American History–Southern Colonies–Videos

Posted on June 12, 2012. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Blogroll, Communications, Economics, history, Language, Law, Life, Links, media, People, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

Southern Colonies Video 1 of 3

Southern Colonies Video 2 of 3

Southern Colonies Video 3 of 3

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American History–The Biological/Columbian Exchange–Videos

Posted on June 12, 2012. Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

1492 The Columbian Exchange-part 1 

1492 The Columbian Exchange-part 2

1492 The Columbian Exchange-part 3 

1492 The Columbian Exchange-part 4 

1492 The Columbian Exchange-part 

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American History–Jamestown Colony–Videos

Posted on June 11, 2012. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Blogroll, College, Economics, Education, European History, Farming, history, Investments, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Religion, Resources, Technology, Video, Wealth, Weather, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

The Jamestown Colony

Jamestown & Tobacco: America the Story of Us 

Jamestown: Against All Odds

Background Articles and Videos

The New World – Rolfe & Rebecca/Pocahontas (Near to You) 

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The War on Drugs–The War Like No Other–The War That Never Ends –Gold, Silver or Lead Bullet?

Posted on May 12, 2010. Filed under: Biology, Blogroll, Books, Chemistry, Communications, Crime, Culture, Demographics, Economics, Education, Employment, Farming, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Medicine, People, Philosophy, Politics, Psychology, Quotations, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Religion, Resources, Reviews, Science, Security, Strategy, Technology, Video, War, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

“[The] war like no other, … a colossal absurdity.” 

~Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War

“One of the great mistakes is to judge policies and programs by their intentions rather than their results.”

~Milton Friedman

 

The War on Drugs with John Stossel 1 of 6 Introduction and Police Baiting

The War on Drugs with John Stossel 2 of 6 Introduction and Police Baiting

The War on Drugs with John Stossel 3 of 6 Introduction and Police Baiting

The War on Drugs with John Stossel 4 of 6 Introduction and Police Baiting

The War on Drugs with John Stossel 5 of 6 Introduction and Police Baiting

The War on Drugs with John Stossel 6 of 6 Introduction and Police Baiting

Legal Drugs vs. Illegal Drugs 1 of 4

Legal Drugs vs. Illegal Drugs 2 of 4

Legal Drugs vs. Illegal Drugs 3 of 4

Legal Drugs vs. Illegal Drugs 4 of 4

Inside USA – Mexico’s drug war – 25 July 08 Part 1

Inside USA – Mexico’s drug war – 25 July 08 Part 2

Mexican Drug Cartel Threatens to Kill Texas News Reporters

Glenn Beck: Zeta Gang Takes Control of Border

Drug War’s Racist Roots? – Ethan Nadelmann

Ethan Nadelmann: True Obstacles to Drug Law Reform

http://fora.tv/2009/09/09/CONNECTIONS_Ethan_Nadelmann_on_Legalizing_Drugs 

Illegal Drugs & How They Got That Way – crack & cocaine

Illegal drugs and how they got that way – opium, heron

Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way – Marijuana Part 1 of 5

Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way – Marijuana Part 2 of 5

Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way – Marijuana Part 3 of 5

Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way – Marijuana Part 4 of 5

Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way – Marijuana Part 5 of 5

History Channel (Hooked)- LSD, Ecstasy and Raves 1/5

History Channel (Hooked)- LSD, Ecstasy and Raves 2/5

History Channel (Hooked)- LSD, Ecstasy and Raves 3/5

History Channel (Hooked)- LSD, Ecstasy and Raves 4/5

History Channel (Hooked)- LSD, Ecstasy and Raves 5/5

Milton Friedman on America’s Drug Forum pt.1 of 3

Milton Friedman on America’s Drug Forum pt. 2 of3

Milton Friedman on America’s Drug Forum pt.3 of 3

Harvard Economist on why marijuana should be legalized

Those who favor the endless war on drugs usually focus on the drug user and point out that if society should  legalize drugs that are now illegal to use and sell, we would have more drug users. 

The war on drug has failed:

Table 8.1A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 108,255b 110,205b 110,057b 112,085b 111,774b 114,275a 117,325
Marijuana and Hashish 94,946b 96,611b 96,772b 97,545b 97,825b 100,518 102,404
Cocaine 33,910b 34,891a 34,153b 33,673b 35,298 35,882 36,773
Crack 8,402 7,949 7,840 7,928 8,554 8,581 8,445
Heroin 3,668 3,744 3,145a 3,534 3,785 3,780 3,788
Hallucinogens 34,314 34,363 34,333 33,728a 35,281 34,215a 35,963
LSD 24,516 24,424 23,398 22,433 23,346 22,656 23,547
PCP 7,418 7,107 6,762 6,603 6,618 6,140 6,631
Ecstasy 10,150b 10,904b 11,130b 11,495b 12,262 12,426 12,924
Inhalants 22,870 22,995 22,798 22,745 22,879 22,477 22,274
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 47,958b 49,001b 49,157b 49,571a 50,965 50,415 51,970
Pain Relievers 29,611b 31,207b 31,768b 32,692b 33,472 33,060a 34,861
OxyContin® 1,924b 2,832b 3,072b 3,481b 4,098b 4,354 4,842
Tranquilizers 19,267b 20,220 19,852a 21,041 21,303 20,208 21,476
Stimulants3 23,496b 23,004a 22,297 20,983 22,468 21,654 21,206
Methamphetamine3 15,365b 15,139b 14,512b 12,663 14,206b 13,065 12,598
Sedatives 9,960a 9,510 9,891 8,982 8,822 8,396 8,882
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1 70,300b 71,128b 70,657b 71,822b 72,906a 73,494 75,573

http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2K8NSDUH/tabs/Sect8peTabs1to43.htm#Tab8.1A

Table 8.1B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 46.0 46.4 45.8a 46.1 45.4b 46.1 47.0
Marijuana and Hashish 40.4 40.6 40.2 40.1 39.8a 40.6 41.0
Cocaine 14.4 14.7 14.2 13.8a 14.3 14.5 14.7
Crack 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.4
Heroin 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Hallucinogens 14.6 14.5 14.3 13.9 14.3 13.8 14.4
LSD 10.4b 10.3b 9.7 9.2 9.5 9.1 9.4
PCP 3.2b 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.7
Ecstasy 4.3b 4.6b 4.6b 4.7a 5.0 5.0 5.2
Inhalants 9.7b 9.7b 9.5a 9.4 9.3 9.1 8.9
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 20.4 20.6 20.4 20.4 20.7 20.3 20.8
Pain Relievers 12.6b 13.1a 13.2a 13.4 13.6 13.3 14.0
OxyContin® 0.8b 1.2b 1.3b 1.4b 1.7b 1.8 1.9
Tranquilizers 8.2 8.5 8.3 8.7 8.7 8.2 8.6
Stimulants3 10.0b 9.7b 9.3b 8.6 9.1a 8.7 8.5
Methamphetamine3 6.5b 6.4b 6.0b 5.2 5.8b 5.3 5.0
Sedatives 4.2b 4.0a 4.1a 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.6
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1 29.9 29.9 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 30.3

Government intervention to make legal drugs such as tobacco and alcohol products  more expensive by plaicng higher excise or sales taxes on them has failed as well:

Table 8.22A – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Gender/Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 71,499 70,757 70,257 71,519 72,873 70,939 70,868
Cigarettes 61,136 60,434 59,896 60,532 61,565 60,069 59,781
Smokeless Tobacco 7,787a 7,725a 7,154b 7,682a 8,231 8,051 8,670
Cigars 12,751 12,837 13,727 13,640 13,708 13,263 13,126
Pipe Tobacco 1,816 1,619 1,835 2,190 2,321a 2,046 1,877
ALCOHOL 119,820b 118,965b 120,934b 126,028a 125,309b 126,760 128,974
Binge Alcohol Use2 53,787b 53,770b 54,725b 55,090b 56,575 57,778 58,096
Heavy Alcohol Use2 15,860a 16,144a 16,689 16,035a 16,946 17,010 17,292
MALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 41,991 41,288 41,569 42,175 43,389 42,369 41,881
Cigarettes 32,636 32,263 32,278 32,312 33,220 32,607 31,942
Smokeless Tobacco 7,242a 7,096b 6,730b 7,174b 7,843 7,589 8,215
Cigars 10,669 10,372 11,375 11,355 11,092 10,940 10,900
Pipe Tobacco 1,487 1,400 1,579 1,877a 2,023a 1,797 1,486
ALCOHOL 65,210b 65,927b 66,317b 68,497 68,025a 68,088a 69,989
Binge Alcohol Use2 35,456b 35,565b 36,195b 36,025b 37,298 38,128 38,292
Heavy Alcohol Use2 12,216 11,958 12,388 12,172 12,775 12,786 12,882
FEMALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 29,509 29,469 28,688 29,344 29,484 28,570 28,986
Cigarettes 28,500 28,171 27,618 28,220 28,345 27,462 27,839
Smokeless Tobacco 545 628 424 508 388 461 455
Cigars 2,082 2,465 2,352 2,285 2,616a 2,323 2,226
Pipe Tobacco 330 219b 256 313 298 249a 391
ALCOHOL 54,610b 53,038b 54,616b 57,531 57,283 58,672 58,986
Binge Alcohol Use2 18,331a 18,205b 18,530a 19,065 19,276 19,651 19,805
Heavy Alcohol Use2 3,645b 4,186 4,301 3,863a 4,172 4,225 4,410
Table 8.22B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Gender: Percentages, 2002-2008
Gender/Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 30.4b 29.8b 29.2 29.4a 29.6a 28.6 28.4
Cigarettes 26.0b 25.4b 24.9a 24.9a 25.0a 24.2 23.9
Smokeless Tobacco 3.3 3.3 3.0b 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.5
Cigars 5.4 5.4 5.7a 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.3
Pipe Tobacco 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9a 0.8 0.8
ALCOHOL 51.0 50.1b 50.3a 51.8 50.9 51.1 51.6
Binge Alcohol Use2 22.9 22.6 22.8 22.7 23.0 23.3 23.3
Heavy Alcohol Use2 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.6 6.9 6.9 6.9
MALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 37.0b 35.9 35.7 35.8 36.4a 35.2 34.5
Cigarettes 28.7b 28.1b 27.7a 27.4 27.8a 27.1 26.3
Smokeless Tobacco 6.4 6.2 5.8b 6.1a 6.6 6.3 6.8
Cigars 9.4 9.0 9.8a 9.6 9.3 9.1 9.0
Pipe Tobacco 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.6a 1.7b 1.5 1.2
ALCOHOL 57.4 57.3 56.9 58.1 57.0 56.6 57.7
Binge Alcohol Use2 31.2 30.9 31.1 30.5 31.2 31.7 31.6
Heavy Alcohol Use2 10.8 10.4 10.6 10.3 10.7 10.6 10.6
FEMALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 24.3b 24.0a 23.1 23.4 23.3 22.4 22.5
Cigarettes 23.4b 23.0a 22.3 22.5 22.4 21.5 21.7
Smokeless Tobacco 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4
Cigars 1.7 2.0a 1.9 1.8 2.1a 1.8 1.7
Pipe Tobacco 0.3 0.2a 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2a 0.3
ALCOHOL 44.9 43.2b 44.0a 45.9 45.2 46.0 45.9
Binge Alcohol Use2 15.1 14.8 14.9 15.2 15.2 15.4 15.4
Heavy Alcohol Use2 3.0a 3.4 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.4

Individuals not governments should decide which products and services including drugs they want to consume and at what price. 

Individuals should decide when they need treatment for their consumption decisions. 

Let individuals regulate themselves. 

Government  regulation has failed and continues to fail. 

How many Americans will be in U.S. prisons and at what cost for drug use and selling, until the American people say to themselves this war is ” a colossal absurdity”.

Table 8.41A – Received Illicit Drug Treatment at a Specialty Facility in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Needed Illicit Drug Treatment in the Past Year, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.
NOTE: Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on illicit drugs; (2) abuse of illicit drugs; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Number 26-18a (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau’s poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 1,412 1,103 1,427 1,280 1,576a 1,343 1,209
RACE1              
American Indian or Alaska Native * * 8 * * * *
Asian or Pacific Islander 13 * * * * * *
Asian Only * * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * * * * * *
Black or African American 289 205 336a 345a 361a 249 163
White 1,056 829 983 892 1,155 1,024 987
Two or More Races * * * * * * *
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE              
Hispanic or Latino 172 89 142 182 304a 91 130
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,240 1,014 1,285 1,098 1,272 1,253 1,079
Black or African American 285 202 334a 343a 299a 245 162
White 894 757 845 722 919 943 867
GENDER              
Male 826 732 914 748 979a 917 712
Female 587 371 513 532 597 427 497
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty
Threshold)2
             
Less Than 100% 451 524 387 384
100-199% 301 361 272 333
200% or More 522 689 682 490
AGE GROUP              
12-17 142 113 134 142 136 111 111
18 or Older 1,270 990 1,293 1,139 1,440a 1,232 1,098
Table 8.41B – Received Illicit Drug Treatment at a Specialty Facility in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Needed Illicit Drug Treatment in the Past Year, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Percentages, 2002-2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.
NOTE: Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on illicit drugs; (2) abuse of illicit drugs; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Number 26-18a (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau’s poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 18.2 15.0 17.7 17.0 20.3a 17.8 16.0
RACE1              
American Indian or Alaska Native * * 5.8 * * * *
Asian or Pacific Islander 9.0 * * * * * *
Asian Only * * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * * * * * *
Black or African American 22.1 21.1 26.2a 24.7a 25.8a 20.8 13.8
White 17.4 14.0 15.8 15.6 19.6 17.3 16.4
Two or More Races * * * * * * *
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE              
Hispanic or Latino 14.9 8.4 12.7 19.4 24.0a 9.6 12.0
Not Hispanic or Latino 18.8 16.1 18.5 16.6 19.6 19.0 16.6
Black or African American 22.8 21.4 26.4a 25.0a 22.9 20.9 14.1
White 17.9 15.3 16.4 14.9 19.2 18.7 17.2
GENDER              
Male 17.0 16.0 18.1 16.2 19.8 18.4 16.2
Female 20.4 13.4 17.1 18.2 21.3a 16.8 15.7
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty
Threshold)2
             
Less Than 100% 24.3 28.2 22.6 23.2
100-199% 17.7 20.8 17.9 19.1
200% or More 13.3 16.8a 16.1 12.0
AGE GROUP              
12-17 10.1 8.5 9.6 11.3 11.2 9.9 9.3
18 or Older 20.1 16.5 19.4 18.1 22.0a 19.2 17.2

While the number of drug users has gone down in the United States, the number of individuals in prisons has gone up. 

 

As a classical liberal or libertarian my concern is not on the drug users but the consequences of the war on drugs on individuals who do not consume or use illegal drugs. 

When any substance is made illegal to use or sell, the suppliers of these illegal drugs can earn substantial profits for assuming the risk of distributing. 

The result is criminal gangs or cartels fighting to monopilize the illegal drug trade. 

When you legalize drugs and take away most if not all of the high profits to be made in the distriubtion and sale of the drugs, the criminal gangs or cartels  look towards another activity to make money. 

As long as these drugs are illegal, the criminal gangs will be attracted to its sale and distribution. 

The results in violence to those not involved in the sale and use of the drugs as well as the corruption of public officials. 

Good intentions are not enough. 

Make the drugs legal and you will put many of the drug gangs out of business. 

Then the police can focus their attention on violent criminals. 

By far overeating, tobacco, and alcohol use or abuse leads to bigger health and medical  problems than illegal drugs. 

Government intervention in the form of prohibition, like wage and price controls, never works, and does more long term harm than good. 

Ron Paul debates Stephen Baldwin on Legalizing Marijuana

Glenn Beck Legalize Marijuana & Stop The Violence

“…The proper role of government is exactly what John Stuart Mill said in the middle of the 19th century in On Liberty. The proper role of government is to prevent other people from harming an individual. Government, he said, never has any right to interfere with an individual for that individual’s own good. 

The case for prohibiting drugs is exactly as strong and as weak as the case for prohibiting people from overeating. We all know that overeating causes more deaths than drugs do. 

If it’s in principle OK for the government to say you must not consume drugs because they’ll do you harm, why isn’t it all right to say you must not eat too much because you’ll do harm? Why isn’t it all right to say you must not try to go in for skydiving because you’re likely to die? Why isn’t it all right to say, “Oh, skiing, that’s no good, that’s a very dangerous sport, you’ll hurt yourself”? Where do you draw the line?…” 

~Milton Friedman

Background Articles and Videos

Thucydides

“…Thucydides (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC) (Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukydídēs) was a Greek historian and author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of “scientific history” because of his strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis in terms of cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods, as outlined in his introduction to his work.[1] 

He has also been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the relations between nations as based on might rather than right.[2] His classical text is still studied at advanced military colleges worldwide, and the Melian dialogue remains a seminal work of international relations theory. 

More generally, Thucydides showed an interest in developing an understanding of human nature to explain behaviour in such crises as plague, massacres, as in that of the Melians, and civil war. …” 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thucydides 

Overview of Drug Use in the United States

 

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual survey conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), estimates the prevalence of illicit drug use in the United States. Some of the more notable statistics from the 2004 study follow. 

  • An estimated 19.1 million Americans age 12 years or older were current users of illicit drugs in 2004, meaning they used an illicit drug at least once during the 30 days prior to being interviewed. This represents 7.9% of the population 12–17 years. The rate declined slightly between 2002 and 2004 (8.3% in 2002 and 8.2% in 2003).
  • Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug, with a rate of 6.1% (14.6 million current users). There were 2.0 million current cocaine users, 467,000 of whom used crack. Hallucinogens were used by 929,000 people, and there were an estimated 166,000 heroin users. All of these estimates are similar to estimates for 2003.
  • Between 2002 and 2004, past-month marijuana use declined for male youths aged 12 to 17 (9.1% in 2002, 8.6% in 2003, and 8.1% in 2004), but it remained level for female youths (7.2%, 7.2%, and 7.1%, respectively) during the same time span.
  • The number of current users of Ecstasy (MDMA) had decreased between 2002 and 2003, from 676,000 to 470,000, but the number did not change between 2003 and 2004 (450,000).
  • In 2004, 6.0 million persons were current users of psychotherapeutic drugs taken nonmedically (2.5%). These include 4.4 million who used pain relievers, 1.6 million who used tranquilizers, 1.2 million who used stimulants, and 0.3 million who used sedatives. These estimates are all similar to the corresponding estimates for 2003.
  • Among youths aged 12 to 17, rates of current illicit drug use varied significantly by major racial/ethnic groups in 2004. The rate was highest among American Indian or Alaska Native youths (26.0%). Rates were 12.2% for youths reporting two or more races, 11.1% for white youths, 10.2% for Hispanic youths, 9.3% for black youths, and 6.0% for Asian youths.
  • In 2004, 19.2% of unemployed adults aged 18 or older were current illicit drug users compared with 8.0% of those employed full time and 10.3% of those employed part time. However, of the 16.4 million illicit drug users aged 18 or older in 2004, 12.3 million (75.2%) were employed either full or part time.
  • About 22.5 million Americans aged 12 or older in 2004 were classified with past year substance dependence or abuse (9.4% of the population), about the same number as in 2002 and 2003. Of these, 3.4 million were classified with dependence on or abuse of both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs but not alcohol, and 15.2 million were dependent on or abused alcohol but not illicit drugs.

Information Please® Database, © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0880105.html 

The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization

Social Research, Fall, 2001 by Jeffrey A. Miron

“…the paper first presents an economic analysis of drug prohibition and demonstrates how drug markets under prohibition compare to drug markets under legalization. The analysis shows that many negative outcomes typically attributed to drugs are the result of prohibition, and it explains why these outcomes would be reduced or eliminated under legalization. This analysis does not by itself imply that legalization is preferable to prohibition; the analysis suggests that one effect of prohibition is reduced consumption of drugs, and under some views this is a desirable outcome. The analysis simply makes clear that some features of drug markets and drug use are the result of drug prohibition–independent of the physical or pharmacological properties of drugs–and it provides a framework for thinking about the consequences of alternative policies. 

The second part of the paper discusses the conditions under which drug prohibition is likely to be the right public policy response to the negative outcomes that can accompany drug use. Since most effects of prohibition are undesirable, the main potential benefit of prohibition is any reduction in drug consumption relative to what would occur under legalization. I discuss different perspectives on drug consumption and how these relate to the virtues, or not, of prohibition. The discussion explains that standard arguments used to justify policies to reduce drug consumption are less compelling than commonly asserted, even though drug use causes substantial harm in some cases. The discussion also explains that, even if reducing drug use is an appropriate public policy goal, other methods for reducing drug consumption are available that potentially achieve a better balance between the harms of drug use and the harms of drug policy. 

The paper’s third section discusses alternatives to prohibition and legalization, such as sin taxation, subsidized treatment, medical provision of drugs, needle exchanges, and public health campaigns. Many of these policies can and do coexist with prohibition or legalization, but they are distinct policies that require separate analysis. I show that each policy has positive and negative aspects, and that evaluation of each depends on views about drug consumption and on relevant evidence. …” 

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_3_68/ai_80310014/ 

Consumer Sovereignty

Consumer sovereignty is a term which is used in economics to refer to the rule or sovereignty of consumers in markets as to production of goods. It is the power of consumers to decide what gets produced. People use the this term to describe the consumer as the “king,” or ruler, of the market, the one who determines what products will be produced. [1] Also, this term denotes the way in which a consumer ideologically chooses to buy a good or service. Furthermore, the term can be used as either a norm (as to what consumers should be permitted) or a description (as to what consumers are permitted). 

In unrestricted markets, those with income or wealth are able to use their purchasing power to motivate producers as what to produce (and how much). Customers do not necessarily have to buy and, if dissatisfied, can take their business elsewhere, while the profit-seeking sellers find that they can make the greatest profit by trying to provide the best possible products for the price (or the lowest possible price for a given product). In the language of cliché, “The one with the gold makes the rules.” 

To most neoclassical economists, complete consumer sovereignty is an ideal rather than a reality because of the existence — or even the ubiquity — of market failure. Some economists of the Chicago school and the Austrian school see consumer sovereignty as a reality in a free market economy without interference from government or other non-market institutions, or anti-market institutions such as monopolies or cartels. That is, alleged market failures are seen as being a result of non-market forces. 

The term “consumer sovereignty” was coined by William Hutt who firstly used it in his 1936 book “Economists and the Public”. 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_sovereignty

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