of life
  • Early recollections (a projective technique)
  • Family constellation and birth order
  • Life tasks and social embeddedness
  • The conscious and unconscious realms
  • Private logic and common sense (based in part on Kant’s “sensus communis“)
  • Symptoms and neurosis
  • Safeguarding behaviour
  • Guilt and guilt feelings
  • Socratic questioning
  • Dream interpretation
  • Child and adolescent psychology
  • Democratic approaches to parenting and families
  • Adlerian approaches to classroom management
  • Leadership and organisational psychology

From its inception, Adlerian psychology has included both professional and lay adherents. Adler felt that all people could make use of the scientific insights garnered by psychology and he welcomed everyone, from decorated academics to those with no formal education to participate in spreading the principles of Adlerian psychology.[citation needed]

Adler’s approach to personality

Adler’s book,¬†√úber den nerv√∂sen Charakter¬†(The Neurotic Character) defines his earlier key ideas. He argued that human personality could be explained¬†teleologically: parts of the individual’s unconscious self ideally work to convert feelings of inferiority to superiority (or rather completeness).[21]¬†The desires of the self ideal were countered by social and ethical demands. If the corrective factors were disregarded and the individual overcompensated, then an inferiority complex would occur, fostering the danger of the individual becoming egocentric, power-hungry and aggressive or worse.[22]

Common therapeutic tools include the use of humor, historical instances, and paradoxical injunctions.[23]

Psychodynamics and teleology

Adler maintained that human psychology is psychodynamic in nature. Unlike Freud’s metapsychology that emphasizes instinctual demands, human psychology is guided by goals and fueled by a yet unknown creative force. Like Freud’s instincts, Adler’s fictive goals are largely unconscious. These goals have a “teleological” function.[24]¬†Constructivist Adlerians, influenced by neo-Kantian and Nietzschean ideas, view these “teleological” goals as “fictions” in the sense that Hans Vaihinger spoke of (fictio). Usually there is a¬†fictional final goal¬†which can be deciphered alongside of innumerable sub-goals. The inferiority/superiority dynamic is constantly at work through various forms of compensation and overcompensation. For example, in¬†anorexia nervosa¬†the fictive final goal is to “be perfectly thin” (overcompensation on the basis of a feeling of inferiority). Hence, the fictive final goal can serve a persecutory function that is ever-present in subjectivity (though its trace springs are usually unconscious). The end goal of being “thin” is fictive however since it can never be subjectively achieved.

Teleology serves another vital function for Adlerians. Chilon’s “hora telos” (“see the end, consider the consequences”) provides for both healthy and maladaptive psychodynamics. Here we also find Adler’s emphasis on personal responsibility in mentally healthy subjects who seek their own and the social good.

Constructivism and metaphysics

The metaphysical thread of Adlerian theory does not problematise the notion of teleology since concepts such as eternity (an ungraspable end where time ceases to exist) match the religious aspects that are held in tandem. In contrast, the constructivist Adlerian threads (either humanist/modernist¬†or postmodern in variant) seek to raise insight of the force of unconscious fictions‚Äď which carry all of the inevitability of ‘fate’‚Äď so long as one does not understand them. Here, ‘teleology’ itself is fictive yet experienced as quite real. This aspect of Adler’s theory is somewhat analogous to the principles developed in¬†Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy¬†(REBT) and¬†Cognitive Therapy¬†(CT). Both¬†Albert Ellis¬†and¬†Aaron T. Beck¬†credit Adler as a major precursor to REBT and CT. Ellis in particular was a member of the North American Society for Adlerian Psychology and served as an editorial board member for the Adlerian Journal¬†Individual Psychology.[citation needed]

As a psychodynamic system, Adlerians excavate the past of a client/patient in order to alter their future and increase integration into community in the ‘here-and-now’.[25]¬†The ‘here-and-now’ aspects are especially relevant to those Adlerians who emphasize humanism and/or existentialism in their approaches.

Holism

Metaphysical Adlerians emphasise a spiritual¬†holism¬†in keeping with what¬†Jan Smuts¬†articulated (Smuts coined the term “holism”), that is, the spiritual sense of one-ness that holism usually implies (etymology of holism: from ŠĹÖőĽőŅŌā holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) Smuts believed that evolution involves a progressive series of lesser wholes integrating into larger ones. Whilst Smuts’ text¬†Holism and Evolution¬†is thought to be a work of science, it actually attempts to unify evolution with a higher metaphysical principle (holism). The sense of connection and one-ness revered in various religious traditions (among these, Baha’i, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Buddhism) finds a strong complement in Adler’s thought.[citation needed]

The pragmatic and materialist aspects to contextualizing members of communities, the construction of communities and the socio-historical-political forces that shape communities matter a great deal when it comes to understanding an individual’s psychological make-up and functioning. This aspect of Adlerian psychology holds a high level of synergy with the field of¬†community psychology, especially given Adler’s concern for what he called “the absolute truth and logic of communal life”.[26]¬†However, Adlerian psychology, unlike community psychology, is holistically concerned with both prevention and clinical treatment after-the-fact. Hence, Adler can be considered the “first community psychologist”, a discourse that formalized in the decades following Adler’s death (King & Shelley, 2008).

Adlerian psychology,¬†Carl Jung‘s¬†analytical psychology,¬†Gestalt therapy¬†and¬†Karen Horney‘s¬†psychodynamic¬†approach are holistic schools of psychology. These discourses eschew a reductive approach to understanding human psychology and psychopathology.[citation needed]

Typology

Adler developed a scheme of so-called personality types, which were however always to be taken as provisional or¬†heuristic¬†since he did not, in essence, believe in personality types, and at different times proposed different and equally tentative systems.[27]¬†The danger with typology is to lose sight of the individual’s uniqueness and to gaze reductively, acts that Adler opposed. Nevertheless, he intended to illustrate patterns that could denote a characteristic governed under the overall style of life. Hence American Adlerians such as Harold Mosak have made use of Adler’s typology in this provisional sense:[28]

  • The¬†Getting¬†or¬†Leaning¬†They are sensitive people who have developed a shell around themselves which protects them, but they must rely on others to carry them through life’s difficulties. They have low energy levels and so become dependent. When overwhelmed, they develop what we typically think of as neurotic symptoms: phobias, obsessions and compulsions, general anxiety, hysteria, amnesias, and so on, depending on individual details of their lifestyle.
  • The¬†Avoiding¬†types are those that hate being defeated. They may be successful, but have not taken any risks getting there. They are likely to have low social contact in fear of rejection or defeat in any way.
  • The¬†Ruling¬†or¬†Dominant¬†type strive for power and are willing to manipulate situations and people, anything to get their way. People of this type are also prone to anti-social behavior.
  • The¬†Socially Useful¬†types are those who are very outgoing and very active. They have a lot of social contact and strive to make changes for the good.

These ‘types’ are typically formed in childhood and are expressions of the Style of Life.

The importance of memories

Adler placed great emphasis upon the interpretation of early memories in working with patients and school children, writing that, “Among all psychic expressions, some of the most revealing are the individual’s memories.”[29]¬†Adler viewed memories as expressions of “private logic” and as metaphors for an individual’s personal philosophy of life or “lifestyle”. He maintained that memories are never incidental or trivial; rather, they are chosen reminders: “(A person’s) memories are the reminders she carries about with her of her limitations and of the meanings of events. There are no ‘chance’ memories. Out of the incalculable number of impressions that an individual receives, she chooses to remember only those which she considers, however dimly, to have a bearing on her problems.”[30]

On birth order

Adler often emphasized one’s¬†birth order¬†as having an influence on the¬†style of life¬†and the strengths and weaknesses in one’s psychological make up.[31]¬†Birth order referred to the placement of siblings within the family. Adler believed that the firstborn child would be in a favorable position, enjoying the full attention of the eager new parents until the arrival of a second child. This second child would cause the first born to suffer feelings of dethronement, no longer being the center of attention. Adler (1908) believed that in a three-child family, the oldest child would be the most likely to suffer from¬†neuroticism¬†and substance addiction which he reasoned was a compensation for the feelings of excessive responsibility “the weight of the world on one’s shoulders” (e.g. having to look after the younger ones) and the melancholic loss of that once supremely pampered position. As a result, he predicted that this child was the most likely to end up in jail or an asylum. Youngest children would tend to be overindulged, leading to poor social empathy. Consequently, the middle child, who would experience neither dethronement nor overindulgence, was most likely to develop into a successful individual yet also most likely to be a rebel and to feel squeezed-out. Adler himself was the third (some sources credit second) in a family of six children.

Adler never produced any scientific support for his interpretations on birth order roles, nor did he feel the need to. Yet the value of the hypothesis was to extend the importance of siblings in marking the psychology of the individual beyond Freud’s more limited emphasis on the mother and father. Hence, Adlerians spend time therapeutically mapping the influence that siblings (or lack thereof) had on the psychology of their clients. The¬†idiographic¬†approach entails an excavation of the phenomenology of one’s birth order position for likely influence on the subject’s Style of Life. In sum, the subjective experiences of sibling positionality and inter-relations are psychodynamically important for Adlerian therapists and personality theorists, not the cookbook predictions that may or may not have been objectively true in Adler’s time.

For Adler, birth order answered the question, “Why do children, who are raised in the same family, grow up with very different personalities?” While a strict geneticist, believing siblings are raised in a shared environment, may claim any differences in personality would be caused by subtle variations in the individuals’ genetics, Adler showed through his birth order theory that children do not grow up in the same shared environment, but the oldest child grows up in a family where they have younger siblings, the middle child with older and younger siblings, and the youngest with older siblings. The position in the family constellation, Adler said, is the reason for these differences in personality and not genetics: a point later taken up by¬†Eric Berne.[32]

On addiction

Adler’s insight into birth order, compensation and issues relating to the individuals’ perception of community also led him to investigate the causes and treatment of¬†substance abuse¬†disorders, particularly¬†alcoholism¬†and¬†morphinism, which already were serious social problems of his time. Adler’s work with addicts was significant since most other prominent proponents of psychoanalysis invested relatively little time and thought into this widespread ill of the modern and post-modern age. In addition to applying his¬†individual psychology approach of organ inferiority, for example, to the onset and causes of addictive behaviours, he also tried to find a clear relationship of drug cravings to sexual gratification or their substitutions. Early pharmaco-therapeutic interventions with non-addictive substances, such as¬†neuphyllin¬†were used, since withdrawal symptoms were explained by a form of “water-poisoning” that made the use of diuretics necessary. Adler and his wife’s pragmatic approach, and the seemingly high success rates of their treatment were based on their ideas of social functioning and well-being. Clearly, life style choices and situations were emphasized, for example the need for relaxation or the negative effects of early childhood conflicts were examined, which compared to other authoritarian or religious treatment regimens, were clearly modern approaches. Certainly some of his observations, for example that psychopaths were more likely to be drug addicts are not compatible with current methodologies and theories of substance abuse treatment, but the self-centred attributes of the illness and the clear escapism from social responsibilities by pathological addicts put Adler’s treatment modalities clearly into a modern contextual reasoning.[33]

On homosexuality

Adler’s ideas regarding non-heterosexual¬†sexuality and various social forms of deviance have long been controversial. Along with prostitution and criminality, Adler had classified ‘homosexuals’ as falling among the “failures of life”. In 1917, he began his writings on homosexuality with a 52-page magazine, and sporadically published more thoughts throughout the rest of his life.

The Dutch psychologist¬†Gerard J. M. van den Aardweg¬†underlines how Alfred Adler came to his conclusions for, in 1917, Adler believed that he had established a connection between homosexuality and an inferiority complex towards one’s own gender. This point of view differed from Freud’s theory that homosexuality is rooted in¬†narcissism¬†or¬†Jung‘s view of expressions of contrasexuality vis-√†-vis the archetypes of the¬†Anima and Animus.

There is evidence that Adler may have moved towards abandoning the hypothesis. Towards the end of Adler’s life, in the mid-1930s, his opinion towards homosexuality began to shift. Elizabeth H. McDowell, a New York state family social worker recalls undertaking supervision with Adler on a young man who was “living in sin” with an older man in New York City. Adler asked her, “Is he happy, would you say?” “Oh yes,” McDowell replied. Adler then stated, “Well, why don’t we leave him alone.”[34]

According to Phyllis Bottome, who wrote Adler’s¬†Biography¬†(after Adler himself laid upon her that task): “He always treated homosexuality as lack of courage. These were but ways of obtaining a slight release for a physical need while avoiding a greater obligation. A transient partner of your own sex is a better known road and requires less courage than a permanent contact with an “unknown” sex. […] Adler taught that men cannot be judged from within by their “possessions,” as he used to call nerves, glands, traumas, drives et cetera, since both judge and prisoner are liable to misconstrue what is invisible and incalculable; but that he can be judged, with no danger from introspection, by how he measures up to the three common life tasks set before every human being between the cradle and the grave. Work or employment, love or marriage, social contact.”[35]

Parent education

Adler emphasized both treatment and prevention. With regard to psychodynamic psychology, Adlerians emphasize the foundational importance of childhood in developing personality and any tendency towards various forms of psychopathology. The best way to inoculate against what are now termed “personality disorders” (what Adler had called the “neurotic character”), or a tendency to various neurotic conditions (depression, anxiety, etc.), is to train a child to be and feel an equal part of the family. The responsibility of the optimal development of the child is not limited to the mother or father, but rather includes teachers and society more broadly. Adler argued therefore that teachers, nurses, social workers, and so on require training in parent education to complement the work of the family in fostering a democratic character. When a child does not feel equal and is enacted upon (abused through pampering or neglect) he or she is likely to develop inferiority or superiority complexes and various concomitant compensation strategies.[36]¬†These strategies exact a social toll by seeding higher divorce rates, the breakdown of the family, criminal tendencies, and subjective suffering in the various guises of psychopathology. Adlerians have long promoted parent education groups, especially those influenced by the famous Austrian/American Adlerian¬†Rudolf Dreikurs¬†(Dreikurs & Soltz, 1964).

Spirituality, ecology and community

In a late work,¬†Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind¬†(1938), Adler turns to the subject of¬†metaphysics, where he integrates Jan Smuts’ evolutionary holism with the ideas of teleology and community: “sub specie aeternitatis“. Unabashedly, he argues his vision of society: “Social feeling means above all a struggle for a communal form that must be thought of as eternally applicable… when humanity has attained its goal of perfection… an ideal society amongst all mankind, the ultimate fulfillment of evolution.”[37]¬†Adler follows this pronouncement with a defense of metaphysics:

I see no reason to be afraid of metaphysics; it has had a great influence on human life and development. We are not blessed with the possession of absolute truth; on that account we are compelled to form theories for ourselves about our future, about the results of our actions, etc. Our idea of social feeling as the final form of humanity – of an imagined state in which all the problems of life are solved and all our relations to the external world rightly adjusted – is a regulative ideal, a goal that gives our direction. This goal of perfection must bear within it the goal of an ideal community, because all that we value in life, all that endures and continues to endure, is eternally the product of this social feeling.[38]

This social feeling for Adler is Gemeinschaftsgef√ľhl, a community feeling whereby one feels he or she belongs with others and has also developed an ecological connection with nature (plants, animals, the crust of this earth) and the cosmos as a whole, sub specie aeternitatis. Clearly, Adler himself had little problem with adopting a metaphysical and spiritual point of view to support his theories. Yet his overall theoretical yield provides ample room for the dialectical humanist (modernist) and the postmodernist to explain the significance of community and ecology through differing lenses (even if Adlerians have not fully considered how deeply divisive and contradictory these three threads of metaphysics, modernism, and post modernism are).

Death and cremation

Adler died suddenly in¬†Aberdeen,¬†Scotland, in May 1937, during a three-week visit to the¬†University of Aberdeen. While walking down the street, he was seen to collapse and lie motionless on the pavement. As a man ran over to him and loosened his collar, Adler mumbled “Kurt”, the name of his son and died. The autopsy performed determined his death was caused by a degeneration of the heart muscle.[39]¬†His body was cremated at Warriston Crematorium in¬†Edinburgh¬†but the ashes were never reclaimed. In 2007, his ashes were rediscovered in a casket at Warriston Crematorium and returned to Vienna for burial in 2011.[40]

Use of Adler’s work without attribution

Much of Adler’s theories have been absorbed into modern psychology without attribution. Psychohistorian¬†Henri F. Ellenberger¬†writes, “It would not be easy to find another author from which so much has been borrowed on all sides without acknowledgement than Alfred Adler.” Ellenberger posits several theories for “the discrepancy between greatness of achievement, massive rejection of person and work, and wide-scale, quiet plagiarism…” These include Adler’s “imperfect” style of writing and demeanor, his “capacity to create a new obviousness,” and his lack of a large and well organized following.[41]

Influence on depth psychology

In collaboration with¬†Sigmund Freud¬†and a small group of Freud’s colleagues, Adler was among the co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement and a core member of the¬†Vienna Psychoanalytic Society: indeed, to Freud he was “the only personality there”.[42]¬†He was the first major figure to break away from psychoanalysis to form an independent school of¬†psychotherapy¬†and¬†personality¬†theory,[43]¬†which he called individual psychology because he believed a human to be an indivisible whole, an¬†individuum. He also imagined a person to be connected or associated with the surrounding world.[44]

This was after Freud declared Adler’s ideas as too contrary, leading to an ultimatum to all members of the Society (which Freud had shepherded) to drop Adler or be expelled, disavowing the right to dissent (Makari, 2008). Nevertheless, Freud always took Adler’s ideas seriously, calling them “honorable errors. Though one rejects the content of Adler’s views, one can recognize their consistency and significance.”[45]¬†Following this split, Adler would come to have an enormous, independent effect on the disciplines of counseling and psychotherapy as they developed over the course of the 20th century (Ellenberger, 1970). He influenced notable figures in subsequent schools of psychotherapy such as¬†Rollo May,¬†Viktor Frankl,¬†Abraham Maslow¬†and¬†Albert Ellis.[46]¬†His writings preceded, and were at times surprisingly consistent with, later neo-Freudian insights such as those evidenced in the works of¬†Otto Rank,¬†Karen Horney,¬†Harry Stack Sullivan¬†and¬†Erich Fromm, some considering that it would take several decades for Freudian¬†ego psychology¬†to catch up with Adler’s ground-breaking approach.[47]

Adler emphasized the importance of equality in preventing various forms of psychopathology, and espoused the development of social interest and democratic family structures for raising children.[48]¬†His most famous concept is the¬†inferiority complex¬†which speaks to the problem of self-esteem and its negative effects on human health (e.g. sometimes producing a paradoxical superiority striving). His emphasis on power dynamics is rooted in the philosophy of¬†Nietzsche, whose works were published a few decades before Adler’s. Specifically, Adler’s conceptualization of the “Will to Power” focuses on the individual’s creative power to change for the better.[49]¬†Adler argued for holism, viewing the individual holistically rather than reductively, the latter being the dominant lens for viewing human psychology. Adler was also among the first in psychology to argue in favor of¬†feminism, and the female analyst,[50]¬†making the case that power dynamics between men and women (and associations with masculinity and femininity) are crucial to understanding human psychology (Connell, 1995). Adler is considered, along with Freud and¬†Jung, to be one of the three founding figures of¬†depth psychology, which emphasizes the unconscious and psychodynamics (Ellenberger, 1970; Ehrenwald, 1991); and thus to be one of the three great psychologists/philosophers of the twentieth century.[51]

Personal life

During his college years, he had become attached to a group of socialist students, among which he had found his wife-to-be, Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein, an intellectual and social activist from Russia studying in Vienna. They married in 1897 and had four children, two of whom became psychiatrists.[52]¬†Their children were writer, psychiatrist and Socialist activist¬†Alexandra Adler;[53]¬†psychiatrist Kurt Adler;[54]¬†writer and activist¬†Valentine Adler;[55]¬†and Cornelia “Nelly” Adler.[56]

Author and journalist¬†Margot Adler¬†(1946-2014) was Adler’s granddaughter.

Artistic and cultural references

The two main characters in the novel Plant Teacher engage in a session of Adlerian lifestyle interpretation, including early memory interpretation.[57]

English-language Adlerian journals

North America
United Kingdom
  • Adlerian Yearbook¬†(Adlerian Society, UK)

Publications

Alfred Adler’s key publications were¬†The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology¬†(1927),¬†Understanding Human Nature¬†(1927), &¬†What Life Could Mean to You¬†(1931). Other important publications are¬†The Pattern of Life¬†(1930),¬†The Science of Living¬†(1930),¬†The Neurotic Constitution¬†(1917),¬†The Problems of Neurosis¬†(1930). In his lifetime, Adler published more than 300 books and articles.

The Alfred Adler Institute of Northwestern Washington has recently published a twelve-volume set of¬†The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler, covering his writings from 1898-1937. An entirely new translation of Adler’s magnum opus,¬†The Neurotic Character, is featured in Volume 1. Volume 12 provides comprehensive overviews of Adler’s mature theory and contemporary Adlerian practice.

  • Volume 1¬†:¬†The Neurotic Character ‚ÄĒ 1907
  • Volume 2¬†:¬†Journal Articles 1898-1909
  • Volume 3¬†:¬†Journal Articles 1910-1913
  • Volume 4¬†:¬†Journal Articles 1914-1920
  • Volume 5¬†:¬†Journal Articles 1921-1926
  • Volume 6¬†:¬†Journal Articles 1927-1931
  • Volume 7¬†:¬†Journal Articles 1931-1937
  • Volume 8¬†:¬†Lectures to Physicians & Medical Students
  • Volume 9¬†:¬†Case Histories
  • Volume 10¬†:¬†Case Readings & Demonstrations
  • Volume 11¬†:¬†Education for Prevention
  • Volume 12¬†:¬†The General System of Individual Psychology

Other key Adlerian texts

  • Adler, A. (1964).¬†The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. H. L. Ansbacher and R. R. Ansbacher (Eds.). New York: Harper Torchbooks.¬†ISBN¬†0-06-131154-5.
  • Adler, A. (1979).¬†Superiority and Social Interest: A Collection of Later Writings. H. L. Ansbacher and R. R. Ansbacher (Eds.). New York, NY: W. W. Norton.¬†ISBN¬†0-393-00910-6.

See also

Notes

  1. ^¬†“Adler”.¬†Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^¬†Hoffman, E (1994).¬†The Drive for Self: Alfred Adler and the Founding of Individual Psychology. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp.¬†41‚Äď91.¬†ISBN¬†978-0-201-63280-4.
  3. ^ Alfred Adler, Understanding Human Nature (1992) Chapter 6
  4. ^ Carlson, Neil R (2010). Psychology the science of behaviour.
  5. ^¬†“my.access ‚ÄĒ University of Toronto Libraries Portal”. Retrieved¬†2 October¬†2014.
  6. ^¬†Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Renee; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002).¬†“The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century”.¬†Review of General Psychology.¬†6¬†(2): 139‚Äď152.¬†doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139.
  7. ^¬†Prof. Dr.¬†Klaus Lohrmann¬†“J√ľdisches Wien. Kultur-Karte”¬†(2003), Mosse-Berlin Mitte gGmbH (Verlag J√ľdische Presse)
  8. ^¬†“Alfred Adler Biography”. Encyclopedia of World Biography.¬†Archived¬†from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved¬†10 February¬†2010.
  9. ^ O., Prochaska, James (2013-05-10). Systems of psychotherapy : a transtheoretical analysis. Norcross, John C., 1957- (Eighth ed.). Stamford, CT. ISBN 9781133314516. OCLC 851089001.
  10. ^ Orgler, Hertha. Alfred Adler, the Man and His Work;. London: C. W. Daniel, 1939. 67. Print.
  11. ^¬†Jump up to:a¬†b¬†C. George Boeree (1937-05-28).¬†“Personality Theories ‚Äď Alfred Adler by Dr. C. George Boeree”. Webspace.ship.edu. Retrieved¬†2014-05-19.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Orgler, H. (1976). Alfred Adler. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 22(1), 67-68.
  13. ^ For further detail, see Sigmund Freud#Resignations from the IPA
  14. ^ Sigmund Freud, Case Histories II (PFL 9) p. 41n
  15. ^ Jones, p. 401
  16. ^¬†The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler, 1956, edited by H. L. Ansbacher, R. R. Ansbacher, pp. 132‚Äď133
  17. ^¬†Frankl, Viktor. (1959).¬†Man’s Search for Meaning. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press; also, Seidner, Stanley S. (June 10, 2009)¬†“A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic Transcendence and its Secular Implications for Theology”.¬†Mater Dei Institute. pp 10-12.
  18. ^¬†Carrell, Severin (11 April 2011).¬†“Ashes of psychoanalysis co-founder Alfred Adler found after 74 years”.¬†The Guardian. London.¬†Archived¬†from the original on 13 April 2011. Retrieved¬†10 April¬†2011.
  19. ^¬†“Alfred Adler’s Influence on the Three Leading Cofounders of Humanistic Psychology”.¬†Journal of Humanistic Psychology¬†(September 1990).
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Theory & Practice in Psychotherapy & Counseling By Jose A. Fadul (General Editor)
  21. ^¬†‘Inferiority Complex’, in Richard Gregory ed,¬†The Oxford Companion to the Mind¬†(1987) p. 368
  22. ^¬†Adler,¬†Understanding¬†Ch. 11 ‘Aggressive Character Traits’
  23. ^ Gerald Corey, Theory and Practice of Counselling and Psychotherapy (1991)p. 155 and p. 385
  24. ^ Adler, Understanding p. 69-76
  25. ^ Adler, Understanding p. 139-42
  26. ^ Adler, Understanding p. 209
  27. ^ Henri F. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (1970) p. 624
  28. ^ H. H. Mosak/M. Maniacci, A Primer of Adlerian Psychology (1999) p. 64-5
  29. ^ Adler, Alfred. What Life Could Mean to You. 1998, Hazelden Foundation. Center City, Minnesota: Hazelden. 58.
  30. ^¬†Adler, Alfred.¬†What Life Could Mean to You. 1998, Hazelden Foundation. Center City, Minnesota: Hazelden. 58‚Äď59.
  31. ^¬†Adler,¬†Understanding¬†Ch 9 “The Family Constellation”
  32. ^ Eric Berne, What Do You Say After You Say Hello? (1975) p. 71-81
  33. ^ Adler, A. (1932). Narcotic Abuse and Alcoholism, Chapter VII. p. 50-65. The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler: Journal articles: 1931-1937. Transl. by G.L.Liebenau. T.Stein (2005). ISBN 0-9715645-8-2.
  34. ^¬†Manaster, Painter, Deutsch, and Overholt, 1977, pp. 81‚Äď82
  35. ^¬†“Alfred Adler – A Biography”, G.P.Putnam’s Sons, New York (copyright 1939), chap. Chief Contributions to Thought, subchap. 7, The Masculine Protest, and subchap. 9, Three Life Tasks, page 160.
  36. ^ Adler, Understanding p. 44-5
  37. ^ Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind, Alfred Adler, 1938, translated by Linton John, Richard Vaughan, p. 275
  38. ^¬†Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind, Alfred Adler, 1938, translated by Linton John, Richard Vaughan, pp. 275‚Äď276
  39. ^ Donaldson, Norman and Betty (1980). How Did They Die?. Greenwich House. ISBN 978-0-517-40302-0.
  40. ^¬†“Lost ashes of Alfred Adler return to Vienna”.¬†BBC News. 18 April 2011.
  41. ^¬†Ellenberger, Henri F. “The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry.” United States of America. Basic Books. 1970. Pages 645-646.
  42. ^ Freud, quoted in Ernest Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (1964) p. 353
  43. ^¬†Stepansky, P (1983).¬†In Freud’s Shadow: Adler in Context. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. p.¬†325.¬†ISBN¬†978-0-88163-007-7.
  44. ^¬†Orgler H (1976). “Alfred Adler”.¬†International Journal of Social Psychiatry.¬†22¬†(1): 67‚Äď68.¬†doi:10.1177/002076407602200110.¬†PMID¬†783061.
  45. ^ Quoted in Jones, p. 400
  46. ^¬†Stein, H.T. (2008). “Adler’s Legacy: Past, Present, and Future”.¬†Journal of Individual Psychology.¬†64¬†(1): 4‚Äď20.
  47. ^ Ruth L. Munroe, Schools of Psychoanalytic Thought (1957) p. 437
  48. ^ Adler, Alfred (1931). What Life Could Mean to You. Center City, MN: Hazelden.
  49. ^¬†Stepp, G.¬†“A Psychology of Change”.
  50. ^ Peter Gay, Freud: A Life for our Time (1988) p. 503n
  51. ^ James Hemming, Foreword, Alfred Adler, Understanding Human Nature (1992) p. 9
  52. ^¬†“Classical Adlerian Photograph Gallery”. Retrieved¬†5 June¬†2013.
  53. ^¬†“Adler, Valentine (1898‚Äď1942)”.¬†Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Gale Research Inc. Archived from¬†the original¬†on 18 May 2013. Retrieved¬†10 January2013.(subscription required)
  54. ^¬†Burkhart, Ford.¬†“Dr. Kurt Alfred Adler, 92; Directed Therapeutic Institute”.¬†The New York Times. Retrieved¬†5 June¬†2013.
  55. ^ Hoffman, Edward (1994). The drive for self : Alfred Adler and the founding of individual psychology (1. print. ed.). Reading, Mass. u.a.: Addison-Wesley. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-201-63280-4.
  56. ^ Hoffman, Edward (1994). The drive for self : Alfred Adler and the founding of individual psychology (1. print. ed.). Reading, Mass. u.a.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-63280-4.
  57. ^ Alethia, Caroline. Plant Teacher. Viator. United States. (2011) ISBN 1468138391. ASIN B006QAECNO.

References

  • Adler, A. (1908). Der Aggressionstrieb im Leben und der Neurose. Fortsch. Med. 26: 577-584.
  • Adler, A. (1938).¬†Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind. J. Linton and R. Vaughan (Trans.). London: Faber and Faber Ltd.
  • Adler, A. (1956).¬†The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. H. L. Ansbacher and R. R. Ansbacher (Eds.). New York: Harper Torchbooks.
  • Connell, R. W. (1995).¬†Masculinities. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  • Dreikurs, R. & Soltz, V. (1964).¬†Children the Challenge. New York: Hawthorn Books.
  • Ehrenwald, J. (1991, 1976).¬†The History of Psychotherapy: From healing magic to encounter. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.
  • Eissler, K.R. (1971). Death Drive, Ambivalence, and Narcissism. Psychoanal. St. Child, 26: 25-78.
  • Ellenberger, H. (1970).¬†The Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
  • Fiebert, M. S. (1997).¬†In and out of Freud’s shadow: A chronology of Adler’s relationship with Freud. Individual Psychology, 53(3), 241-269.
  • Freud, S. (1909). Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy. Standard Edition of the Works of Sigmund Freud, London: Hogarth Press, Vol. 10, pp. 3-149.
  • King, R. & Shelley, C. (2008). Community Feeling and Social Interest: Adlerian Parallels, Synergy, and Differences with the Field of Community Psychology.¬†Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 96-107.
  • Manaster, G. J., Painter, G., Deutsch, D., & Overholt, B. J. (Eds.). (1977).¬†Alfred Adler: As We Remember Him. Chicago: North American Society of Adlerian Psychology.
  • Shelley, C. (Ed.). (1998).¬†Contemporary Perspectives on Psychotherapy and Homosexualities. London:¬†Free Association Books.
  • Slavik, S. & King, R. (2007). Adlerian therapeutic strategy.¬†The Canadian Journal of Adlerian Psychology, 37(1), 3-16.
  • Gantschacher, H. (ARBOS 2007).¬†Witness and Victim of the Apocalypse, chapter 13 page 12 and chapter 14 page 6.
  • Orgler, H. (1996).¬†Alfred Adler, 22 (1), pg. 67-68.

Further reading

  • Orgler, Hertha, Alfred Adler,¬†International Journal of Social Psychiatry, V. 22 (1), 1976-Spring, p.¬†67
  • Phyllis Bottome¬†(1939).¬†Alfred Adler – A Biography. G. P. Putnam’s Sons. New York.
  • Phyllis Bottome¬†(1939).¬†Alfred Adler – Apostle of Freedom. London: Faber and Faber. 3rd Ed. 1957.
  • Carlson, J., Watts, R. E., & Maniacci, M. (2005).¬†Adlerian Therapy: Theory and Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.¬†ISBN¬†1-59147-285-7.
  • Dinkmeyer, D., Sr., & Dreikurs, R. (2000).¬†Encouraging Children to Learn. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.¬†ISBN¬†1-58391-082-4.
  • Rudolf Dreikurs¬†(1935):¬†An Introduction to Individual Psychology. London: Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co. Ltd. – New edition 1983: London & New York: Routledge,¬†ISBN¬†0-415-21055-0.
  • Grey, L. (1998).¬†Alfred Adler: The Forgotten Prophet: A Vision for the 21st Century. Westport, CT: Praeger.¬†ISBN¬†0-275-96072-2.
  • Handlbauer, B. (1998).¬†The Freud – Adler Controversy. Oxford, UK: Oneworld.¬†ISBN¬†1-85168-127-2.
  • Hoffman, E. (1994).¬†The Drive for Self: Alfred Adler and the Founding of Individual Psychology. New York: Addison-Wesley Co.¬†ISBN¬†0-201-63280-2.
  • Lehrer, R. (1999). “Adler and Nietzsche”. In: J. Golomb, W. Santaniello, and R. Lehrer. (Eds.).¬†Nietzsche and Depth Psychology. (pp.¬†229‚Äď246). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.¬†ISBN¬†0-7914-4140-7.
  • Mosak, H. H. & Di Pietro, R. (2005).¬†Early Recollections: Interpretive Method and Application. New York: Routledge.¬†ISBN¬†0-415-95287-5.
  • Oberst, U. E. and Stewart, A. E. (2003).¬†Adlerian Psychotherapy: An Advanced Approach to Individual Psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge.¬†ISBN¬†1-58391-122-7.
  • Orgler, H. (1963).¬†Alfred Adler: The Man and His Work: Triumph Over the Inferiority Complex. New York: Liveright.
  • Orgler, H. (1996).¬†Alfred Adler, 22 (1), pg. 67-68.
  • Josef Rattner¬†(1983):¬†Alfred Adler – Life and Literature. Ungar Pub. Co.¬†ISBN¬†0-8044-5988-6.
  • Slavik, S. & Carlson, J. (Eds.). (2005).¬†Readings in the Theory of Individual Psychology. New York: Routledge.¬†ISBN¬†0-415-95168-2.
  • Man√®s Sperber¬†(1974).¬†Masks of Loneliness: Alfred Adler in Perspective. New York: Macmillan.¬†ISBN¬†0-02-612950-7.
  • Stepansky, P. E. (1983).¬†In Freud’s Shadow: Adler in Context. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.¬†ISBN¬†0-88163-007-1.
  • Watts, R. E. (2003).¬†Adlerian, cognitive, and constructivist therapies: An integrative dialogue. New York: Springer.¬†ISBN¬†0-8261-1984-0.
  • Watts, R. E., & Carlson, J. (1999).¬†Interventions and strategies in counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Accelerated Development/Routledge.¬†ISBN¬†1-56032-690-5.
  • Way, Lewis (1950):¬†Adler’s Place in Psychology. London: Allen & Unwin.
  • Way, Lewis (1956):¬†Alfred Adler – An Introduction to his Psychology. London: Pelican.
  • West, G. K. (1975).¬†Kierkegaard and Adler. Tallahassee: Florida State University.

External links]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Adler

 

Jordan Peterson

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Jordan Peterson
Jordan Peterson June 2018.jpg

Jordan Peterson in Dallas, Texas, USA in June 2018
Born
Jordan Bernt Peterson

June 12, 1962 (age 57)

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Residence Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nationality Canadian
Alma mater
Spouse(s)
Tammy Roberts (m. 1989)
Children 2
Scientific career
Fields Psychology
Institutions
Thesis Potential psychological markers for the predisposition to alcoholism (1991)
Doctoral advisor Robert O. Pihl
Notable students Colin G. DeYoung
Influences Carl Jung
Influenced Gregg Hurwitz
Website jordanbpeterson.com
Signature
Jordan Peterson Signature.svg

Jordan Bernt Peterson (born June 12, 1962) is a Canadian clinical psychologist and a professor of psychology at the University of Toronto. His main areas of study are in abnormal, social, and personality psychology,[1] with a particular interest in the psychology of religious and ideological belief[2] and the assessment and improvement of personality and performance.[3]

Peterson has bachelor’s degrees in political science and psychology from the University of Alberta and a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from McGill University. He was a post-doctoral fellow at McGill from 1991 to 1993 before moving to¬†Harvard University, where he was an assistant and then an associate professor in the psychology department.[4][5]¬†In 1998, he moved back to Canada as a faculty member in the psychology department at the University of Toronto, where, as of 2019, he is a full professor.

Peterson’s first book,¬†Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief¬†(1999), examined several academic fields to describe the structure of systems of¬†beliefs¬†and¬†myths, their role in the regulation of¬†emotion, creation of¬†meaning, and several other topics such as¬†motivation¬†for¬†genocide.[6][7][8]¬†His second book,¬†12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos, was released in January 2018.[4][9][10]

In 2016 Peterson released a series of¬†YouTube¬†videos criticizing¬†political correctness¬†and the Canadian government’s¬†Bill C-16, “An Act to amend the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code”. The Act added “gender identity¬†and¬†expression” as a prohibited ground of discrimination,[a][11]¬†which Peterson characterised as an introduction of¬†compelled speech¬†into law,[12][13][14]¬†although legal experts have disagreed.[15]¬†He subsequently received significant media coverage, attracting both support and criticism.[4][9][10]¬†Peterson is associated with the “Intellectual Dark Web“.[16][17][18]

Contents

Early life

Peterson was born on June 12, 1962,[19]¬†and grew up in¬†Fairview,¬†Alberta, a small town northwest of his birthplace¬†Edmonton, in¬†Canada.[20]¬†He was the eldest of three children born to Beverley, a librarian at the Fairview campus of¬†Grande Prairie Regional College, and Walter Peterson, a schoolteacher.[21][22]¬†His middle name is Bernt (/ňąb…õ…ôr…ônt/¬†BAIR-…ônt),[23]¬†after his Norwegian great-grandfather.[24]

When he was 13, he was introduced to the writings of¬†George Orwell,¬†Aldous Huxley,¬†Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and¬†Ayn Rand¬†by his school librarian Sandy Notley‚ÄĒmother of¬†Rachel Notley, leader of the¬†Alberta New Democratic Party¬†and 17th¬†Premier of Alberta.[25]¬†He also worked for the¬†New Democratic Party¬†(NDP) throughout his teenage years, but grew disenchanted with the party. He saw his experience of disillusionment resonating with Orwell’s diagnosis, in¬†The Road to Wigan Pier, of “the intellectual, tweed-wearing middle-class socialist” who “didn’t like the poor; they just hated the rich”.[21][26]¬†He left the NDP at age 18.[27]

Education

After graduating from Fairview High School in 1979, Peterson entered the¬†Grande Prairie Regional College¬†to study¬†political science¬†and¬†English literature.[2]¬†He later transferred to the¬†University of Alberta, where he completed his¬†B.A.¬†in¬†political science¬†in 1982.[27]¬†Afterwards, he took a year off to visit Europe. There he began studying the psychological origins of the¬†Cold War, 20th-century European¬†totalitarianism,[2][28]¬†and the works of¬†Carl Jung,¬†Friedrich Nietzsche,¬†Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn,[21]¬†and¬†Fyodor Dostoyevsky.[28]¬†He then returned to the University of Alberta and received a B.A. in¬†psychology¬†in 1984.[29]¬†In 1985, he moved to¬†Montreal¬†to attend¬†McGill University. He earned his¬†Ph.D.¬†in¬†clinical psychology¬†under the supervision of¬†Robert O. Pihl¬†in 1991, and remained as a¬†post-doctoral fellow¬†at McGill’s¬†Douglas Hospital¬†until June 1993, working with Pihl and¬†Maurice Dongier.[2][30]

Career

Peterson at the University of Toronto in March 2017.

From July 1993 to June 1998,[1]¬†Peterson lived in¬†Arlington, Massachusetts, while teaching and conducting research at¬†Harvard University¬†as an¬†assistant¬†and an¬†associate professor¬†in the psychology department. During his time at Harvard, he studied¬†aggression¬†arising from¬†drug and alcohol abuse¬†and supervised a number of unconventional thesis proposals.[27]¬†Two former Ph.D. students, Shelley Carson, a psychologist and teacher from Harvard, and author¬†Gregg Hurwitz¬†recalled that Peterson’s lectures were already highly admired by the students.[4]¬†In July 1998, he returned to Canada and took up a post as a¬†full professor¬†at the¬†University of Toronto.[1][29]

Peterson’s areas of study and research are in the fields of¬†psychopharmacology,¬†abnormal,¬†neuro,¬†clinical,¬†personality,¬†social,¬†industrial and organizational,[1]¬†religious,¬†ideological,[2]¬†political, and¬†creativity¬†psychology.[3]Peterson has authored or co-authored more than a hundred¬†academic papers[31]¬†and has been cited almost 8,000 times as of mid-2017.¬†[32]

For most of his career, Peterson had an active clinical practice, seeing about 20 people a week. He had been active on social media, and in September 2016 he released a series of videos in which he criticized Bill C-16.[25][33]As a result of new projects, he decided to put the clinical practice on hold in 2017[9] and temporarily stopped teaching as of 2018.[22][34]

In June 2018, Peterson debated with¬†Sam Harris¬†at the¬†Orpheum Theatre¬†in Vancouver while moderated by¬†Bret Weinstein, and again in July at the¬†3Arena¬†in Dublin and¬†The O2 Arena¬†in London while moderated by¬†Douglas Murray, over the topic of religion and¬†God.[35][36]¬†In April 2019, Peterson¬†debated¬†professor¬†Slavoj ŇĹiŇĺek¬†at the¬†Sony Centre¬†in¬†Toronto, Canada¬†over¬†happiness¬†under¬†capitalism¬†versus¬†Marxism.[37][38]

Works

Books

Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief (1999)

In 1999 Routledge published Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief. The book, which took Peterson 13 years to complete, describes a comprehensive theory about how people construct meaning, form beliefs and make narrativesusing ideas from various fields including mythology, religion, literature, philosophy and psychology in accordance to the modern scientific understanding of how the brain functions.[27][5][39]

According to Peterson, his main goal was to examine why both individuals and groups participate in¬†social conflict, explore the reasoning and motivation individuals take to support their¬†belief systems¬†(i.e. ideological¬†identification[27]) that eventually results in killing and pathological atrocities like the¬†Gulag, the¬†Auschwitz concentration camp¬†and the¬†Rwandan genocide.[27][5][39]¬†He considers that an “analysis of the world’s religious ideas might allow us to describe our essential morality and eventually develop a universal system of morality”.[39]¬†Jungian archetypes¬†play an important role in the book.[4]

In 2004, a 13-part TV series based on Peterson’s book¬†Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief¬†aired on¬†TVOntario.[21][29][40]

12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos (2018)

In January 2018,¬†Penguin Random House¬†published Peterson’s second book,¬†12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos. The work contains abstract ethical principles about life, in a more accessible style than¬†Maps of Meaning.[9][4][10]¬†To promote the book, Peterson went on a world tour.[41][42][43]¬†As part of the tour, Peterson was interviewed in the UK by¬†Cathy Newman¬†on¬†Channel 4 News¬†which generated considerable attention, as well as popularity for the book.[44][45][46][47]¬†The book topped bestselling lists in Canada, the US, and the United Kingdom.[48][49]¬†As of January 2019, Peterson is working on a sequel to¬†12 Rules for Life.[50]

YouTube channel and podcasts

Peterson (right) speaking to Dave Rubin in September 2018

In 2013, Peterson began recording his lectures (“Personality and Its Transformations”, “Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief”[51]) and uploading them to¬†YouTube. His YouTube channel has gathered more than 1.8 million subscribers and his videos have received more than 65 million views as of August 2018.[33][52]¬†In January 2017, he hired a production team to film his psychology lectures at the University of Toronto. He used funds received on the¬†crowdfunding¬†website¬†Patreon¬†after he became embroiled in the Bill C-16 controversy in September 2016. His funding through Patreon has increased from $1,000 per month in August 2016 to $14,000 by January 2017, more than $50,000 by July 2017, and over $80,000 by May 2018.[25][33][53][54]¬†In December 2018, Peterson decided to delete his Patreon account after¬†Patreon’s controversial bans¬†of political personalities.[55]

Peterson has appeared on many podcasts, conversational series, as well other online shows.[52][56]¬†In December 2016, Peterson started his own podcast,¬†The Jordan B. Peterson Podcast, which has included academic guests such as¬†Camille Paglia,¬†Martin Daly, and¬†James W. Pennebaker.[57]¬†On his YouTube channel he has interviewed¬†Stephen Hicks,¬†Richard J. Haier, and¬†Jonathan Haidt¬†among others.[57]¬†In March 2019, the podcast joined the¬†Westwood One¬†network with Peterson’s daughter as a co-host on some episodes.[58]¬†Peterson supported engineer¬†James Damore¬†in his action against¬†Google.[10]

Biblical lectures

In May 2017, Peterson began The psychological significance of the Biblical stories,[59] a series of live theatre lectures, also published as podcasts, in which he analyzes archetypal narratives in Book of Genesis as patterns of behavior ostensibly vital for personal, social and cultural stability.[10][60]

In March 2019, Peterson had his invitation of a visiting fellowship at¬†Cambridge University¬†rescinded. He had previously said that the fellowship would give him “the opportunity to talk to religious experts of all types for a couple of months”, and that the new lectures would have been on¬†Book of Exodus.[61]¬†A spokesperson for the University said that there was “no place” for anyone who could not uphold the “inclusive environment” of the university.[62]¬†After a week, the vice-chancellor Stephen Toope explained that it was due to a photograph with a man wearing an¬†Islamophobe¬†shirt.[63]¬†The¬†Cambridge student union¬†released a statement of relief, considering the invitation “a political act to … legitimise figures such as Peterson” and that his work and views are not “representative of the student body”.[64]Peterson called the decision a “deeply unfortunate … error of judgement” and expressed regret that the Divinity Faculty had submitted to an “ill-informed, ignorant and ideologically-addled mob”.[65][66]

Self Authoring Suite

In 2005, Peterson and his colleagues set up a for-profit company to provide and produce a¬†writing therapy¬†program with a series of online writing exercises.[67]¬†Titled the Self Authoring Suite,[21]¬†it includes the Past Authoring Program (a guided autobiography); two Present Authoring Programs which allow the participant to analyze their personality faults and virtues in terms of the¬†Big Five¬†personality model; and the Future Authoring Program which guides participants through the process of planning their desired futures. The latter program was used with¬†McGill University¬†undergraduates on academic probation to improve their grades, as well as since 2011 at¬†Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University.[68][69]¬†The programs were developed partially from research by James W. Pennebaker at the¬†University of Texas at Austin¬†and Gary Latham at the¬†Rotman School of Management¬†of the¬†University of Toronto.[4]¬†Peterson’s co-authored 2015 study showed significant reduction in ethnic and gender-group differences in performance, especially among ethnic minority male students.[69][70]¬†According to Peterson, more than 10,000 students have used the program as of January 2017, with drop-out rates decreasing by 25% and¬†GPAs¬†rising by 20%.[21]

Political views

Jordan Peterson speaking in front of¬†St. Stephen’s Basilica, Budapest, Hungary, in May 2019.

Peterson has characterized himself as a “classic British liberal“,[28][71][72]¬†and as a “traditionalist”.[73]¬†He has stated that he is commonly mistaken to be right wing.[52]¬†The New York Times¬†described Peterson as “conservative-leaning”,[74]¬†while¬†The Washington Post¬†described him as “conservative”.[75]

Academia and political correctness

Peterson’s critiques of¬†political correctness¬†range over issues such as¬†postmodernism,¬†postmodern feminism,¬†white privilege,¬†cultural appropriation, and¬†environmentalism.[56][76]

Writing in the¬†National Post, Chris Selley said Peterson’s opponents had “underestimated the fury being inspired by modern preoccupations like white privilege and cultural appropriation, and by the marginalization, shouting down or outright cancellation of other viewpoints in polite society’s institutions”,[77]¬†while in¬†The Spectator,¬†Tim Lott¬†stated Peterson became “an outspoken critic of mainstream academia”.[28]¬†Peterson’s social media presence has magnified the impact of these views; Simona Chiose of¬†The Globe and Mail¬†noted: “few University of Toronto professors in the humanities and social sciences have enjoyed the global name recognition Prof. Peterson has won”.[33]

According to his study‚ÄĒconducted with one of his students, Christine Brophy‚ÄĒof the relationship between political belief and personality, political correctness exists in two types: “PC-egalitarianism” and “PC-authoritarianism“, which is a manifestation of “offense sensitivity”.[78]¬†Jason McBride claims Peterson places¬†classical liberals¬†in the first type, and places so-called¬†social justice warriors, who he says “weaponize compassion”, in the second.[21][2]¬†The study also found an overlap between PC-authoritarians and right-wing authoritarians.[78]

Peterson considers that the universities should be held as among the most responsible for the wave of political correctness which appeared in North America and Europe.[33]¬†According to Peterson, he watched the rise of political correctness on campuses since the early 1990s,[79]¬†and considers that the¬†humanities¬†have become corrupt, less reliant on science, and instead of “intelligent conversation, we are having an ideological conversation”. From his own experience as a university professor, he states that the students who are coming to his classes are uneducated and unaware about the mass exterminations and crimes by¬†Stalinism¬†and¬†Maoism, which were not given the same attention as¬†fascism¬†and¬†Nazism. He also says that “instead of being ennobled or inculcated into the proper culture, the last vestiges of structure are stripped from [the students] by post-modernism and¬†neo-Marxism, which defines everything in terms of¬†relativism¬†and¬†power“.[28][80][81]

Postmodernism and identity politics

And so since the 1970s, under the guise of¬†postmodernism, we’ve seen the rapid expansion of¬†identity politicsthroughout the universities, it’s come to dominate all of the¬†humanities¬†‚Äď which are dead as far as I can tell¬†‚Äď and a huge proportion of the¬†social sciences¬†… We’ve been publicly funding extremely radical, postmodern leftist thinkers who are hellbent on demolishing the fundamental substructure of¬†Western civilization. And that’s no paranoid delusion. That’s their self-admitted goal¬†…¬†Jacques Derrida¬†… most trenchantly formulated the anti-Western philosophy that is being pursued so assiduously by the radical left.

‚ÄĒ¬†Peterson, 2017[80]

Peterson says that postmodern philosophers and sociologists since the 1960s[76] have built upon and extended certain core tenets of Marxism and communismwhile simultaneously appearing to disavow both ideologies. He says that it is difficult to understand contemporary Western society without considering the influence of a strain of postmodernist thought that migrated from France to the United States through the English department at Yale University. He states that certain academics in the humanities

… started to play a sleight of hand, and instead of pitting the¬†proletariat, the¬†working class, against the¬†bourgeois, they started to pit the¬†oppressed against the oppressor. That opened up the avenue to identifying any number of groups as oppressed and oppressor and to continue the same narrative under a different name¬†… The people who hold this doctrine‚ÄĒthis radical, postmodern,¬†communitarian¬†doctrine that makes¬†racial identityor¬†sexual identity¬†or¬†gender identity¬†or some kind of group identity paramount‚ÄĒthey’ve got control over most low-to-mid level bureaucratic structures, and many governments as well.[80]

Peterson’s perspective on the influence of postmodernism on North American humanities departments has been compared to¬†Cultural Marxist conspiracy theories.[46][82][83][84]

Peterson says that “disciplines like¬†women’s studies¬†should be defunded” and advises freshman students to avoid subjects like¬†sociology,¬†anthropology,¬†English literature,¬†ethnic studies¬†and racial studies, as well as other fields of study he believes are corrupted by the Neo-Marxist ideology.[85][86][87]¬†He says that these fields, under the pretense of academic inquiry, propagate unscientific methods, fraudulent¬†peer-review¬†processes for academic journals, publications that garner zero citations,[88]¬†cult-like behaviour,[86]¬†safe-spaces,[85]and radical left-wing political activism for students.[76]¬†Peterson has proposed launching a website which uses¬†artificial intelligence¬†to identify and showcase the amount of ideologization in specific courses. He announced in November 2017 that he had temporarily postponed the project as “it might add excessively to current polarization”.[89][90]

Peterson has criticized the use of the term “white privilege“, stating that “being called out on their white privilege, identified with a particular racial group and then made to suffer the consequences of the existence of that racial group and its hypothetical crimes, and that sort of thing has to come to a stop.¬†… [It’s] racist in its extreme”.[76]¬†In regard to identity politics, while the “left plays them on behalf of the oppressed, let’s say, and the right tends to play them on behalf of¬†nationalism¬†and¬†ethnic pride” he considers them “equally dangerous” and that, instead, what should be emphasized is¬†individualism¬†and¬†individual responsibility.[91]¬†He has also been prominent in the debate about¬†cultural appropriation, stating it promotes¬†self-censorship¬†in society and journalism.[92]

Bill C-16

On September 27, 2016, Peterson released the first installment of a three-part lecture video series, entitled “Professor against political correctness: Part I: Fear and the Law”.[25][12]¬†In the video, he stated he would not use the¬†preferred gender pronouns¬†of students and faculty, saying it fell under¬†compelled speech, and announced his objection to the¬†Canadian government‘s¬†Bill C-16, which proposed to add “gender identity or expression” as a prohibited ground of discrimination under the¬†Canadian Human Rights Act, and to similarly expand the definitions of promoting genocide and publicly inciting hatred in the¬†Criminal Code.[12][93]

Peterson speaking at a Free Speech Rally in October of 2016

He stated that his objection to the bill was based on potential¬†free speech¬†implications if the Criminal Code is amended, as he claimed he could then be prosecuted under provincial human rights laws if he refuses to call a transgender student or faculty member by the individual’s¬†preferred pronoun.[13]¬†Furthermore, he argued that the new amendments, paired with section 46.3 of the¬†Ontario Human Rights Code, would make it possible for employers and organizations to be subject to punishment under the code if any employee or associate says anything that can be construed “directly or indirectly” as offensive, “whether intentionally or unintentionally”.[14]¬†Other academics and lawyers challenged Peterson’s interpretation of C-16.[13]

The series of videos drew criticism from transgender activists, faculty and labour unions, and critics accused Peterson of “helping to foster a climate for hate to thrive” and of “fundamentally mischaracterising” the law.[94][25]¬†Protests erupted on campus, some including violence, and the controversy attracted international media attention.[95][96][97]¬†When asked in September 2016 if he would comply with the request of a student to use a preferred pronoun, Peterson said “it would depend on how they asked me¬†[…] If I could detect that there was a chip on their shoulder, or that they were [asking me] with political motives, then I would probably say no¬†[…] If I could have a conversation like the one we’re having now, I could probably meet them on an equal level”.[97]¬†Two months later, the¬†National Post¬†published an¬†op-ed¬†by Peterson in which he elaborated on his opposition to the bill and explained why he publicly made a stand against it:

I will never use words I hate, like the trendy and artificially constructed words “zhe” and “zher.” These words are at the vanguard of a post-modern, radical leftist ideology that I detest, and which is, in my professional opinion, frighteningly similar to the Marxist doctrines that killed at least 100 million people in the 20th century.

I have been studying authoritarianism on the right and the left for 35 years. I wrote a book, Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief, on the topic, which explores how ideologies hijack language and belief. As a result of my studies, I have come to believe that Marxism is a murderous ideology. I believe its practitioners in modern universities should be ashamed of themselves for continuing to promote such vicious, untenable and anti-human ideas, and for indoctrinating their students with these beliefs. I am therefore not going to mouth Marxist words. That would make me a puppet of the radical left, and that is not going to happen. Period.[98]

In response to the controversy, academic administrators at the University of Toronto sent Peterson two letters of warning, one noting that free speech had to be made in accordance with human rights legislation and the other adding that his refusal to use the preferred personal pronouns of students and faculty upon request could constitute discrimination. Peterson speculated that these warning letters were leading up to formal disciplinary action against him, but in December the university assured him that he would retain his professorship, and in January 2017 he returned to teach his psychology class at the University of Toronto.[99][25]

In February 2017,¬†Maxime Bernier, candidate for leader of the¬†Conservative Party of Canada, stated that he shifted his position on Bill C-16, from support to opposition, after meeting with Peterson and discussing it.[100]¬†Peterson’s analysis of the bill was also frequently cited by senators who were opposed to its passage.[101]¬†In April 2017, Peterson was denied a¬†Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council¬†(SSHRC) grant for the first time in his career, which he interpreted as retaliation for his statements regarding Bill C-16.[32]¬†A media relations adviser for SSHRC said,¬†“Committees¬†assess only the information contained in the application.”[102]¬†In response,¬†The Rebel Media¬†launched an¬†Indiegogo¬†campaign on Peterson’s behalf.[103]¬†The campaign raised C$195,000 by its end on May 6, equivalent to over two years of research funding.[104]¬†In May 2017, Peterson spoke against Bill C-16 at a Canadian Senate committee on legal and constitutional affairs hearing. He was one of 24 witnesses who were invited to speak about the bill.[101]

In November 2017, a¬†teaching assistant¬†at¬†Wilfrid Laurier University¬†first year communications course was censured by her professors for showing a segment of¬†The Agenda, which featured Peterson debating Bill C-16 with another professor, during a classroom discussion about pronouns.[105][106][107]¬†The reasons given for the censure included the clip creating a “toxic climate”, being compared to a “speech by¬†Hitler“,[26]¬†and being itself in violation of Bill C-16.[108]¬†The censure was later withdrawn and both the professors and the university formally apologized.[109][110][111]¬†The events were criticized by Peterson, as well as several newspaper editorial boards[112][113][114]¬†and national newspaper columnists[115][116][117][118]¬†as an example of the suppression of free speech on university campuses. In June 2018, Peterson filed a $1.5-million lawsuit against Wilfrid Laurier University, arguing that three staff members of the university had maliciously defamed him by making negative comments about him behind closed doors.[119]¬†Wilfried Laurier asked that the lawsuit be dismissed, saying that it was ironic for a purported advocate of free speech to attempt to curtail free speech.[120]

Gender relations and masculinity

Peterson has argued that there is an ongoing “crisis of masculinity” and “backlash against masculinity” where the “masculine spirit is under assault”.[20][121][122][123]¬†He has argued that feminism and policies such as¬†no-fault divorce¬†have had adverse effects on gender relations and destabilized society.[121]¬†He has argued that the existing societal hierarchy that the “left” has characterised as an “oppressive patriarchy” might “be predicated on competence.”[20]¬†Peterson has said that men without partners are likely to become violent, and has noted that “enforced monogamy”, i.e. societies wherein monogamy is a social norm, decrease male violence.[20][121]¬†He has attributed the rise of Donald Trump and far-right European politicians to what he says is a push to “feminize” men, saying “If men are pushed too hard to feminize they will become more and more interested in harsh, fascist political ideology.”[124]¬†He attracted considerable attention over a 2018 Channel 4 interview where he clashed with interviewer Cathy Newman on the topic of the¬†gender pay gap.[125][126]Peterson disputed that the gender pay gap was solely due to¬†sexual discrimination.[126][127][128]¬†Writing for¬†The New York Times,¬†Nellie Bowles¬†said that most of Peterson’s ideas “stem from a gnawing anxiety around gender”.[20]

Climate change

Peterson doubts the¬†scientific consensus on climate change.[129][130]¬†Peterson has said he is “very skeptical of the models that are used to predict climate change”.[131]¬†He has also said, “You can’t trust the data because too much ideology is involved”.[132][130]

Personal life

Peterson married Tammy Roberts in 1989.[25] They have one daughter and one son.[21][25]

He is a philosophical¬†pragmatist.[60]¬†In a 2017 interview, Peterson was asked “are you a Christian?” and responded “I suppose the most straight-forward answer to that is yes”.[133]¬†In 2018, Peterson emphasized that his conceptualization of Christianity is probably not what is generally understood, stating that the ethical responsibility of a Christian is to imitate Christ, for him meaning “something like you need to take responsibility for the evil in the world as if you were responsible for it¬†… to understand that you determine the direction of the world, whether it’s toward heaven or hell”.[134]¬†When asked if he believes in God, Peterson responded: “I think the proper response to that is No, but I’m afraid He might exist”.[9]¬†Writing for¬†The Spectator,¬†Tim Lott¬†said Peterson draws inspiration from¬†Jung’s philosophy of religion, and holds views similar to the¬†Christian existentialism¬†of¬†S√łren Kierkegaard¬†and¬†Paul Tillich. Lott also said Peterson has respect for¬†Taoism, as it views nature as a struggle between order and chaos, and posits that life would be meaningless without this duality.[28]

Starting around 2000, Peterson began collecting¬†Soviet-era paintings,[26]¬†displayed in his house as a reminder of, he argues, the relationship between totalitarian propaganda and art, and as examples of how idealistic visions can become totalitarian oppression and horror.[4][34]¬†In 2016, Peterson became an honorary member of the extended family of Charles Joseph, a¬†Kwakwaka’wakw¬†artist, and was given the name Alestalagie (“Great Seeker”).[26][135]¬†In late 2016, Peterson went on a strict diet consisting only of meat and some vegetables to control severe depression and an auto-immune disorder, including¬†psoriasis¬†and¬†uveitis.[22][136]¬†He stopped eating any vegetables in mid-2018.[137]

Peterson wrote the foreword to the fiftieth anniversary edition of The Gulag Archipelago, released in November 2018.[138]

Bibliography

Books

Select publications

Notes

  1. ^¬†The phrase “a prohibited ground of discrimination” means that it is illegal to discriminate against an individual or groups of people¬†on the grounds of¬†(based on) race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, etc.

References …

External links

 

 

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Bill Bonner — Hormegeddon: How Too Much of a Good Thing Leads To Disaster — Videos

Posted on July 13, 2019. Filed under: American History, Banking, Blogroll, Books, Business, College, Communications, Computers, Computers, Congress, conservatives, Constitution, Corruption, Crime, Culture, Economics, Education, Elections, Employment, Energy, Faith, Family, Farming, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Freedom, Friends, government, government spending, Health, history, History of Economic Thought, Immigration, Investments, Journalism, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Literacy, Macroeconomics, media, Microeconomics, Monetary Policy, Money, Money, Narcissism, Newspapers, Non-Fiction, People, Philosophy, Photos, Plays, Police, Political Correctness, Politics, Presidential Candidates, Programming, Psychology, Radio, Radio, Rants, Raves, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Regulations, Reviews, Security, Talk Radio, Tax Policy, Taxation, Taxes, Technology, Terrorism, Trade, Trade Policiy, Transportation, Wealth, Writing | Tags: , , , , , , , |

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Why Public Policy Always Ends in Disaster

It’s Hormeggedon! What Happens When Public Policy Passes the Point of No Return

Bill Bonner Interview: hold on to your cash, the real financial crisis is yet to come

Bill Bonner on the financial markets WORLD.MINDS INTERVIEW

How to Profit from the Death of Retail. Guest Bill Bonner.

Bill Bonner (author)

¬†MoneyWeek¬†magazine,[2]¬†and his daily financial column¬†Bill Bonner’s Diary.[3]

Contents

Biography

Bonner was born in 1948.[4] He attended the University of New Mexico and Georgetown University Law School, and he began work with Jim Davidson, at the National Taxpayers Union.[citation needed]

Bonner was a director of MoneyWeek from 2003 to 2009.[4]

Works

Bonner co-authored Financial Reckoning Day: Surviving The Soft Depression of The 21st Century and Empire of Debt with Addison Wiggin. He also co-authored Mobs, Messiahs and Marketswith Lila Rajiva. The latter publication won the GetAbstract International Book Award for 2008.[5] He has previously co-authored two short pamphlets with British media historian, John Campbell, and with The Times former editor, Lord William Rees-Mogg, and has co-edited a book of essays with intellectual historian, Pierre Lemieux.[6]

In his two financial books, as well as in¬†The Daily Reckoning, Bonner has argued that the financial future of the¬†United States¬†is in peril because of various economic and demographic trends, not the least of which is America’s large¬†trade deficit. He claims that¬†America’s foreign policy¬†exploits are tantamount to the establishment of an¬†empire, and that the cost of maintaining such an empire could accelerate America’s eventual decline. Bonner argues in his latest book that mob and mass delusions are part of the human condition.[citation needed]

Bonner warned in 2015 that the credit system, which has been the essential basis of the US economy since the 1950s, will inevitably fail, leading to catastrophic failure of the banking system.[7][8]

In June 2016, Bill Bonner, via his company Agora, paid for an advertisement on¬†Reuters¬†describing a new law that would not allow Americans to take money out of their own USA accounts. The ad reads: “New Law Cracks Down on Right to Use Cash. Americans are reporting problems taking their own money out of US banks.” The advertisement does not cite the law (the¬†Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act¬†or FATCA[9]) to which it refers.

References

  1. ^¬†“Bill Bonner, Author at LewRockwell LewRockwell.com”.
  2. ^ https://moneyweek.com/author/bill-bonner/
  3. ^¬†Bill Bonner’s Diary
  4. ^ Jump up to:a bhttps://beta.companieshouse.gov.uk/company/04016750/officers
  5. ^¬†“getAbstract International Book Award”.
  6. ^ Bonner, Bill; Lemieux, Pierre (2003). The Idea of America. Agora Health Books. ISBN 1891434136.
  7. ^¬†“Bill Bonner: hold on to your cash, the real financial crisis is yet to come”. MoneyWeek. March 3, 2015.
  8. ^¬†Wiggins, Addison (June 29, 2015).¬†“When Genius Fails Again”. Forbes. Retrieved¬†December 1,¬†2016.
  9. ^¬†Sahadi, Jeanne (June 4, 2015).¬†“You’ve never seen IRS penalties like these”.¬†CNNMoney. Retrieved¬†2016-08-01.

External links

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Bonner_(author)

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Victor E. Frankl –Man’s Search for Meaning — Videos

Posted on June 15, 2019. Filed under: Blogroll, Books, Chinese, Communications, Crisis, Culture, Environment, Essays, Faith, Family, Freedom, Friends, Genocide, government, history, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Literacy, Love, Mastery, media, Medicine, Non-Fiction, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Psychology, Raves, Religion, Religious, Religious, Sleep, Speech, Success, Terrorism, Torture, Uncategorized, Video, Wisdom, Work, Writing | Tags: , , , , , , , , |

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Viktor Frankl on Meaning

Viktor Frankl- Finding Meaning in Pain

Existentialism: Finding Meaning in Suffering | Viktor Frankl

Finding meaning in difficult times (Interview with Dr. Viktor Frankl)

Viktor Frankl Biography: A Search for Meaning

Viktor Frankl: Logotherapy and Man’s Search for Meaning

Meaning of Life: Frankl’s Man’s Search for Meaning

Search for meaning

Viktor Frankl, San Francisco 1984 / 1

Viktor Frankl Schuller Interview 90

Viktor Frankl on Collective Guilt

The Rebbe and Dr Victor Frankl – Founder of Logotherapy

Man’s Search For Meaning by Viktor Frankl ‚Ėļ Animated Book Summary

MAN’S SEARCH FOR MEANING BY VIKTOR FRANKL – MY FAVORITE IDEAS ANIMATED

Man’s Search for Meaning audiobook by Viktor E Frankl

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF LIFE? Man’s Search for Meaning, Viktor Frankl | Arata Books 10

What is the meaning of life? Is it possible to find happiness in the midst of suffering? What can you do to take responsibility for your destiny? These questions are answered in the book In Search of Meaning. Viktor Frankl recounts his survival experience in a Nazi concentration camp ‚Äď and most importantly ‚Äď how to make sense of life even if we find that we’re lost. The video today has two parts ‚Äď in the first part, we’ll talk about life in the concentration camp. How was the daily life of those prisoners? In the second part of the video you’ll learn how to find meaning for your life in line with the teachings of the author of the book. If you’re a more sensitive person, go straight to minute 24:50 and jump directly to the second part.

FIND MEANING IN YOUR LIFE – JORDAN PETERSON [AMAZING]

Dr. Jordan Peterson Explains the Meaning of Life for Men ‚Äď Animation

Jordan Peterson on the meaning of life for men. MUST WATCH

2014 Personality Lecture 11: Existentialism: Viktor Frankl

Viktor Frankl, a psychiatrist, wrote the famous book Man’s Search for Meaning, a description of his experiences in the Nazi concentration camps, in an attempt to describe the need for a profound and meaningful life.

2015 Personality Lecture 12: Existentialism: Dostoevsky, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard

Dostoevsky, Nietzsche and Kierkegaard, prophetic thinkers of the late 1800’s, foretold the inevitable rise of nihilism and totalitarianism in the bloody 20th century.

Jordan Peterson on The Necessity of Virtue

 

Viktor Frankl

‚ÄúWhat man actually needs is not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him. What he needs is not the discharge of tension at any cost, but the call of a potential meaning waiting to be fulfilled by him.‚ÄĚ Victor Emil Frankl (1905 ‚Äď 1997), Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor, devoted his life to studying, understanding and promoting ‚Äúmeaning.‚ÄĚ His famous book,Man‚Äôs Search for Meaning, tells the story of how he survived the Holocaust by finding personal meaning in the experience, which gave him the will to live through it. He went on to later establish a new school of existential therapy called logotherapy, based in the premise that man‚Äôs underlying motivator in life is a ‚Äúwill to meaning,‚ÄĚ even in the most difficult of circumstances. Frankl pointed to research indicating a strong relationship between ‚Äúmeaninglessness‚ÄĚ and criminal behaviors, addictions and depression. Without meaning, people fill the void with hedonistic pleasures, power, materialism, hatred, boredom, or neurotic obsessions and compulsions. Some may also strive for Suprameaning, the ultimate meaning in life, a spiritual kind of meaning that depends solely on a greater power outside of personal or external control.

Striving to find meaning in one’s life is the primary motivational force in man (Frankl 1992, p. 104).

While Frankl rarely touches on the topic of the pursuit of happiness, he is very concerned with satisfaction and fulfillment in life. We can see this in his preoccupation with addressing depression, anxiety and meaninglessness. Frankl points to research indicating a strong relationship between ‚Äúmeaninglessness‚ÄĚ and criminal behavior, addiction and depression. He argues that in the absence of meaning, people fill the resultant void with hedonistic pleasures, power, materialism, hatred, boredom, or neurotic obsessions and compulsions (Frankl 1992, p. 143).

Frankl’s Background

Viktor Frankl was an Austrian neurologist and psychologist who founded what he called the field of ‚ÄúLogotherapy‚ÄĚ, which has been dubbed the ‚ÄúThird Viennese School of Psychology‚ÄĚ (following Freud and Alder). Logotherapy developed in and through Frankl‚Äôs personal experience in the Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camp. The years spent there deeply affected his understanding of reality and the meaning of human life. His most popular book, Man‚Äôs Search for Meaning, chronicles his experience in the camp as well as the development of logotherapy. During his time there, he found that those around him who did not lose their sense of purpose and meaning in life were able to survive much longer than those who had lost their way.

Logotherapy

In The Will to Meaning, Frankl notes that ‚Äúlogotherapy aims to unlock the will to meaning in life.‚ÄĚ More often than not, he found that people would ponder the meaning of life when for Frankl, it is very clear that, ‚Äúit is life itself that asks questions of man.‚ÄĚ Paradoxically, by abandoning the desire to have ‚Äúfreedom from‚ÄĚ we take the ‚Äúfreedom to‚ÄĚ make the ‚Äúdecision for‚ÄĚ one‚Äôs unique and singular life task (Frankl 1988, p. 16).

Logotherapy developed in a context of extreme suffering, depression and sadness and so it is not surprising that Frankl focuses on a way out of these things. His experience showed him that life can be meaningful and fulfilling even in spite of the harshest circumstances. On the other hand, he also warns against the pursuit of hedonistic pleasures because of its tendency to distract people from their search for meaning in life.

Meaning

Only when the emotions work in terms of values can the individual feel pure joy (Frankl 1986, p. 40).

In the pursuit of meaning, Frankl recommends three different courses of action: through deeds, the experience of values through some kind of medium (beauty through art, love through a relationship, etc.) or suffering. While the third is not necessarily in the absence of the first two, within Frankl’s frame of thought, suffering became an option through which to find meaning and experience values in life in the absence of the other two opportunities (Frankl 1992, p. 118).

Though for Frankl, joy could never be an end to itself, it was an important byproduct of finding meaning in life. He points to studies where there is marked difference in life spans between ‚Äútrained, tasked animals,‚ÄĚ i.e., animals with a purpose, than ‚Äútaskless, jobless animals.‚ÄĚ And yet it is not enough simply to have something to do, rather what counts is the ‚Äúmanner in which one does the work‚ÄĚ (Frankl 1986, p. 125)

Responsibility

Human freedom is not a freedom from but freedom to (Frankl 1988, p. 16).

As mentioned above, Frankl sees our ability to respond to life and to be responsible to life as a major factor in finding meaning and therefore, fulfillment in life. In fact, he viewed responsibility to be the ‚Äúessence of existence‚ÄĚ (Frankl 1992, 114). He believed that humans were not simply the product of heredity and environment and that they had the ability to make decisions and take responsibility for their own lives. This ‚Äúthird element‚ÄĚ of decision is what Frankl believed made education so important; he felt that education must be education towards the ability to make decisions, take responsibility and then become free to be the person you decide to be (Frankl 1986, p. xxv).

Individuality

Frankl is careful to state that he does not have a one-size-fits all answer to the meaning of life. His respect for human individuality and each person‚Äôs unique identity, purpose and passions does not allow him to do otherwise. And so he encourages people to answer life and find one‚Äôs own unique meaning in life. When posed the question of how this might be done, he quotes from Goethe: ‚ÄúHow can we learn to know ourselves? Never by reflection but by action. Try to do your duty and you will soon find out what you are. But what is your duty? The demands of each day.‚ÄĚ In quoting this, he points to the importance attached to the individual doing the work and the manner in which the job is done rather than the job or task itself (Frankl 1986, p. 56).

Techniques

Frankl’s logotherapy utilizes several techniques to enhance the quality of one’s life. First is the concept of paradoxical Intention, wherethe therapist encourages the patient to intend or wish for, even if only for a second, precisely what they fear. This is especially useful for obsessive, compulsive and phobic conditions, as well as cases of underlying anticipatory anxiety.

The case of the sweating doctor

A young doctor had major hydrophobia. One day, meeting his chief on the street, as he extended his hand in greeting, he noticed that he was perspiring more than usual. The next time he was in a similar situation he expected to perspire again, and this anticipatory anxiety precipitated excessive sweating. It was a vicious circle ‚Ķ We advised our patient, in the event that his anticipatory anxiety should recur, to resolve deliberately to show the people whom he confronted at the time just how much he could really sweat.A week later he returned to report that whenever he met anyone who triggered his anxiety, he said to himself, “I only sweated out a little before, but now I’m going to pour out at least ten litres!” What was the result of this paradoxical resolution? After suffering from his phobia for four years, he was quickly able, after only one session, to free himself of it for good. (Frankl, 1967)

Dereflection

Another technique is that of dereflection, whereby the therapist diverts the patients away from their problems towards something else meaningful in the world. Perhaps the most commonly known use of this is for sexual dysfunction, since the more one thinks about potency during the sexual act, the less likely one is able to achieve it.

The following is a transcript from Frankl’s advice to Anna, 19-year old art student who displays severe symptoms of incipient schizophrenia. She considers herself as being confused and asks for help.

Patient: What is going on within me?

Frankl:¬†Don’t brood over yourself. Don’t inquire into the source of your trouble. Leave this to us doctors. We will steer and pilot you through the crisis. Well, isn’t there a goal beckoning you ‚Äď say, an artistic assignment?

Patient: But this inner turmoil ….

Frankl:¬†Don’t watch your inner turmoil, but turn your gaze to what is waiting for you. What counts is not what lurks in the depths, but what waits in the future, waits to be actualized by you‚Ķ.

Patient: But what is the origin of my trouble?

Frankl:¬†Don’t focus on questions like this. Whatever the pathological process underlying your psychological affliction may be, we will cure you. Therefore, don’t be concerned with the strange feelings haunting you. Ignore them until we make you get rid of them. Don’t watch them. Don’t fight them. Imagine, there are about a dozen great things, works which wait to be created by Anna, and there is no one who could achieve and accomplish it but Anna. No one could replace her in this assignment. They will be your creations, and if you don’t create them, they will remain uncreated forever‚Ķ

Patient: Doctor, I believe in what you say. It is a message which makes me happy.

Discernment of Meaning

Finally, the logotherapist tries to enlarge the patient’s discernment of meaning in at least three ways: creatively, experientially and attitudinally.

a) Meaning through creative values

Frankl writes that “The logotherapist’s role consists in widening and broadening the visual field of the patient so that the whole spectrum of meaning and values becomes conscious and visible to him”. A major source of meaning is through the value of all that we create, achieve and accomplish.

b) Meaning through experiential values

Frankl writes “Let us ask a mountain-climber who has beheld the alpine sunset and is so moved by the splendor of nature that he feels cold shudders running down his spine ‚Äď let us ask him whether after such an experience his life can ever again seem wholly meaningless” (Frankl,1965).

c) Meaning through attitudinal values

Frankl argued that we always have the freedom to find meaning through meaningful attitudes even in apparently meaningless situations. For example, an elderly, depressed patient who could not overcome the loss of his wife was helped by the following conversation with Frankl:

Frankl asked “What would have happened if you had died first, and your wife would have had to survive you.”

“Oh,” replied the patient, “for her this would have been terrible; how she would have suffered!”

Frankl continued, “You see such a suffering has been spared her; and it is you who have spared her this suffering; but now, you have to pay for it by surviving her and mourning her.” The man said no word, but shook Frankl’s hand and calmly left his office (Frankl, 1992).

Conclusion

Frankl’s surprising resilience amidst his experiences of extreme suffering and sadness speaks to how his theories may have helped him and those around him. As the alarming suicide and depression rates among young teenagers and adults in the United States continue, his call to answer life’s call through logotherapy may be a promising resource.

Bibliography

Frankl, Victor (1992). Man’s Search for Meaning. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Frankl, Victor (1986). The Doctor and the Soul. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Frankl, Victor (1967). Psychotherapy and Existentialism. New York, NY: Washington Square Press.

Frankl, Victor (1988). The Will to Meaning: Foundations and Applications of Logotherapy. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Frankl, Victor (2000). Recollections: An Autobiography. New York, NY: Perseus Books.

Recommended reading:

The Unheard Cry for Meaning: Psychotherapy and Humanism (Touchstone Books)

The Will to Meaning: Foundations and Applications of Logotherapy (Meridian)

Viktor Frankl

https://www.pursuit-of-happiness.org/history-of-happiness/viktor-frankl/

 

An Overview of Viktor Frankl’s Logotherapy

Meaning in life can help to improve resilience.

 

Getty / Ascent/PKS Media Inc.

 

A Brief History of Viktor Frankl

Viktor Frankl was born March 26, 1905 and died September 2, 1997, in Vienna, Austria. He was influenced during his early life by Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, earned a medical degree from the University of Vienna Medical School in 1930. From 1940 to 1942, he was the director of the Neurological Department of the Rothschild Hospital, and from 1946 to 1970 was the director of the Vienna Polyclinic of Neurology.

In 1942, Frankl was deported to a Nazi concentration camp along with his wife, parents, and other family members. He spent time in four camps in total, including Auschwitz, from 1942 to 1945, and was the only member of his family to survive. In 1945, he returned to Vienna and published a book on his theories, based on his records of observations during his time in the camps. By the time of his death, his book, “Man’s Search for Meaning” had been published in 24 languages.

During his career as a professor of neurology and psychiatry, Frankl wrote 30 books, lectured at 209 universities on five continents, and was the recipient of 29 honorary doctorates from universities around the world. He was a visiting professor at Harvard and Stanford, and his therapy, named “logotherapy,” was recognized as the third school of Viennese therapy after¬†Freud’s psychoanalysis¬†and¬†Alfred Adler’s individual psychology. In addition, logotherapy was recognized as one of the scientifically-based schools of psychotherapy by the American Medical Society, American Psychiatric Association, and the American Psychological Association.

 

Understanding Logotherapy

Frankl believed that humans are motivated by something called a “will to meaning,” which equates to a desire to find meaning in life. He argued that life can have meaning even in the most miserable of circumstances, and that the motivation for living¬†comes from finding that meaning. Taking it a step further, Frankl wrote:

Everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms‚ÄĒto choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances.

This opinion was based on his experiences of suffering, and his attitude of finding meaning through the suffering. In this way, Frankl believed that when we can no longer change a situation, we are forced to change ourselves.

 

Fundamentals of Logotherapy

“Logos” is the Greek word for meaning, and logotherapy involves helping a patient find personal meaning in life. Frankl provided a brief overview of the theory in “Man’s Search for Meaning.”

Core Properties

Frankl believed in three core properties on which his theory and therapy were based:

  1. Each person has a healthy core.
  2. One’s primary focus is to enlighten others to their own internal resources and provide them tools to use their inner core.
  3. Life offers purpose and meaning but does not promise fulfillment or happiness.

Methods of Finding Meaning

Going a step further, logotherapy proposes that meaning in life can be discovered in three distinct ways:

  1. By creating a work or doing a deed.
  2. By experiencing something or encountering someone.
  3. By the attitude that we take toward unavoidable suffering.

An example that is often given to explain the basic tenets of logotherapy is the story of Frankl meeting with an elderly general practitioner who was struggling to overcome depression after the loss of his wife. Frankl helped the elderly man to see that his purpose had been to spare his wife the pain of losing him first.

Basic Assumptions

Logotherapy consists of six basic assumptions that overlap with the fundamental constructs and ways of seeking meaning listed above:

1. Body, Mind, and Spirit

The human being is an entity that consists of a body (soma), mind (psyche), and spirit (noos). Frankl argued that we have a body and mind, but the spirit is what we are, or our essence. Note that Frankl’s theory was not based on religion or theology, but often had parallels to these.

2. Life Has Meaning in All Circumstances

Frankl believed that life has meaning in all circumstances, even the most miserable ones. This means that even when situations seem objectively terrible, there is a higher level of order that involves meaning.

3. Humans Have a Will to Meaning

Logotherapy proposes that humans have a will to meaning, which means that meaning is our primary motivation for living and acting, and allows us to endure pain and suffering. This is viewed as differing from the will to achieve power and pleasure.

4. Freedom to Find Meaning

Frankl argues that in all circumstances, individuals have the freedom to access that will to find meaning. This is based on his experiences of pain and suffering and choosing his attitude in a situation that he could not change.

5. Meaning of the Moment

The fifth assumption argues that for decisions to be meaningful, individuals must respond to the demands of daily life in ways that match the values of society or their own conscience.

6. Individuals Are Unique

Frankl believed that every individual is unique and irreplaceable.

 

Logotherapy in Practice

Frankl believed that it was possible to turn suffering into achievement and accomplishment. He viewed guilt as an opportunity to change oneself for the better, and life transitions as the chance to take responsible action.

In this way, this psychotherapy was aimed at helping people to make better use of their “spiritual” resources to withstand adversity. In his books, he often used his own personal experiences to explain concepts to the reader.
Three techniques used in logotherapy include dereflection, paradoxical intention, and Socratic dialogue.
  1. Dereflection: Dereflection is aimed at helping someone focus away from themselves and toward other people so that they can become whole and spend less time being self-absorbed about a problem or how to reach a goal.
  2. Paradoxical intention: Paradoxical intention is a technique that has the patient wish for the thing that is feared most. This was suggested for use in the case of anxiety or phobias, in which humor and ridicule can be used when fear is paralyzing. For example, a person with a fear of looking foolish might be encouraged to try to look foolish on purpose. Paradoxically, the fear would be removed when the intention involved the thing that was feared most.
  3. Socratic dialogue: Socratic dialogue would be used in logotherapy as a tool to help a patient through the process of self-discovery through his or her own words. In this way, the therapist would point out patterns of words and help the client to see the meaning in them. This process is believed to help the client realize an answer that is waiting to be discovered.
It’s easy to see how some of the techniques of logotherapy overlap with newer forms of treatment such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)¬†or¬†acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). In this way, logotherapy may be a complementary approach for these behavior and thought-based treatments.

 

Criticisms

Frankl was not without his critics. Some felt he used his time in the Nazi camps as a way to promote his brand of psychotherapy, and others felt his support came only from religious leaders in the United States (indeed, he did recruit ministers and pastoral psychologists to work with him).

In 1961, his ideas were challenged by psychologist Rollo May, known as the founder of the existential movement in the United States, who argued that logotherapy was equivalent to authoritarianism, with the therapist dictating solutions to the patient. In this way, it was felt that the therapist diminished the patient’s responsibility in finding solutions to problems. It is not clear, however, whether this was a fundamental problem of logotherapy, or a failing of Frankl as a therapist himself, as he was said to be arrogant in his manner of speaking to patients.

In this way, it may be that logotherapy argues that there are always clear solutions to problems and that the therapist has the task of finding these for the client. However, Frankl argued that logotherapy actually educates the patient to take responsibility. Regardless, it is clear that in the application of Frankl’s theories, it is important to highlight that the patient must be a participant rather than a recipient in the process.

 

Evidence

More than 1700 empirical and theoretical papers have been published on logotherapy, and more than 59 measurement instruments developed on the topic. While Frank’s early work involved case studies, this eventually evolved to include operationalization of concepts and estimates of clinical effectiveness. In other words, Frankl believed in empirical research and encouraged it.

A systematic review of research evidence pertaining to logotherapy conducted in 2016 found correlations or effects pertaining to logotherapy in the following areas or for the following conditions:

  • Correlation between presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, and life satisfaction, happiness
  • Lower meaning in life among patients with mental disorders
  • Search for meaning and presence of meaning as a resilience factor
  • Correlation between meaning in life and¬†suicidal thoughts¬†in cancer patients
  • Effectiveness of a logotherapy program for early adolescents with cancer
  • Effectiveness of logotherapy on¬†depression in children
  • Effectiveness of logotherapy in reducing¬†job burnout, empty nest syndrome
  • Correlation with¬†marital satisfaction

Overall, not surprisingly, there is evidence that meaning in life correlates with better mental health. It is suggested that this knowledge might be applied in areas such as phobias, pain and guilt, grief, as well as for disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, substance abuse, post-traumatic stress, and anxiety.

Frankl believed that many illnesses or mental health issues are disguised¬†existential angst¬†and that people struggle with lack of meaning, which he referred to as the “existential vacuum.”

 

Logotherapy in Everyday Life

How might you apply the principles of logotherapy to improve your everyday life?

  • Create something.¬†Just as Frankl suggested, creating something (e.g., art) gives you a sense of purpose, which can add meaning to your life.
  • Develop relationships.¬†The supportive nature of spending time with others will help you to develop more of a sense of meaning in your life.
  • Find purpose in pain.¬†If you are going through something bad, try to find a purpose in it. Even if this is a bit of mental trickery, it will help to see you through. For example, if a family member is going through medical treatments for a disease, view your purpose as being there to support that person.
  • Understand that life is not fair.¬†There is nobody keeping score, and you will not necessarily be dealt a fair deck. However, life can always have meaning, even in the worst of situations.
  • Freedom to find meaning.¬†Remember that you are always free to make meaning out of your life situation. Nobody can take that away from you.
  • Focus on others.¬†Try to focus outside of yourself to get through feeling stuck about a situation.
  • Accept the worst.¬†When you go out seeking the worse, it reduces the power that it has over you.

A Word From Verywell

While concepts of logotherapy continue to be studied to this day, you aren’t likely to hear of people receiving this type of treatment directly. Rather, the components of logotherapy are more likely to be intertwined with other therapies or treatments.

https://www.verywellmind.com/an-overview-of-victor-frankl-s-logotherapy-4159308

Viktor Frankl

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Viktor Frankl
Viktor Frankl2.jpg
Born
Viktor Emil Frankl

26 March 1905

Died 2 September 1997 (aged 92)

Vienna, Austria
Resting place Zentralfriedhof, Vienna, Austria, Old Jewish Section
Nationality Austrian
Education Doctorate in Medicine, 1925, Doctorate in Philosophy, 1948
Alma mater University of Vienna
Occupation Neurologist, psychiatrist
Known for Logotherapy
Existential analysis
Spouse(s) Tilly Grosser, m. 1941
Eleonore Katharina Schwindt, m. 1947
Children Gabriele Frankl-Vesely
Parent(s) Gabriel Frankl and Elsa Frankl

Viktor Emil Frankl¬†(26 March 1905¬†‚Äď 2 September 1997)[1][2]¬†was an¬†Austrian¬†neurologist¬†and¬†psychiatrist¬†as well as a¬†Holocaust¬†survivor. He survived¬†Theresienstadt,¬†Auschwitz,¬†Kaufering¬†and¬†T√ľrkheim. Frankl was the founder of¬†logotherapy, which is a form of¬†existential analysis, the “Third Viennese School of¬†Psychotherapy“. His best-selling book¬†Man’s Search for Meaning¬†(published under a different title in 1959:¬†From Death-Camp to Existentialism, and originally published in 1946 as¬†Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager, meaning¬†Nevertheless, Say “Yes” to Life: A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp) chronicles his experiences as a¬†concentration camp¬†inmate, which led him to discover the importance of finding meaning in all forms of existence, even the most brutal ones, and thus, a reason to continue living.¬†Man’s Search for Meaning¬†has sold over 12 million copies and has been translated into 24 different languages.[3]¬†Frankl became one of the key figures in¬†existential therapy¬†and a prominent source of inspiration for¬†humanistic psychologists.[4]

Frankl has been the subject of criticism from several holocaust analysts[5][6]¬†who questioned the levels of Nazi accommodation that the ideology of logotherapy has and Frankl personally willingly pursued in the time periods before Frankl’s internment, when Frankl voluntarily requested to perform unskilled lobotomy¬†experiments approved by the Nazis¬†on Jews,[7]¬†to the time period of his internment, in what is hinted upon in Frankl’s own autobiographical account and later under the investigative light of biographical research.[8][9]

Contents

Life before 1945

Frankl was born in Vienna into a Jewish family of civil servants (Beamtenfamilie). His interest in psychology surfaced early. For the final exam (Matura) in Gymnasium, he wrote a paper on the psychology of philosophical thinking. After graduation from Gymnasium in 1923, he studied medicine at the University of Vienna. In practice he specialized in neurology and psychiatry, concentrating on the topics of depression and suicide. His early development was influenced by his contacts with Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although he would diverge from their teachings.[3][4]

Physician, therapist

During part of 1924 he became the president of the¬†Sozialistische Mittelsch√ľler √Ėsterreich, a¬†Social Democratic¬†youth movement for high school students throughout Austria.[1]:59

Between 1928 and 1930, while still a medical student, he organized and offered a special program to counsel high school students free of charge. The program involved the participation of psychologists such as¬†Charlotte B√ľhler, and it paid special attention to students at the time when they received their report cards. In 1931, not a single Viennese student committed¬†suicide. The success of this program grabbed the attention of the likes of¬†Wilhelm Reich¬†who invited him to Berlin.[2][10][promotional source?][11][non-primary source needed]

From 1933 to 1937, Frankl completed his residency in neurology and psychiatry at the¬†Steinhof Psychiatric Hospital¬†in Vienna. He was responsible for the so-called¬†Selbstm√∂rderpavillon, or “suicide pavilion”. Here, he treated more than 3000 women who had suicidal tendencies.[2][unreliable medical source?]¬†In 1937, he established an independent private practice in neurology and psychiatry at Alser Strasse 32/12 in Vienna.[2]

Beginning with the¬†Nazi takeover of Austria¬†in 1938, he was prohibited from treating “Aryan” patients due to his Jewish identity. In 1940 he started working at the¬†Rothschild Hospital, where he headed its neurological department. This hospital was the only one in Vienna to which Jews were still admitted. His medical opinions (including deliberately false diagnoses[12][better¬†source¬†needed]) saved several patients[example needed]¬†from being euthanised via the¬†Nazi euthanasia program.[citation needed]¬†In December 1941 he married Tilly Grosser.[2][4]

Prisoner, therapist

On 25 September 1942, Frankl, his wife, and his parents were deported to the Nazi¬†Theresienstadt¬†Ghetto in¬†Occupied Czechoslovakia. This Ghetto which housed many of the Jewish middle class, as a “model community” was set up by the¬†Schutzstaffel¬†(SS) with the expressed purpose of fooling¬†Red Cross¬†representatives about the ongoing slave labor, the¬†Holocaust, and, later, the¬†Nazi plan to murder all Jews.[13]¬†There, within the¬†Cultural life of the Theresienstadt ghetto, Frankl worked as a general practitioner in a clinic and wrote and gave lectures. When his skills in psychiatry were noticed by the Nazis, he was assigned to the psychiatric care ward in Block B IV, establishing a camp service of “psychohygiene” or mental health care. He organized a unit to help camp newcomers to overcome¬†shockand grief. Later he set up a suicide watch, assisted by¬†Regina Jonas.[2][14]

On 29 July 1943, Frankl organized a closed event for the Scientific Society in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, and with the help of the equally controversial¬†Judenrat/Jewish collaborator¬†Leo Baeck,[15][16]¬†Frankl offered a series of lectures, including “Sleep and Sleep Disturbances”, “Body and Soul”, “Medical Care of the Soul”, “Psychology of Mountaineering”, “How to keep my nerves healthy?”, “Medical ministry”, “Existential Problems in Psychotherapy”, and “Social Psychotherapy”.[14]¬†Biographers state that Frankl’s father Gabriel, starved to death at Theresienstadt,[17]¬†by Frankl’s account he died of pulmonary edema and pneumonia.[2][4][14]

On 19 October 1944, Frankl, his wife Tilly, Regina Jonas and many others from the Theresienstadt Ghetto, were transported to the¬†Auschwitz¬†death camp in¬†occupied Poland, where he was processed.[citation needed]¬†On 25 October, Frankl is listed as arriving in the southern German¬†Kaufering¬†III, of XI¬†labor camp,[17]¬†which held up to 2,000 male prisoners in earthen huts, who upon its opening in June of that year, the prisoners were required to construct a transport route to connect¬†underground aircraft factories, laying the infrastructure for the mass production of the world’s first jet-powered¬†Messerschmitt Me 262¬†bomber destroyer, the Nazi response, to regain vital¬†air supremacy, under the growingly unopposed effectiveness of Allied bombing upon the Nazi armament industry.[18][19][20]According to Frankl, his feats of physical initiative at this work camp were such that they did not go unnoticed and he was gifted “premium coupons” in late 1944.[17]¬†According to Frankl’s autobiography, when infected with the ubiquitous¬†typhoid,[2][4]¬†he was allowed to leave the work camp and was offered a move to the so-called rest camp of¬†T√ľrkheim, prison records list his departure from Kaufering as 8 March 1945.[17]¬†Frankl states that in Turkheim he was placed in charge of fifty men with typhus, it was here he rose to the position of “senior block warden” and began writing his book anew, until 27 April 1945, when the camp was liberated by American soldiers.[17]

Frankl’s mother Elsa and brother Walter were murdered at Auschwitz. Frankl’s wife was similarly transported out of Auschwitz and moved to¬†Bergen-Belsen, a facility that housed a considerable number of women and minors, including¬†Anne Frank, where they were forced to work in the shoe recycling labor camp; she would similarly be murdered, from the brutal conditions sometime close to the time of its liberation in 1945.[17]¬†The only survivor of the¬†Holocaust¬†among Frankl’s immediate family was his sister, Stella, who had emigrated from Austria to¬†Australia.[2][4]

Life after 1945

Liberated after several months in concentration camps, Frankl returned to¬†Vienna, where he dictated to¬†stenographer-typists his well known work, “the flood gates had opened”, completing the book, by 1946.[17]¬†Frankl then published his world-famous book entitled,¬†Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe Erlebt das Konzentrationslager¬†(“Saying Yes to Life in Spite of Everything: A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp”), known in English by the title¬†Man’s Search for Meaning¬†(1959 title:¬†From Death-Camp to Existentialism).[21]¬†In this book, he described the life of an ordinary¬†concentration camp¬†inmate from the objective perspective of a psychiatrist.[4][22]¬†Frankl believed that people are primarily driven by a “striving to find meaning in one’s life,” and that it is this sense of meaning that enables people to overcome painful experiences.

After enduring the suffering in these camps, Frankl concluded that even in the most absurd, painful, and dehumanized situation, life has potential meaning and that, therefore, even suffering is meaningful. This conclusion served as a basis for his¬†logotherapy¬†and¬†existential analysis, which Frankl had described before World War II. He said,¬†“What is to give light must endure burning.”[23]

Frankl’s concentration camp experiences shaped both his therapeutic approach and philosophical outlook, as reflected in his seminal publications.

He often said that even within the narrow boundaries of the concentration camps he found only two races of Men to exist: decent ones and unprincipled ones. These were to be found in all classes, ethnicities, and groups. “Under such conditions, who could blame them for trying to dope themselves?” “These were the men who were employed in the gas chambers and crematoriums, and who knew very well that one day they would have to leave their enforced role of executioner and become victims themselves.”[22]

In 1946, he was appointed to run the Vienna Polyclinic of Neurology. He remained there until 1971. In 1947 he married his second wife Eleonore Katharina Schwindt. She was a practicing Catholic and the couple respected each other’s religious backgrounds, going to both church and synagogue, and celebrating Christmas and¬†Hanukah. They had one daughter, Gabriele, who went on to become a child psychologist.[2][4][24]

In 1948, Frankl earned a Ph.D. in philosophy. His dissertation, The Unconscious God, is an examination of the relation of psychology and religion.[25]

Grave of Viktor Frankl in Vienna

In 1955, he was awarded a professorship of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Vienna, and as visiting professor, he resided at Harvard University (1961), at Southern Methodist University, Dallas (1966), and at Duquesne University, Pittsburgh (1972). Frankl published 39 books, which were translated into as many as 49 languages.[26][promotional source?] He lectured and taught seminars all over the world and received 29 honorary doctoral degrees.[24]

The American Psychiatric Association awarded Frankl the 1985 Oskar Pfister Award for important contributions to religion and psychiatry.[27]

Frankl died of heart failure on 2 September 1997. He was survived by his wife Eleonore, one daughter, two grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.[28]

Controversy

In¬†The Missing Pieces of the Puzzle: A Reflection on the Odd Career of Viktor Frankl, Timothy Pytell of¬†California State University, San Bernardino,[29]¬†conveys the numerous discrepancies and omissions in Frankl’s “Auschwitz survivor” account and later autobiography, which many of his contemporaries, such as Thomas Szasz, similarly have raised.[8]¬†In Frankl’s¬†Search for meaning¬†the book devotes approximately half its contents to describing Auschwitz and the psychology of its prisoners, suggesting a long stay at the¬†death camp, however his wording is contradictory and to Pytell, “profoundly deceptive”, when rather the impression of staying for months, Frankl was held close to the train, in the “depot prisoner” area of Auschwitz and for no more than a few days, he was neither registered there, nor assigned a number before being sent on to a¬†subsidiary work camp of Dachau, known as¬†Kaufering III, the true setting of much of what is described in his book.[30][20][31]

On Frankl’s doctrine that one must instill meaning in the events in one’s life that work and suffering to find meaning, will ultimately lead to fulfillment and happiness. In 1982 the highly cited scholar and holocaust analyst¬†Lawrence L. Langer, who while also critical of Frankl’s distortions on the true experience of those at Auschwitz,[32]¬†and Frankl’s amoral focus on “meaning” that could just as equally be applied to Nazis “finding meaning in making the world free from Jews”,[33]¬†would go on to write “if this [logotherapy] doctrine had been more succinctly worded, the Nazis might have substituted it for the cruel mockery of¬†Arbeit Macht Frei“[“work sets free”, read by those entering Auschwitz].[34]¬†With, in professor Pytell’s view, Langer also penetrating through Frankl’s disturbed subtext that Holocaust “survival [was]¬†a matter of mental health.” Noting Frankl’s tone as almost self-congratulatory and promotional throughout, that “it comes as no surprise to the reader, as he closes the volume, that the real hero of¬†Man’s Search for Meaning¬†is not man, but Viktor Frankl” by the continuation of the very same distortions of reality and the fantasy of world-view¬†meaning-making, that were so disturbingly, precisely what had preturbed civilization into the¬†holocaust-genocide of this era and others, to begin with.[35]

Pytell later would remark on the particularly sharp insight of Langer’s reading of Frankl’s holocaust testimony, noting that with Langer’s criticism published in 1982 before Pytell’s biography, the former had thus drawn the controversial parallels, or accommodations in ideology without the knowledge that Victor Frankl was an advocate/”embraced”[36]¬†the key ideas of the¬†Nazi psychotherapy¬†movement (“will and responsibility”[37]) as a form of therapy in the late 1930s. When at that time Frankl would submit a paper and contributed to the¬†G√∂ring institute¬†in Vienna 1937 and again in early 1938 connecting the logotherapy focus on “world-view” to the “work of some of the leading Nazi psychotherapists”,[38]¬†both at a time before¬†Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938.[39][40]

The origins of logotherapy, as described by Frankl, were therefore a major issue of continuity that Biographer Pytell argues were potentially problematic for Frankl because he had laid out the main elements of logotherapy while working for/contributing to the Nazi-affiliated G√∂ring Institute. Principally Frankl’s 1937 paper, that was published by the institute.[40]¬†This association, as a source of controversy, that logotherapy was palatable to¬†National Socialism¬†is the reason Pytell suggests, Frankl took two different stances on how the concentration-camp experience affected the course of his psychotherapy theory. Namely, that within the original English edition of Frankl’s most well known book,¬†Man’s Search for Meaning, the suggestion is made and still largely held that logotherapy was itself derived from his camp experience, with the claim as it appears in the original edition, that this form of psychotherapy was “not concocted in the philosopher’s armchair nor at the analyst’s couch; it took shape in the hard school of air-raid shelters and bomb craters; in concentration camps and prisoner of war camps.” Frankl’s statements however to this effect would be deleted from later editions, though in the 1963 edition, a similar statement again appeared on the back of the book jacket of¬†Man’s Search for Meaning.

Frankl over the years would with these widely read statements and others, switch between the claim that logotherapy took shape in the camps to the claim that the camps merely were a testing ground of his already preconceived theories. An uncovering of the matter would occur in 1977 with Frankl revealing on this controversy, though compounding another, stating “People think I came out of Auschwitz with a brand-new psychotherapy. This is not the case.”[17]

In the post war years, Frankl’s attitude towards not pursuing justice nor assigning¬†collective guilt¬†to the Austrian people for collaborating with or acquiescing in the face of Nazism, led to “frayed” relationships between Frankl, many Viennese and the larger American Jewish community, such that in 1978 when attempting to give a lecture at the institute of¬†Adult Jewish Studies¬†in New York, Frankl was confronted with an outburst of boos from the audience and was called a “nazi pig”.[39]

In 1988 Frankl would further “stir up sentiment against him” by being photographed next to and in accepting the¬†Great Silver Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria¬†as a holocaust survivor, from¬†President Waldheim, a controversial president of Austria who concurrent with the medal ceremony, was gripped by revelations that he had lied about his WWII military record and was under investigation for complicity in Nazi War crimes. Frankl’s acceptance of the medal was viewed by a large segment of the international Jewish community as a betrayal and by a disparate group of commentators, that its timing was politically motivated, an attempt to rehabilitate Waldheim’s reputation on the world stage.[41]

None of Frankl’s obituaries mention the unqualified and unskilled brain¬†lobotomy¬†and¬†trepanation¬†medical¬†experiments approved by the Nazis¬†that Frankl performed on Jews who had committed suicide with an overdose of sedatives, in resistance to their impending arrest, imprisonment and enforced labour in the concentration camp system. Operating without any training as a surgeon, Frankl would publish some of the details on his experiments, the methods of insertion of his chosen amphetamine drugs into the brains of these individuals, resulting in at times an alleged partial resuscitation, in 1942, prior to his own internment at¬†Theresienstadt ghetto¬†in September later in that year. Historian¬†G√ľnter Bischof¬†of Harvard University, suggests Frankl’s voluntary request to perform lobotomy experiments could be seen as a way to “ingratiate” himself amongst the Nazis, as the latter were not appreciative of suicide being on arrest records.[17][9][32]

Legacy

Frankl’s¬†logotherapy¬†and¬†existential analysis¬†is considered the third Viennese School of Psychotherapy,[26][promotional source?]¬†among the broad category that comprises¬†existentialists.[42]¬†For¬†Irvin Yalom, Frankl, “who has devoted his career to a study of an existential approach to therapy, has apparently concluded that the lack of meaning is¬†the¬†paramount existential stress. To him, existential neurosis is synonymous with a crisis of meaninglessness”.[42]

He has coined the term¬†noogenic neurosis, and illustrated it with the example of¬†Sunday neurosis. It refers to a form of anxiety resulting from an awareness in some people of the emptiness of their lives once the working week is over.[43]¬†Some complain of a void and a vague discontent.[42]¬†This arises from an existential vacuum, or feeling of meaninglessness, which is a common phenomenon and is characterised by the subjective state of boredom, apathy, and emptiness. One feels cynical, lacks direction, and questions the point of most of life’s activities.[42]

People without a meaning in their life are exposed to aggression, depression and addiction.[22]

Viktor Frankl once recommended that the Statue of Liberty on the East Coast of the United States be complemented by a Statue of Responsibility on the West Coast:

Freedom, however, is not the last word. Freedom is only part of the story and half of the truth. Freedom is but the negative aspect of the whole phenomenon whose positive aspect is responsibleness. In fact, freedom is in danger of degenerating into mere arbitrariness unless it is lived in terms of responsibleness. That is why I recommend that the Statue of Liberty on the East Coast be supplemented by a Statue of Responsibility on the West Coast.[44][45]

Decorations and awards

Bibliography

His books in English are:

See also

References …

External links[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viktor_Frankl

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Dinesh D’Souza — The Big Lie: Exposing The Nazi Roots of The American Left — Videos

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Dinesh D’Souza – The Big Lie: Exposing the Nazi Roots of the American Left

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