Self-Driving Technology Proves Fatal With Tesla Crash — No Consistent Sustainable Profits Ever — High Stock Prices Promoted By Wall Street Investment Bankers– Tesla Is Speculation Not An Investment — Drivers and Investors or Buyers Beware! — Videos

Posted on July 2, 2016. Filed under: American History, Articles, Autos, Blogroll, Business, Climate, Culture, Economics, Education, Energy, Entertainment, Environment, Faith, Freedom, Friends, government spending, history, Inflation, Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Investments, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Natural Gas, Natural Gas, Newspapers, Nuclear Power, Oil, Oil, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Press, Radio, Rants, Raves, Raymond Thomas Pronk, Resources, Reviews, Television, Transportation, Unemployment, Video, Wealth, Wisdom, Work, Writing | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

Tesla Driver Killed In Crash with Autopilot System Driving

Tesla Autopilot death highlights autonomous risks

Tesla Crash Could Hurt Sentiment On Driverless Cars

Tesla’s Autopilot System Is Creepy And Wonderful

A Real-Time Commute on Autopilot

Tesla Model S – Official Walkthrough HD

2014 Tesla Model S vs 2014 Mercedes-Benz S550! – Head 2 Head Ep. 54

Why A Tesla Acquisition Of SolarCity Makes Sense – All stock deal valued at $2.8 billion

How a Tesla SolarCity buy would impact investors

Tesla – Solar City Deal. How will this Impact Investors?

Tesla’s Solar City Bail-In

Scum and Scummer. Let’s take a look at Goldman Sachs (GS) and Tesla (TSLA) (May 18, 2016)

Investment banks struggle, Tesla’s mass-market model | FirstFT

Tesla Tumbles on Goldman Skepticism

Is Tesla Getting a Boost from Goldman Sachs?

Tesla Wants to Buy SolarCity for $2.9B. Does a Deal Make Sense?

Tesla’s Solar City acquisition conference call w/ Elon Musk [Full]

Elon Musk Explains Tesla Acquisition of SolarCity | Partial

Tesla and Solar City Merger – How To Profit With Powur And The Potential Tesla Solar City Merger

Tesla Cars: A Loss Leader for Innovation?

Tesla: No Profit Until 2020?

Tesla’s Earnings Miss the Mark: What Happened?

Elon Musk says Profits from Tesla are mostly re-invested

Tesla motor hacked!

Why Tesla’s Stock Is Heading to $200: James

Jim Chanos: Tesla Is an Overpriced Car Company

Elon Musk defends Tesla for not being profitable (2012.11.13)

Tesla Motors Model S: Part 33 of Many! Problems Resolved

Tesla Motors Model S: Part 17 of Many! ISSUES! PROBLEMS!

Tesla Motors Model S: BATTERY FAILURE!!! TESLARATI.com

Tesla Motors Model S — Dead 12v Battery — What to do to get back up and running (Roadside Service)

How the Tesla Model S is Made | Tesla Motors Part 1 (WIRED)

[yotuube=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_lfxPI5ObM]

How Tesla Builds Electric Cars | Tesla Motors Part 2 (WIRED)

Electric Car Quality Tests | Tesla Motors Part 3 (WIRED)

Fatal Telsa crash shows limits of self-driving technology

 DEE-ANN DURBIN

The U.S. government is investigating the first reported death of a driver whose car was in self-driving mode when he crashed. Joshua D. Brown, 40, died May 7 when his Tesla Model S, which was operating on “autopilot,” failed to activate its brakes and hit a truck in Florida.

The crash raises questions about autonomous and semi-autonomous cars, their capabilities and their limits. Here are answers to some of those questions:

___

Q: ARE THERE SELF-DRIVING CARS ON U.S. STREETS RIGHT NOW?

A: Yes, but in limited numbers. Various companies, including Google, Ford and Uber, have test fleets of autonomous cars running in specific areas, including Mountain View, California, and Austin, Texas. Right now, those vehicles always have a steering wheel, brakes and a driver ready to take over in case of a problem, but prototype cars without steering wheels are also being developed.

___

Q: HOW DO THEY WORK?

A: A network of cameras, radars and lasers feeds information to the car’s computers, helping to fill in the gaps in the GPS system, which knows how to get the car from point to point. Cameras let the car see what’s around it, while radar senses things in the dark or in inclement weather. Lasers constantly scan the road and give a three-dimensional picture of what’s going on.

___

Q: ARE THERE LAWS ALLOWING SELF-DRIVING CARS?

A: Right now, it’s a patchwork. Eight states — including Nevada, Michigan, Florida and Tennessee — and Washington D.C. have laws allowing autonomous vehicles. Other states have legislation in the works. Later this summer, the federal government is expected to release guidelines for the safe deployment of autonomous vehicles.

___

Q: WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF SELF-DRIVING CARS?

A: Self-driving cars have the potential to save lives by anticipating accidents before they happen. Intel CEO Brian Krzanich said Friday that 90 percent of car accidents are caused by human error, and distracted or drowsy driving accounts for some 13 percent of those crashes. The accidents cost about $870 billion a year globally.

___

Q: CAN I BUY A SELF-DRIVING CAR?

A: No. A few automakers offer cars and SUVs with semi-autonomous modes that can perform some functions without help from the driver, including maintaining a set speed, braking, changing lanes and even parallel parking. Semi-autonomous features can be found on high-end vehicles from Tesla, Mercedes-Benz, Infiniti and Volvo. Some lower-priced models have them, too. Toyota, for example, plans to make automatic emergency braking standard on its vehicles by 2017, ahead of a self-imposed deadline of 2022 that most automakers have agreed to.

___

Q: WHEN WILL COMPLETELY SELF-DRIVING CARS BE AVAILABLE TO CONSUMERS?

A: That’s not yet clear. Volvo plans a large-scale test of driverless cars in Sweden next year. Google wants to make cars available to the public around the end of 2019. BMW, Intel and Israel’s Mobileye have teamed up to roll out the cars by 2021.

IHS Automotive, a consulting firm, predicts that the U.S. will see the earliest deployment of autonomous vehicles, with several thousand on the road by 2020. That number will rise to 4.5 million vehicles by 2035, IHS says. But even if the vehicles are on the road, they might not be in your garage. The earliest self-driving cars might be on-demand taxis, employee shuttles or other shared vehicles.

___

Q: WHAT ARE THE TECHNICAL CHALLENGES TO GETTING AUTONOMOUS CARS ON THE ROAD?

A: Driverless cars need detailed maps to follow, and companies are still mapping roads. They also can have trouble staying within lanes in heavy rain or snow. And, as the Tesla crash showed, there will always be scenarios that driverless cars can’t foresee or navigate correctly. Brown’s car didn’t see an oncoming tractor-trailer because it was white against a brightly lit sky. Tesla CEO Elon Musk said the car’s radar is also designed to tune out what looks like overhead signs to prevent false braking.

___

Q: HOW COULD THE TESLA AUTOPILOT NOT SEE SOMETHING AS LARGE AS A TRACTOR-TRAILER?

A: Raj Rajkumar, a computer engineering professor at Carnegie Mellon University who leads its autonomous vehicle research, said computers can’t be programmed to handle every situation. But Tesla may need to adjust its radar, he said.

Tesla would not comment directly on the radar and computer programs, but the company issued a statement saying that it continually advances its software by analyzing hundreds of millions of miles of driving data. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is looking at the design and performance of Tesla’s system as part of its investigation.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/fatal-telsa-crash-shows-limits-185423753.html

Tesla has plenty of customers, but still no profit

Tesla is a hot mess—there is no path to profitability

Michael Pento, president of Pento Portfolio Strategies

Tuesday, 3 May 2016 | 1:55 PM ET

Tesla shares got a little pop in after-hours trading Wednesday after the electric car maker delivered an earnings report in line with expectations and an optimistic outlook.

But I think the stock’s run is already over.

The primary reason? Profitability.

Elon Musk

Getty Images
Elon Musk

Tesla stock soared for a few months starting in February following news that pre-orders for the electric-car maker’s Model 3, with a price tag of $35,000, were approaching 400,000 units.

But, as well-known short seller Jim Chanos so perfectly put it in an interview with CNBC: “We have all kinds of questions on the profitability of the business.”

First, the Model 3. This was Tesla’s play for an “affordable” electric car but it appears to be affordable for everyone EXCEPT Tesla.

Tesla loses more than $4,000 on each of its high-end Model S electric sedans; and that model’s cost is between $70 and $108k. With margins like that, one has to assume a $35k Model 3 can’t be the answer to solving Tesla’s red ink.

Tesla’s income statement reveals the company is hemorrhaging cash at a robust clip. Furthermore, according to TheStreet Ratings, they have a net profit margin of -26.38 percent and a quick ratio of 0.49, which means they have 49 cents in available cash to pay every $1 of current liabilities.

Worse than its lousy earnings and cash flow, Tesla is grossly overvalued compared to its peers. Tesla’s market cap is more than $30 billion, compared to Fiat Chrysler at around $10 billion and Ferrari at around $8 billion. Being valued at 3x more than FCAU — an established and profitable company — looks especially absurd when considering FCAU produces annual sales of over $130 billion, while Tesla produces revenue of only $4 billion.

Furthermore, Tesla’s market cap is nearly two-thirds of General Motors‘ market cap. This is despite the fact that General Motors has a history of selling 10 million cars at a profit each year and Tesla sold less than 100,000 cars last year at a loss. They would have to sell 6.6 million cars this year to justify its current valuation. With less than 400,000 cars on pre-order that doesn’t appear likely anytime soon.

In a February interview with CNBC’s Squawk Box, Former GM executive Bob Lutz noted that, “[TSLA] costs have always been higher than their revenue…They always have to get more capital. Then they burn through it.”

First, he pointed out that, on the back of falling oil prices, demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is slowing. Second, there is growing competition that will cut into Tesla’s margins as prices for EVs fall. Tesla has a lot of competition over the next few years. The industry is already awaiting the Apple car with bated breath that is set to launch in four years. And GM’s Chevy Bolt is similarly priced with a similar range and is set to come out this year. And then we have the Nissan Leaf expected to more competitive in the coming months and years. And add to that first generation vehicles like the BMW i3.

And in China, they have the EV Company LeEco, which recently unveiled its very first electric car that includes self-driving and self-parking capability using voice commands via a mobile app. Besides LeEco, there is another Chinese EV auto maker that sold more electric cars last year than Tesla, Nissan or GM, it’s called BYD Co. and is now targeting the U.S. market.

Lutz believes that competition from industry heavyweights like these could “kill” Tesla in the future.

“The major OEMs like GM, Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, etc … they have to build electric cars, a certain number, in order to satisfy the requirements in about half of the states. Those have to be jammed into the marketplace, otherwise they can no longer sell SUVs and full-size pickups and the stuff that they really make money on. So that is going to generically depress the prices of electric vehicles,” Lutz warned.

Lutz also explained that companies such as General Motors will not be making any money on their “Tesla killer.” They are making these vehicles to appease Washington.

“The majors are going to accept the losses on the electric vehicles as a necessary cost of doing business in order to sell the big gasoline stuff that people really want. Well, Tesla does not have that option,” Lutz said.

But Musk has a strategy for driving down the cost of his electric car that hinges on achieving economies of scale, bringing down the production cost of the battery pack by 30 percent. This hinges on the success of their future Nevada home called the “Gigafactory.”

The Gigafactory is a one-stop shopping in battery-pack production. The company currently buys battery packs through a deal with Panasonicand has partnered with Panasonic in this venture. Production volume at the Gigafactory is anticipated to be the equivalent of over 30 gigawatt-hours per year; this would mean the Gigafactory would produce more storage than all the lithium battery factories in the world combined. The $5 billion dollar plant is as big as the Pentagon Tesla, and Tesla is hoping to produce 500,000 lithium ion batteries annually.

Musk recently laid out his Energy-branded battery ambition in rock star glory. At the event spectacle, Musk declared that his batteries would someday render the world’s energy grid obsolete. “We are talking about trying to change the fundamental energy infrastructure of the world,” he said.

Musk envisions his affordable, clean energy will one day power the remote villages of underdeveloped countries as well as allowing the average homeowner in industrial nations to go off the grid.

But before you sever your ties with your electrical company, it’s worth noting that not everyone thinks Musk’s plans are achievable – at least not in the time frame he envisions.

Panasonic, the supplier of the lithium-ion cells that form the foundation of Tesla’s batteries, and partner on the company’s forthcoming battery factory — calls Musk’s claims a lot of hyperbole.

“We are at the very beginning in energy storage in general,” said Phil Hermann, chief energy engineer at Panasonic Eco Solutions. “Most of the projects currently going on are either demo projects or learning experiences for the utilities. There is very little direct commercial stuff going on. Elon Musk is out there saying you can do things now that the rest of us are hearing and going, ‘really?’ We wish we could, but it’s not really possible yet.”

And far from the grand stage with little fanfare buried in their November 10Q Tesla also sought to tamper investor’s expectations: “Given the size and complexity of this undertaking, the cost of building and operating the Gigafactory could exceed our current expectations, we may have difficulty signing up additional partners, and the Gigafactory may take longer to bring online than we anticipate.”

With a company saddled with debt and cash-strapped, who is going to shoulder the burden of a delay in the Gigafactory realizing its full potential? That would be shareholders through stock dilution or the American tax payer – but most likely a combination of both. There are those who believe that Musk’s real genius is in following government subsidies.

Tesla’s model relies strongly on a “green” administration. According to the Los Angeles Times, all of Musk’s ventures: Tesla Motors, SolarCityand Space Exploration Technologies, known as SpaceX, together have benefited from an estimated $4.9 billion in government support. The figure underscores a common theme running through his emerging empire: a public-private financing model underpinning long-shot start-ups.

The promise is that the Tesla stockholders and the tax subsidizing public will greatly benefit from major pollution reductions as electric cars break through as viable alternative and gain access to mass-market production.

And frankly, I’m not convinced that electric cars are even good for the environment. First, it’s important to note that at this time, these cars don’t power themselves — they are plugged into an outlet in your garage that connects to an electric power plant. Second, there are a lot of environmental questions about the lithium battery itself. In a 2012 study titled “Science for Environment Policy” published by the European Union, a comparison was made of the lithium ion batteries to other types of batteries available such as; lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydride and sodium Sulphur. They concluded that the lithium ion batteries have the largest impact on metal depletion, making recycling more complicated.

Musk may be a genius and a visionary but the truth is that Tesla has an unproven business model and a stock that is massively overpriced. Even if some year in the distant future there exists the charging infrastructure and pricing available to make electric vehicles conducive to supplant the internal combustion engine, Tesla faces an onslaught of competition that will most likely drive its profit margins further into the red for years to come.

So, as far as I’m concerned, the stock is not a buy — no matter what earnings say. The math just doesn’t add up.

Commentary by Michael Pento, the president and founder of Pento Portfolio Strategies and author of the book “The Coming Bond Market Collapse.” His weekly podcast is “The Mid-week Reality Check.”

Disclosure: Neither Michael Pento nor the firm own any positions in Tesla stock. However, several Pento clients own puts on Tesla.

http://www.cnbc.com/2016/05/03/tesla-stock-is-not-a-buy-no-matter-what-earnings-say-commentary.html

 

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Trillion Dollar Bet –Long Term Capital Management (LTCM)–Videos

Posted on January 2, 2013. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Economics | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

trillion_dollar_bet

Trillion Dollar Bet 1

LTCM team:John Meriwether, the famed bond trader from Salomon Brothers, at its helm. Also on board were Nobel-prize winning economists Myron Scholes and Robert Merton, as well as David Mullins, a former vice-chairman of the Federal Reserve Board who had quit his job to become a partner at LTCM. These credentials convinced 80 founding investors to pony up the minimum investment of $10 million apiece, including Bear Sterns President James Cayne and his deputy.

Trillion Dollar Bet 2

Trillion Dollar Bet 3

Trillion Dollar Bet 4

Trillion Dollar Bet 5

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The Birth of the Speculator–Videos

Posted on January 2, 2013. Filed under: Blogroll, Business, Communications, Economics, history, Inflation, Investments, Law, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Technology, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , |

The Birth of the Speculator P1

The Birth of the Speculator P2

The Birth of the Speculator P3

The Birth of the Speculator P4

The Birth of the Speculator P5

The Birth of the Speculator P6

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Excessive Speculation, Intercontinental Exchange and Government Regulation

Posted on December 29, 2012. Filed under: American History, Blogroll, Communications, Demographics, Diasters, Economics, Education, Energy, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, history, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Macroeconomics, media, Oil, People, Philosophy, Politics, Programming, Rants, Resources, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

ICE_logo

Gas Prices Explained

Mike Masters on Regulating Commodities Speculation

Michael W. Masters (Better Markets & Masters Capital Management)

Court Strikes Down CFTC Regulation to Limit Excessive Speculation

Michael Greenberger on Crude Oil Speculation

5th OPEC International Seminar – Michael Masters

Michael Masters Chairman, Better Markets Inc Michael W Masters is the founder and Managing Member of Masters Capital Management, an investment management firm. He is also a Partner in Masters Capital Nanotechnology, a venture capital fund. Mr Masters, an expert on the topic of commodities speculation and financial reform, has testified before many Congressional committees and government agencies, including the House Energy Subcommittee, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) and the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. Recently, he participated in joint SEC-CFTC roundtable discussions on a variety of security-based swaps issues. Speaking out about the far-reaching harmful effects of unregulated commodities speculation and the need for financial reform, Mr Masters has made numerous appearances in media outlets around the world. He has also addressed consumer and corporate groups, and has served as an expert panellist before international and investor groups. He is the founder of Better Markets, a Washington, DC-based non-profit, non-partisan organization established to promote transparency and accountability in the financial markets for the public interest. He was the 2004 winner of the “Open Your Heart” award from Hedge Funds Care and is a 1989 graduate of the University of Tennessee.
The OPEC International Seminar is now regarded as one of the premier events on the world energy calendar, bringing together Ministers from OPEC Member Countries and other oil-producing countries, heads of intergovernmental organizations, chief executives of national and international oil companies, other industry leaders, renowned academics, analysts and media.
The 5th OPEC International Seminar, held in Vienna’s historic Hofburg Palace on 13–14 June 2012, focussing on the theme ‘Petroleum: Fuelling Prosperity, Supporting Sustainability’. The latest in the series of Seminars, which began in 2001, provided fresh impetus to key industry issues and developed existing and new avenues of dialogue and cooperation.

Secret Exemptions Allowed Speculators to Distort Futures Markets

FACTBOX: NYSE enters the ICE Age

Intercontinental Exchange to buy NYSE

IntercontinentalExchange (ICE): Delivering same-day response to regulatory requests

Derivatives still a ticking time bomb! Sept 2011

Jeff Sprecher, Chairman & CEO, IntercontinentalExchange

**MUST SEE** The Real Reason Gas Prices Are High – Best Explanation!

Will CFTC Limit Excessive Speculation?

Gas Prices & Oil Speculation

Oil Market Manipulation, Gas Prices, Energy Exploration, Securities Exchange Commission

How Wall St Speculation Drives Up Gas Prices

Find Out How Gasoline Gets to Your Tank

IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.,

“…IntercontinentalExchange, Inc., known as ICE, is an American financial company that operates Internet-based marketplaces which trade futures and over-the-counter (OTC) energy and commodity contracts as well as derivative financial products. While the company’s original focus was energy products (crude and refined oil, natural gas, power, and emissions), recent acquisitions have expanded its activity into the “soft” commodities (sugar, cotton and coffee), foreign exchange and equity index futures.

In 2011, ICE and NASDAQ OMX Group joined forces to bid against Deutsche Börse after the latter announced a $9.5 billion deal to merge with NYSE Euronext. The two U.S. bidders and then the German exchange ultimately withdrew after their bids encountered regulatory antitrust resistance. In December 2012 NYSE Euronext agreed to be acquired by ICE pending regulator approval.

ICE is organized into three business lines:

  • ICE Markets — futures, options, and OTC markets. Energy futures are traded via ICE Futures Europe; soft commodity futures/options are handled by ICE Futures U.S.
  • ICE Services — electronic trade confirmations and education.
  • ICE Data — electronic delivery of market data, including real-time trades, historical prices and daily indices.

Contracts sold through ICE Futures U.S. are processed through a subsidiary, ICE Clear U.S. (ICEUS). In May 2008, ICE launched its own Clearing House, ICE Clear, with divisions for Europe, US, Canada & Trust (ICEU).[2]

Headquartered in Atlanta, ICE also has offices in Calgary, Chicago, Houston, London, New York and Singapore, with regional telecommunications hubs in Chicago, New York, London and Singapore.

History

In the late 1990s, Jeffrey Sprecher, ICE’s founder, chairman, and Chief Executive Officer, acquired Continental Power Exchange, Inc. with the objective of developing an Internet-based platform to provide a more transparent and efficient market structure for OTC energy commodity trading. In May 2000, IntercontinentalExchange (ICE) was established, with its founding shareholders representing some of the world’s largest energy traders. The company’s stated mission was to transform OTC trading by providing an open, accessible, multi-dealer, around-the-clock electronic energy exchange. The new exchange offered the trading community better price transparency, more efficiency, greater liquidity and lower costs than manual trading.

In June 2001, ICE expanded its business into futures trading by acquiring the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE), now ICE Futures Europe, which operated Europe’s leading open-outcry energy futures exchange. Since 2003, ICE has partnered with the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to host its electronic marketplaces. In April 2005, the entire ICE portfolio of energy futures became fully electronic. In April 2010 ICE bought CCX’s owner Climate Exchange PLC for 395 million pounds ($622 million). Climate Exchange PLC also owns the European Climate Exchange (ECX).[3]

ICE became a publicly traded company on November 16, 2005, and was added to the Russell 1000 Index on June 30, 2006. The company expanded rapidly in 2007, acquiring the New York Board of Trade (NYBOT),[4] ChemConnect (a chemical commodity market), and the Winnipeg Commodity Exchange. In March 2007 ICE made an unsuccessful $9.9 billion bid for the Chicago Board of Trade, which was instead acquired by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.[5]

In January 2008, ICE partnered with TSX Group’s Natural Gas Exchange, expanding their offering to clearing and settlement services for physical OTC natural gas contracts.[6]

NYSE Euronext

In February 2011, in the wake of an announced merger of NYSE Euronext with Deutsche Borse, speculation developed that ICE and Nasdaq could mount a counter-bid of their own for NYSE Euronext. ICE was thought to be looking to acquire the American exchange’s derivatives business, Nasdaq its cash equities business. As of the time of the speculation, “NYSE Euronext’s market value was $9.75 billion. Nasdaq was valued at $5.78 billion, while ICE was valued at $9.45 billion.”[7] Late in the month, Nasdaq was reported to be considering asking either ICE or the Chicago Merc (CME) to join in what would be probably be an $11-12 billion counterbid for NYSE.[8] On April 1, ICE and Nasdaq made an $11.3 billion offer which was rejected April 10 by NYSE. Another week later, ICE and Nasdaq sweetened their offer, including a $.17 increase per share to $42.67 and a $350 million breakup fee if the deal were to encounter regulatory trouble. The two said the offer was a $2 billion (21%) premium over the Deutsche offer and that they had fully committed financing of $3.8 billion from lenders to finance the deal.[9] The Justice Department, also in April, “initiated an antitrust review of the proposal, which would have brought nearly all U.S. stock listings under a merged Nasdaq-NYSE.” In May, saying it “became clear that we would not be successful in securing regulatory approval,” the Nasdaq and ICE withdrew their bid.[10] The European Commission then blocked the Deutsche merger on 1 February 2012, citing the fact that the merged company would have a near monopoly.[11][12]

In December 2012, ICE announced it would buy NYSE Euronext for $8 billion, pending regulatory approval. Jeffrey Sprecher will retain his position as Chairman and CEO.[13] The boards of directors of both ICE and NYSE Euronext approved the acquisition.[14]

 Key subsidiaries subject to regulation

 ICE Clear Credit LLC

  • see main article ICE Clear Credit LLC
  • Clearing entity for credit default swaps (CDS)
  • Regulated by
    • CFTC – Derivatives Clearing Organization
    • SEC – Registered Securities Clearing Agency

ICE Clear Europe Limited

  • Clearing entity for credit default swaps (CDS)
  • CFTC – Derivatives Clearing Organization
  • Regulated by
    • SEC – Registered Securities Clearing Agency
    • U.K. Financial Services Authority (FSA) – Recognised Clearing House
    • U.K Financial Services Authority (FSA) – Settlement Finality Designation (SFD) under the Financial Markets and Insolvency Regulations 1999
    • Bank of England (U.K.s central bank) – regulated as an Inter-Bank Payment System (Banking Act 2009)

ICE Futures U.S., Inc.

  • Trades futures and options in three main areas
    • Agricultural – e.g. Sugar No. 11, Cotton No. 2
    • Currency – e.g. U.S. Dollar Index, more than 50 currency pairs
    • Equity index – e.g. Russell Indexes
  • Regulated by
    • CFTC – Exchange

ICE Clear U.S., Inc.

  • Clears products traded on ICE Futures U.S., Inc.
  • Regulated by
    • CFTC – Exchange

Commodities traded on the exchange

  • Coal
  • Crude and Refined products
  • Emissions
  • Natural Gas
  • Power
  • Cocoa
  • Coffee C
  • Cotton No. 2
  • FCOJ A
  • Orange juice concentrate
  • Sugar No. 11
  • Russell Indices
  • US Dollar Index
  • Iron Ore Swaps

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IntercontinentalExchange

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Colin A. Carter–Futures and Options Markets: An Introduction–University of California, Davis–Videos

Posted on May 3, 2012. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Blogroll, Books, Business, College, Communications, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Farming, Food, government spending, history, Inflation, Investments, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Microeconomics, People, Philosophy, Politics, Psychology, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Security, Strategy, Taxes, Technology, Video, War, Wealth, Weather, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

This course by Professor Colin Carter of agricultural and resource economics focuses on the institutional structure and economic functions of futures and options markets.         

Lecture 2: Course outline, futures markets history and market mechanics

Lecture 3: Futures contracts

Lecture 4: Options contracts and market history

Lecture 5: Reading futures contract price quote tables

Lecture 6: Function of futures and options markets, market mechanics

Lecture 7: Treasury-bond-futures trading and a video of action on the trading floor 

Lecture 8: Intertemporal commodity pricing, storage and how it affects a market 

Lecture 10: Demand for storage and foreign currency trading 

Lecture 11: Pricing financials 

Lecture 12: Eurodollars 

Lecture 13: Futures price forecasting

Lecture 14: Technical market analysis 

Lecture 15: A further review of technical analysis

Lecture 16: Introduction to hedging with futures

Lecture 17: Hedging continued

Lecture 18: Hedging risk vs. return, diversification and options on futures

Lecture 19: Options on futures continued, with examples

Lecture 20: Additional Options Concepts, Comparison of Futures and Options Trading 

Lecture 21: Options pricing and put-call parity, intro to arbitrage 

Lecture 22: Options trades

Lecture 23: Black-Scholes options pricing, volatility defined 

Lecture 24: Black-Scholes continued, the Delta Effect 

Lecture 25: Hedging using Options 

Lecture 26: Options Trades Examples, Course Review 

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The Birth of the Speculator–Videos

Posted on April 27, 2012. Filed under: Blogroll, Business, Communications, Crime, Diasters, Economics, Inflation, Investments, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Politics, Psychology, Video, Wealth | Tags: , , , , , , , |

The Birth of the Speculator P1

The Birth of the Speculator P2

The Birth of the Speculator P3

The Birth of the Speculator P4

The Birth of the Speculator P5

The Birth of the Speculator P6

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Gas Prices Soar–President’s Popularity Plummets–Stop Wall Street Excessive Speculation Now!

Posted on March 13, 2012. Filed under: American History, Blogroll, Business, Communications, Crime, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Enivornment, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, history, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Macroeconomics, media, Monetary Policy, Natural Gas, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Tax Policy, Taxes, Video, War, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Courtney calls on CFTC to issue rules limiting the role of oil speculators

The Price Of Oil

‘We’ll see $5 at the pump in 2012’ – Oil Tycoon

Oil Cartel and speculators readying to push up oil prices

Facts About What is Driving High Gas Prices

CHHS Director discusses excessive speculation in oil markets

Oil Speculation

Gas prices in Dallas hit $3.80 per gallon and nationally averaged $3.95 per gallon.

When President Obama was sworn in in January 2009, gas prices were around $1.90.

In just over three years, gas prices have more than doubled and increased by over $2 per gallon.

In a CBS poll, 4 out of 5 Americans or 80 percent now believe they are not better off than they were when Obama took office.

President Obama’s job approval has now hit a new time low of 41 percent.

What has Obama done to lower gas price–next to nothing.

Obama lobbied against the Keystone XL pipeline that would have created nearly 100,000 jobs and supplied over 400,000 barrels of oil per day.

Obama faces backlash over Keystone pipeline

Barack Obama rejects Keystone XL oil pipeline from Canada

Obama refused to lift the ban or moratorium on deep water oil exploration and drilling in the Gulf coast.

Voices from the Gulf

Bill Cassidy Address Obama’s Moratorium on Deep Water Drilling

Obama is destroying jobs not creating them.

Obama refused to lease land in ANWR in Alaska for oil exploration and drilling.

ANWR Drilling

Truth About ANWR

Myth: The World is Running Out of Oil (Peak Oil)

Obama’s deficit spending will add over $5 trillion to the national debt in just four years.

The value of the U.S. dollar has declined in value making the cost of all imports including crude oil, significantly more expensive.

Ron Paul ∞ Silver Price of Gas 10¢ a Gallon vs Fiat Dollar Lunatics Run the World Your a Slave !

The single most important thing to do to reduce gas prices is to reduce, if not eliminate excessive speculation in the futures contract commodities market.

Obama and both the Democratic and Republican parties have failed to stop this excessive speculation by hedge funds and investment banks such as Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley.

Goldman Sachs Shares Fall After Greg Smith Resignation and Op-Ed

Can You Feel Sorry for Goldman?

The Real TRUTH Behind The OIL PRICES

CHHS Director on CNBC’s “Goldman Sachs: Power and Peril”

Goldman Sachs speculators take $1 for every gallon of gasoline you buy

Secret Exemptions Allowed Speculators to Distort Futures Markets

Will CFTC Limit Excessive Speculation?

Weekly recap: What is behind rising gas prices?

Sen. Rand Paul Questions Energy Sec. Chu

Why?

The executives of these financial institutions are a major source of campaign contributions to both political parties.

As gas prices rise and unemployment remains above 8 percent, the chances of Barack Obama being re-elected become slim and none.

A Mere 80% Say They’re Not Better Off Than Four Years Ago

In today’s CBS News poll:

Compared to four years ago, is your family’s financial situation better today, worse today, or about the same?

The survey finds 20 percent say better today, 37 percent say worse today, and 43 percent say “about the same.”

Adjusted for Inflation, Gas Prices Look Even Worse

:…While the peak in the summer of 2008 was $4.27, the March 12 average of $3.83 surpasses everything else before it – from the beginning of the chart in 1920 (when only a small fraction of Americans owned cars!) and through the Great Depression and through the 1973 oil crisis and through the late 1970s and 1980s, the Persian Gulf War, and after 9/11. Note that every other spike in prices tends to coincide with economic hard times.In other words, adjusted for inflation, today’s gas prices – in March! — are worse than during every preceding gas pricespike, except the peak of summer in 2008. So what will the peak price be this summer?In March 2008, the national average was $3.20 per gallon. By June it was $4.08.The usually great Phil Klein says, “gas prices are highly volatile and it’s often hard to differentiate short-term fluctuations from long-term trends.” True enough, but there are a couple of factors driving up the price that aren’t likely to be alleviated between now and November: global demand, tensions with Iran, a weak dollar, industry fears that the administration is eager to impose new costs upon them, regulatory obstacles to expanding refinery capacity, etc. Then throw in the traditional increase in demand as summer approaches (which will slide as autumn arrives), and we’ll be enduring, at the very least, a long hot summer of high gas prices, even if autumn isn’t quite so bad. …”

http://www.nationalreview.com/campaign-spot/293313/adjusted-inflation-gas-prices-look-even-worse

Flashback – Obama on Gas Prices

Related Posts On Pronk Pops

Pronk Pops Show 65, March 9, 2012: Segment 2: Barack Obama Out of Silver Bullets In Reducing Gas Prices–Target Excessive Speculation In Crude Oil Future Contracts–The Silver Bullets–Overall Volume Limits, Individual Position Limits and Higher Margin Requirements–A Belt Load of Silver Bullets–Any Questions Mr. President?–Videos

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Barack Obama Out of Silver Bullets In Reducing Gas Prices–Target Excessive Speculation In Crude Oil Future Conracts–The Silver Bullets–Overall Volume Limits, Individual Position Limits and Higher Margin Requirements–A Belt Load of Silver Bullets–Any Questions Mr. President?–Videos

Posted on March 7, 2012. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Blogroll, Business, College, Communications, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, government spending, history, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Macroeconomics, media, Microeconomics, Natural Gas, Oil, People, Philosophy, Politics, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Security, Tax Policy, Unemployment, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

” Our markets have gone crazy and there is 200 times as much speculation as there is investing.”

 – John Bogle, founder of the Vanguard Group; USA Today, December 23, 2011

Fig. 2: Annual motor gasoline retail price ($/gallon). This figure was constructed the national average gasoline prices for each year from 1919 to 2010 provided by the EIA. [4] These nominal prices were converted to 2010 dollars by adjusting for inflation. In fact, the gasoline price from 1919 was 18% higher than the current gasoline price.

http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2010/ph240/bui1/

 

Gas Buddy.com

 AAA Current State Averages: Click on state for detailed information *Prices Are In US Dollars Per Gallon.

High Oil Prices and Recessions

When Consumers spend more at the pump, they often cut back on discretionary purchases.

The WSJ shows this graph, linking oil price hikes to recessions:

http://oilprice.com/Energy/Oil-Prices/High-Oil-Prices-and-Recessions.html

[Original TV Clip] Obama Mocks Fox News Gas Prices Attack!!! 3/6/2012

Banksters & Speculation Behind High Food-Oil Prices

Under Questioning by Cantwell, Exxon CEO Estimates Oil Should Cost $60-70 Per Barrel

On May 12, 2011, when questioned by U.S. Senator Maria Cantwell (D-WA) at a Senate Finance Committee hearing, Exxon Mobil Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Rex Tillerson said that oil should cost between $60 and $70 per barrel, if the price of oil were based on supply and demand fundamentals. Oil was trading at $98 per barrel on Thursday morning, after inexplicitly plunging 5.5 percent yesterday.

Ron Paul on Oil Prices

Obama’s Got America Singin’ the Blues     

Obama Supports High Gas Prices If They’re Gradually Hiked

Obama admits his intentions are to skyrocket oil prices

Obama admits his intentions are to skyrocket oil prices to force the American people into renewable energy submission. So if oil is so bad then why did we just invest $2 Billion in Brazil.

15 Times Obama and Top Dems Blame Bush For Gas Prices

OBAMA TALKS $12-A-GALLON FOR GAS 

 

Gas Price Hypocrisy

“…In 2006 the Democrats and the media screamed bloody murder over the high price of gas. When Barack Obama was inaugurated, the average gas price was $1.87 a gallon. Now that the price has more than doubled, what are the Democrats and the administration saying now? If you guessed that high gas prices under Obama are somehow a good thing, give yourself a pat on the back. The liberal mindset is always an amazing thing to behold. …”

What’s fueling high gas prices

Excessive Speculation, High Leverage with Low Margins,

Cheap Money Policy and Devaluing the Dollar Driving Gas Prices Up!

Regulations on Speculation Weak, But Better Than Nothing

Oil Speculation and Rising Gas Prices

Congressman Jeff Fortenberry questions representatives of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission about the cause of rising fuel prices in the United States.

Crack Down on Excessive Speculation in Oil Markets

Secret Exemptions Allowed Speculators to Distort Futures Markets

Will CFTC Limit Excessive Speculation?

Speculation and Watered Down Regulation

How Wall St Speculation Drives Up Gas Prices   

Food, Speculation and Parasitical Trading

What Can We Do about Gasoline Prices? | Mark Brandly

Here we go again…are speculators driving oil prices higher? 

Jim Rogers on Ben Bernanke, the Dollar and “Saving the Saver”

END FED: Greatest Con Exposed; Fed=Cheap Money, Bankers=Bailed Out, Gov=Bad Law, You=Patsy

END FED: Bernanke Explains How To Devalue the Dollar, Quantitative Easing AKA Asset Purchase

PETER SCHIFF -The Truth About Gas Prices

James Grant 

More Cheap Fed Money Won’t Create Jobs

Energy and Power Subcommittee Examines High Gas Prices

U.S. Senator Jeff Bingaman on Gas Prices and Domestic Oil and Gas Production

FLASHBACK: Fox News On Gas Prices In 2008

How Wall Street Speculation is Driving Up Gasoline Prices Today

Robert Pollin and James Heintz

Political Economy Research Institute

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

“…While the market for energy futures contracts is not new, what is new is that the

amount of trading of crude oil futures contracts has exploded over the past decade.

For example, the overall level of futures market trading of crude oil contracts

on the New York Mercantile Exchange is currently 400 percent greater than it

was in 2001, and 60 percent higher than it was only two years ago. Measured

relative to the increases in the physical production of global oil supplies, trading

is still 300 percent greater today than it was in 2001, and 33 percent greater than

only 2 years ago.

The reason the crude oil futures market has exploded is that a new type of trader

has come to dominate the futures market. These traders entered the market with

enormous financial resources, enabling them to influence the ups and downs of

market prices to an unprecedented degree. To a large extent, these traders are

affiliated with major investment banks, such as Goldman Sachs or UBS. They

became involved in this market to buy energy futures contracts as an alternative

to holding stocks, bonds, or other types of derivative assets, such as mortgagebacked

securities. But when these traders came to hold dominant positions in the

market, they also gained the power to move prices up or down through their own

trading decisions. Among other strategies, they can make large profits by staying

ahead of other market participants. For example, when market prices are rising,

they can buy large numbers of futures contracts, aiming to push prices up further

upward, then sell their contracts at market peaks.

This type of speculative activity on the crude oil futures market influences the

prices today (spot prices) of both crude oil and gasoline at the pump by affecting

expectations of future price changes. That is, traders in the market for current

supplies (the spot market) look to the speculative futures market to determine

where to set prices today.

http://ourfinancialsecurity.org/blogs/wp-content/ourfinancialsecurity.org/uploads/2011/06/PERI-AFR-Research-Brief-June2011.pdf

2012 Energy Prices

By Ed Wallace

“…Gambling on Black Gold Prices

Americans won’t just have to endure the daily reality of gas prices hiked by the speculation in the oil markets; we’ll also get to listen to vested traders trying to convince us that they’re not to blame – those high crude prices result solely from supply shortages. Oh well, that hasn’t actually been the case in the last eight years; maybe this year it will be.

However, unlike three and a half years ago, more people understand that the oil market has always been not a “just in time” inventory system, but a “five minutes after you needed the oil” inventory system.

Certainly Gary Gensler, head of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, admitted months ago that 80 – 90 percent of all oil contracts are now held by speculators, not by legitimate hedgers trying to purchase oil for refining. Likewise John Bogle, considered one of the finest investors ever to grace the halls of Wall Street, seems infuriated that our financial industry is no longer geared toward long-term investment in America, but instead is solely focused on the quick buck that can be made in the gambling hell we call commodities speculation.

We Adapt, Improvise, and Overcome

Of course the world’s economy to varying degrees is being held hostage to this ramped-up speculation – and that includes the automobile industry.

True, car sales improved again for 2011, in spite of the record high annual cost for gasoline. Many factors combined to make this happen; one is the fact that, as we saw with the Energy Crises of 1973 and 1979, over time the average American family adjusts its spending to compensate for its higher fuel costs.

Also helping in 2011 was that, for the first time in decades, the humble four-cylinder engine was our best selling power plant in new cars, beating even the V-6. But more than anything else, we’ve been driving fewer miles in order to lessen the amount of gasoline we use. The Energy Information Administration’s weekly report for the last week of December shows that, for the four-week average that started in late November, gasoline demand in this country fell by an incredible 5.6 percent from a year earlier. And in 2010 we were not buying or using anywhere near as much gasoline as we were before the 2008 financial meltdown.

Shorten Gas Supplies to Raise Prices

That’s right, we not only reduced our overall gasoline use in America, reversing a century-long trend, but in 2011 we dropped our demand for gasoline once again. This likely explains why in December WTI oil jumped by close to $7 a barrel, but the futures market for gasoline barely budged, moving just a few cents in either direction.

Another way to look at it is in the percentage of utilization of our refineries for this time of year. According to the government’s data, the last week of December our refineries ran at 84.2 percent of capacity. But if one compares that week to the same week in the boom years, 2003 to 2007, our refineries were running at 91.7 percent, 94.2 percent, 88.9 percent, 90.9 percent and 89.4 percent. For those who have forgotten, that last figure in that chain, marking the last week of December 2007, also denotes the month we officially slipped into a recession. Interestingly, data released by the International Energy Agency in September of 2008 showed oil and fuel demand falling worldwide starting in August of 2007. …”

“…Almost four years ago in this space, armed with 1,500 pages of oil data, I laid out in five columns the facts proving that the price of oil was no longer based on supply and demand, but was totally under the control of speculators. BusinessWeek republished my work with a sixth column added, and it changed the national discussion on the oil equation. Today, even one of the most respected investors in American history, John Bogle, is blasting the new Wall Street culture and warning of the long-term economic damage to everyone because we no longer invest in America, we simply gamble on commodities.

Yet nothing changes.

Well, one thing has changed: How you and I deal with it. Today our car market is flooded with impressive cars that get 39 to 40 miles to the gallon on the highway. And more are coming throughout this year. This on top of the fact that for the fourth year running we have purposely used less gasoline. And there’s one major positive to all of this, and that’s the fact that when we see record high prices for oil, those profits flood into Texas. That’s why our state has done so well in the past decade.

It would be nice to see the government finally put a lid on excessive speculation and give the average American family a break. That’s not happening, but at least they told the car companies they had to improve the fuel efficiency of their corporate fleets. Which, if nothing else, gives us more great choices.

“Bona Fide Hedging” Exemption Reinflates Oil Bubble

Published July 1st, 2009 in Natural Resources

http://www.tradersnarrative.com/bona-fide-hedging-exemption-reinflates-oil-bubble-2712.html

As oil rallies, passive investors increase their holdings

Investments linked to commodity indexes rise as Congress eyes new regulation

“…Big pension and endowment funds that invest in commodities by modeling their exposure on popular indexes have increased their purchases of crude rapidly in recent months, an analysis of regulatory data shows.

This stake has likely contributed to the doubling in oil prices this year, a swift advance that has brought the role of financial speculators back onto the radar of policy-makers — some of whom say financial investments in commodities should be curbed.

Passive investors increased their crude-oil holdings to the equivalent of more than 600 million barrels in June, up more than 30% from the end of last year, a MarketWatch analysis of Commodity Futures Trading Commission data and the most popular commodities indexes shows. See detailed description of MarketWatch’s findings.

Over the same period, crude futures have jumped 60%, topping $70 a barrel in early June on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Oil rallied 41% in the second quarter alone, the biggest three-month gain in 19 years, even as energy agencies forecast a second-straight yearly decline in global oil demand this year.

The correlation between rising oil prices and increased index investment has reawakened calls to restrict the ability of financial investors to take large stakes in commodities.

Unlike in past decades, though, shadowy hedge funds and secretive financiers aren’t getting the major blame. Instead, it’s long-term investors like California’s biggest public-employee pension fund and Harvard University’s endowment that have gradually widened to include assets beside stocks and bonds.

http://www.marketwatch.com/story/index-investors-hike-stake-in-oil-as-prices-rise?pagenumber=1

U.S. EIA predicts gasoline prices will spike to nearly $4 in May, stay nearly as high over the summer, return to where they are now through 2013

By John Funk, The Plain DealerThe Plain Dealer

“…What you paid for gasoline this week is roughly what you will be paying for the next two years, federal forecasters predicted. 

And this summer, average prices could approach $4 a gallon, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said. There is a slight chance that gasoline will average $5 a gallon in May, according to the agency.

Locally, however, average prices may lag as they have in the past, barring Midwest refinery problems.

Average prices in Northeast Ohio on Tuesday were $3.74 a gallon, while the national average was $3.76, according the AAA and the Oil Price Information Service. And that’s not too different from what the Energy Administration sees at the pumps through 2013.

In its March Short Term Energy Outlook released Tuesday, the agency said consumers can expect gasoline prices across the nation to average $3.79 per gallon this year and $3.72 per gallon in 2013.

http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2012/03/us_eia_predicts_gasoline_price.html

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Segment 0: Death of a conservative activist:  Andrew Breitbart (1969-2012)–Videos

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I Got The Obama Gasoline Price Blues–From $1.79 Per Gallon in January 2009 to $3.59 Per Gallon in February 2012–$5 Per Gallon By July 4, 2012!–Purchasing Power Plummets–Speculation Starves Society–Hope for Regime Change–Videos

Posted on February 24, 2012. Filed under: American History, Banking, Blogroll, Books, College, Communications, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government spending, history, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Macroeconomics, media, Microeconomics, Monetary Policy, Money, Natural Gas, Nuclear, Nuclear Power, Oil, People, Philosophy, Politics, Public Sector, Quotations, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Security, Strategy, Talk Radio, Tax Policy, Taxes, Technology, Transportation, Unemployment, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Government Theft May 1, 1933

http://gasbuddy.com/gb_retail_price_chart.aspx

http://gasbuddy.com/gb_retail_price_chart.aspx

Quantitative Easing Explained

http://www.aier.org/research/briefs/1826-the-long-goodbye-the-declining-purchasing-power-of-the-dollar

U.S. Inflation Calculator

http://www.usinflationcalculator.com/

U.S. Debt Clock 

http://www.usdebtclock.org/

Ron Paul: The Worst Thing You Can Do For A People Is Purposely Devalue The Dollar

Obama’s Got America Singin’ the Blues

As Gas Prices Rise, White House Goes on Offensive, Defensive

Ron Paul tells the real reason for the oil prices in 2007 and today 

END FED: Bernanke Explains How To Devalue the Dollar, Quantitative Easing AKA Asset Purchase

Glenn Beck – Devaluing The Dollar 

Beck: Devaluing the Dollar

Iran Sanctions, War, Israel & Gas Prices

Ron Paul Doubles Down On War Stance

Armed Chinese Troops in Texas!

Why Gas Prices Are Rising

Playing the oil prices money game

Secret Exemptions Allowed Speculators to Distort Futures Markets

Regulations on Speculation Weak, But Better Than Nothing

The Price Of Oil

Bill Black: What I’d Demand of the Fed

Bill Black’s eye-popping opening statement at House FinServ hearing on Lehman Bros.

END FED: Goldman Sachs To Blame For Global Food-Oil Price Crisis; Speculators Outnumber Hedgers

CFTC Commissioner: “A Hair Trigger Away from Economic Calamity”

Will CFTC Limit Excessive Speculation?

Oil Supply and Demand and the Next Oil Price Spike

Bio-fuels, Speculation, Land Grabs = Food Crisis

Speculation And The Frenzy In Food Markets

Food, Speculation and Parasitical Trading

Speculation Drives Up Coffee Prices

Food Speculation

Oil Speculators

Oil speculation and oil prices

The Real TRUTH Behind The OIL PRICES 

Banks Behind High Gas Prices? 

Rising Gas Prices Slowing Economy

Gas Prices Soaring 

Ripple Effect Of Rising Gas Prices Hits Consumers

Krauthammer: Obama’s “war on fossil fuels” causes rising gas prices 

Obama Wanted High Gas Prices…Gradually (2008 Election Campaign) 

Ron Paul Expains High Gas Prices & War in 2008

Can We Stop A War With Iran? 

Obama admits his intentions are to skyrocket oil prices 

Ford O’Connell On Fox News – February 24, 2012 

Ron Paul Expains High Gas Prices & War in 2007

Obama gas prices

A Coincidence Over High Gasoline Prices- MoneyTV with Donald Baillargeon

Obama Admits the Truth: He Can’t Do Much about Gas Prices

James Grant

Jim Grant – Bloomberg Interview (30/6/11)

Government Theft 2012

Press Conference with Chairman of the FOMC, Ben S. Bernanke

 Blame High Oil Prices on Speculators and Bernanke

Seven Bucks A Gallon For Gas!

2012 Energy Prices

Ed Wallace 

“…That’s right, we not only reduced our overall gasoline use in America, reversing a century-long trend, but in 2011 we dropped our demand for gasoline once again. This likely explains why in December WTI oil jumped by close to $7 a barrel, but the futures market for gasoline barely budged, moving just a few cents in either direction.

Another way to look at it is in the percentage of utilization of our refineries for this time of year. According to the government’s data, the last week of December our refineries ran at 84.2 percent of capacity. But if one compares that week to the same week in the boom years, 2003 to 2007, our refineries were running at 91.7 percent, 94.2 percent, 88.9 percent, 90.9 percent and 89.4 percent. For those who have forgotten, that last figure in that chain, marking the last week of December 2007, also denotes the month we officially slipped into a recession. Interestingly, data released by the International Energy Agency in September of 2008 showed oil and fuel demand falling worldwide starting in August of 2007.

And yet with our refinery utilization running at far below normal, we managed to have the all-time-record year for the exportation of refined fuels. While the media speculation on where oil’s price is going is almost solely based on “Asian Demand” or the prospect of a total embargo on Iranian oil, the real problem is something completely different.

What is it? It’s refiners trying to find ways to get the price of gasoline on the futures market more in line with the high price of oil. To this end it appears that three refineries in the Northeast, including Sunoco’s Marcus Hook and Philadelphia refinery, along with Conoco’s Trainer unit, will be closed. To be sure, both Conoco and Sunoco claim their first choice is to sell those refineries, but failing that they will be closed.

What does that mean to you and me?

Dow Jones Newswire quoted Gene McGillian, an energy analyst with Tradition Energy, as saying, “Gasoline futures prices are based on New York Harbor prices. When you start to see disruptions in that Northeast market, it’s definitely reflected in gasoline futures.”

Translation: Close refineries and you can bump the futures price of gasoline – and by extension the retail price – regardless of where the price of oil is.

How does oil speculation raise gas prices?

by Josh Clark

“…An oil futureis simply a contract between a buyer and seller, where the buyer agrees to purchase a certain amount of a commodity — in this case oil — at a fixed price

. Futures offer a way for a purchaser to bet on whether a commodity will increase in price down the road. Once locked into a contract, a futures buyer would receive a barrel of oil for the price dictated in the future contract, even if the market price was higher when the barrel was actually delivered.

­As in all cases, Wall Street heard the word "bet" and flocked to futures, taking the market to strange new places on the fringe of legality. In the 19th and early 20th centuries it bet on grain. In the 21st century it was oil. Despite U.S. petroleum reserves being at an eight-year high, the price of oil rose dramatically beginning in 2006. While demand rose, supply kept pace. Yet, prices still skyrocketed. This means that the laws of supply and demand no longer applied in the oil markets. Instead, an artificial market developed.

Artificial markets are volatile; they’re difficult to predict and can turn on a dime. As a result of the artificial oil market, the average price per barrel of crude oil increased from $31.61 in July 2004 to $137.11 in July 2008 . The average cost for a gallon of regular unleaded gas in the United States grew from $1.93 to $4.09 over the same period .

So what happened? …"

"…What speculators do is bet on what price a commodity will reach by a future date, through instruments called <strong>derivatives</strong>. Unlike an investment in an actual commodity (such as a barrel of oil), a derivative’s value is based on the value of a commodity (for example, a bet on whether a barrel of oil will increase or decrease in price). Speculators have no hand in the sale of the commodity they’re betting on; they’re not the buyer or the seller.

By betting on the price outcome with only a single futures contract, a speculator has no effect on a market. It’s simply a bet. But a speculator with the capital to purchase a sizeable number of futures derivatives at one price can actually sway the market. As energy researcher F. William Engdahl put it, "[s]peculators trade on rumor, not fact" . A speculator purchasing vast futures at higher than the current market price can cause oil producers to horde their commodity in the hopes they’ll be able to sell it later on at the future price. This drives prices up in reality — both future and present prices — due to the decreased amount of oil currently available on the market.

Investment firms that can influence the oil futures market stand to make a lot; oil companies that both produce the commodity and drive prices up of their product up through oil futures derivatives stand to make even more. Investigations into the unregulated oil futures exchanges turned up major financial institutions like Goldman Sachs and Citigroup. But it also revealed energy producers like Vitol, a Swiss company that owned 11 percent of the oil futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange alone .

As a result of speculation among these and other major players, an estimated 60 percent of the price of oil per barrel was added; a $100 barrel of oil, in reality, should cost $40 . And despite having an agency created to prevent just such speculative price inflation, by the time oil prices skyrocketed, the government had made a paper tiger out of it. …"

<a href="http://money.howstuffworks.com/oil-speculation-raise-gas-price.htm">http://money.howstuffworks.com/oil-speculation-raise-gas-price.htm</a>

</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<h4></h4>
<h4>It’s no secret that speculators are driving up fuel prices. The surprise? It’s the Fed’s fault, writes Ed Wallace</h4>
<h4>"…The Fed’s Cheap Liquidity Flood</h4>
The problem starts with Ben Bernanke, no matter how many of his Fed presidents claim they are not to blame for the high price of oil. The fact is that when you flood the market with far too much liquidity at virtually no interest, funny things happen in commodities and equities. It was true in the 1920s, it was true in the last decade, and it’s still true today.

When Richard Fisher, president of the Dallas Federal Reserve, spoke in Germany late in March, Reuters quoted him as saying: "We are seeing speculative activity that may be exacerbating price rises in commodities such as oil." Fisher added that he was seeing the signs of the same speculative trading that had fueled the first financial meltdown.

Here Fisher is in good company. Kansas City Fed President Thomas Hoenig, who has been a vocal critic of the current Fed policy of zero interest and high liquidity, has suggested that markets don’t function correctly under those circumstances. And David Stockman, Ronald Reagan’s former budget director, recently wrote a scathing article for MarketWatch, "Federal Reserve’s Path of Destruction," in which he criticizes current Fed policy even more pointedly. Stockman wrote: "This destruction is namely the exploitation of middle-class savers; the current severe food and energy squeeze on lower income households … and the next round of bursting bubbles building up among the risk asset classes."

Let’s not kid ourselves. Oil in today’s world is worth far more than the $25 a barrel it sold for over a decade ago. But the ability of markets to function properly, based on real supply and demand equations, has been destroyed by allowing ridiculous leverage and the unlimited ability to borrow the leverage at historically low interest rates.

Fortunately for our elected officials, they’ve got the public convinced that the biggest threat from government is taxation and deficits. In reality the public should be infuriated with the rising costs of nondiscretionary items such as food and gasoline, which current Fed policy actively enables. …"

<a href="http://www.businessweek.com/investor/content/apr2011/pi20110419_786652_page_2.htm">http://www.businessweek.com/investor/content/apr2011/pi20110419_786652_page_2.htm</a>
<p style="text-align: left;"><strong>Price of petroleum</strong></p>
"…The <strong>price of petroleum</strong> as quoted in news generally refers to the spot price per barrel (159 liters) of either WTI/light crude as traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) for delivery at Cushing, Oklahoma, or of Brent as traded on the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE, into which the International Petroleum Exchange has been incorporated) for delivery at Sullom Voe.

The price of a barrel of oil is highly dependent on both its grade, determined by factors such as its specific gravity or API and its sulphur content, and its location. Other important benchmarks include Dubai, Tapis, and the OPEC basket. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses the imported refiner acquisition cost, the weighted average cost of all oil imported into the US, as its "world oil price".

The demand for oil is highly dependent on global macroeconomic conditions. According to the International Energy Agency, high oil prices generally have a large negative impact on the global economic growth.<sup>[1]</sup>

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed in 1960<sup>[2]</sup> to try and counter the oil companies cartel, which had been controlling posted prices since the so-called 1927 Red Line Agreement and 1928 Achnacarry Agreement, and had achieved a high level of price stability until 1972.

The price of oil underwent a significant decrease after the record peak of US$145 it reached in July 2008. On December 23, 2008, WTI crude oil spot price fell to US$30.28 a barrel, the lowest since the financial crisis of 2007–2010 began, and traded at between US$35 a barrel and US$82 a barrel in 2009.<sup>[3]</sup> On 31 January 2011, the Brent price hit $100 a barrel for the first time since October 2008, on concerns about the political unrest in Egypt.<sup>[4]</sup>

Price history before 2003

A low point was reached in January 1999 of 17 USD per barrel, after increased oil production from Iraq coincided with the Asian Financial Crisis, which reduced demand. Prices then increased rapidly, more than doubling by September 2000 to $35, then fell until the end of 2001 before steadily increasing, reaching $40–50 by September 2004.<sup>[5]</sup>
<h3>Price history from 2003 onwards</h3>
<div>Main article: 2003 to 2011 world oil market chronology</div>
<div>Further information: 2000s energy crisis</div>
<h4>Benchmark pricing</h4>
<div>Main article: Benchmark (crude oil)</div>
After the collapse of the OPEC-administered pricing system in 1985, and a short lived experiment with netback pricing, oil-exporting countries adopted a market-linked pricing mechanism.<sup>[6]</sup> First adopted by PEMEX in 1986, market-linked pricing received wide acceptance and by 1988 became and still is the main method for pricing crude oil in international trade.<sup>[6]</sup> The current reference, or pricing markers, are Brent, WTI, and Dubai/Oman.<sup>[6]</sup>
<h4> Market listings</h4>
<div>Main article: Commodities markets</div>
Oil is marketed among other products in commodities markets. See above for details. Widely traded oil futures, and related natural gas futures, include:<sup>[7]</sup>
<ul>
<li>Petroleum
<ul>
<li>Nymex Crude Future</li>
<li>Dated Brent Spot</li>
<li>WTI Cushing Spot</li>
<li>Nymex Heating Oil Future</li>
<li>Nymex RBOB Gasoline Future</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Natural gas
<ul>
<li>Nymex Henry Hub Future</li>
<li>Henry Hub Spot</li>
<li>New York City Gate Spot</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
Most of the above oil futures have delivery dates in all 12 months of the year.<sup>[8]</sup>
<h4>Speculation</h4>
The surge in oil prices in the past several years has led some commentators to argue that at least some of the rise is due to speculation in the futures markets.<sup>[9]</sup>
<h4> Future price changes</h4>
In 2009, Seismic Micro-Technology conducted a survey of geophysicists and geologists about the future of crude oil. Of the survey participants 80 percent predicted the price for a barrel of oil will rise to be somewhere between $50 and $100 per barrel by June 2010.<sup>[10]</sup> Another 50 percent saying it will rise even further to $100 to $150 a barrel in the next five years.<sup>[10]</sup>

Oil prices could go to $200- $300 a barrel if the world’s top crude exporter Saudi Arabia is hit by serious political unrest, according to former Saudi oil minister Sheikh Yamani. Yamani has said that underlying discontent remained unresolved in Saudi Arabia. "If something happens in Saudi Arabia it will go to $200 to $300. I don’t expect this for the time being, but who would have expected Tunisia?" Yamani told Reuters on the sidelines of a conference of the Centre for Global Energy Studies (CGES) which he chaired on April 5th 2011.<sup>[11]</sup>
<h4>CFTC investigation</h4>
The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) announced "Multiple Energy Market Initiatives" on May 29, 2008. Part 1 is "Expanded International Surveillance Information for Crude Oil Trading." The CFTC announcement stated it has joined with the United Kingdom Financial Services Authority and ICE Futures Europe in order to expand surveillance and information sharing of various futures contracts.<sup>[12]</sup> This announcement has received wide coverage in the financial press, with speculation about oil futures price manipulation.<sup>[13]</sup><sup>[14]</sup><sup>[15]</sup>

The interim report by the Interagency Task Force, released in July, found that speculation had not caused significant changes in oil prices and that fundamental supply and demand factors provide the best explanation for the crude oil price increases. The report found that the primary reason for the price increases was that the world economy had expanded at its fastest pace in decades, resulting in substantial increases in the demand for oil, while the oil production grew sluggishly, compounded by production shortfalls in oil-exporting countries.

The report stated that as a result of the imbalance and low price elasticity, very large price increases occurred as the market attempted to balance scarce supply against growing demand, particularly in the last three years. The report forecast that this imbalance would persist in the future, leading to continued upward pressure on oil prices, and that large or rapid movements in oil prices are likely to occur even in the absence of activity by speculators. The task force continues to analyze commodity markets and intends to issue further findings later in the year.
<h4>Future projections</h4>
<div>Main article: Oil depletion</div>
<div>Main article: Peak oil</div>
Peak oil is the period when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. It relates to a long term decline in the available supply of petroleum. This, combined with increasing demand, will significantly increase the worldwide prices of petroleum derived products. Most significant will be the availability and price of liquid fuel for transportation.

The US Department of Energy in the Hirsch report indicates that “The problems associated with world oil production peaking will not be temporary, and past “energy crisis” experience will provide relatively little guidance.”<sup>[16] …"</sup>

<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_of_petroleum">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_of_petroleum</a>
<p style="text-align: left;"><strong>Gas prices soar on dollar devaluation even as consumption drops to 10-year lows </strong></p>
<strong>Written By Kenneth Schortgen Jr on Monday, February 13, 2012</strong>

"…One of the biggest misnomers in finance and economics today is that prices work according to supply and demand.  This was true when America performed in actual capitalist system, but since we moved to both fascism and crony capitalism, where corporations, banks, and government all work together at the betterment of themselves and not society, prices are fixed due to other factors such as dollar devaluation.
<div style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong><em>U.S. drivers used 2.8 percent less motor gasoline last year and consumed the smallest amount since 1999, the U.S. Department of Energy said Wednesday. Officials credited the decrease to more fuel-efficient cars and an aging population taking few trips.</em></strong></div>
<div style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong><em>Meanwhile, U.S. domestic oil production increased by more than 2 percent last year to 5.6 million barrels per day. – </em></strong><a href="http://www.desmoinesregister.com/article/20120209/BUSINESS/302090065/-1/TERMSOFSERVICE/Gas-consumption-lowest-since-1999"><strong><em>Des Moines Register</em></strong></a></div>
So… if consumption is way down, and production is actually up, should not gasoline prices be falling?  They should, except if you take into consideration the amount of money printing and currency devaluation being done by the Federal Reserve over the past four years, the amount of  inflation is being created by our own banking system, and not by a lack of products, or by higher demand.
In the end, Americans are being deceived by Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke. …"

<a href="http://www.thedailyeconomist.com/2012/02/gas-prices-soar-on-dollar-devaluation.html">http://www.thedailyeconomist.com/2012/02/gas-prices-soar-on-dollar-devaluation.html</a>
<h3 style="text-align: left;"></h3>
<h3 style="text-align: left;">Gasoline Prices Are Not Rising, the Dollar Is Falling</h3>
<strong><a href="http://blogs.forbes.com/louiswoodhill/">Louis Woodhill</a></strong>

"…Panic is in the air as gasoline prices move above $4.00 per gallon. Politicians and pundits are rounding up the usual suspects, looking for someone or something to blame for this latest outrage to middle class family budgets. In a rare display of bipartisanship, President Obama and Speaker of the House <a href="http://www.forbes.com/profile/john-boehner/">John Boehner</a> are both wringing their hands over the prospect of seeing their newly extended Social <a href="http://www.forbes.com/security/">Security</a> tax cut gobbled up by rising gasoline costs.

Unfortunately, the talking heads that are trying to explain the reasons for high oil prices are missing one tiny detail. Oil prices aren’t high right now. In fact, they are unusually low. Gasoline prices would have to rise by another $0.65 to $0.75 per gallon from where they are now just to be “normal”. And, because gasoline prices are low right now, it is very likely that they are going to go up more—perhaps a lot more.

What the politicians, analysts, and pundits are missing is that prices are ratios. Gasoline prices reflect crude oil prices, so let’s use West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to illustrate this crucial point.

As this is written, West Texas Intermediate crude oil (WTI) is trading at $105.88/bbl. All this means is that the market value of a barrel of WTI is 105.88 times the market value of “the dollar”. It is also true that WTI is trading at €79.95/bbl, ¥8,439.69/barrel, and £67.13/bbl. In all of these cases, the market value of WTI is the same. What is different in each case is the value of the monetary unit (euros, yen, and British pounds, respectively) being used to calculate the ratio that expresses the price.

In terms of judging whether the price of WTI is high or low, here is the price that truly matters: 0.0602 ounces of gold per barrel (which can be written as Au0.0602/bbl). What this number means is that, right now, a barrel of WTI has the same market value as 0.0602 ounces of gold.

During the 493 months since January 1, 1971, the price of WTI has averaged Au0.0732/bbl. It has been higher than that during 225 of those months and lower than that during 268 of those months. Plotted as a graph, the line representing the price of a barrel of oil in terms of gold has crossed the horizontal line representing the long-term average price (Au0.0732/bbl) 29 times.

At Au0.0602/bbl, today’s WTI price is only 82% of its average over the past 41+ years. Assuming that gold prices remained at today’s $1,759.30/oz, WTI prices would have to rise by about 22%, to $128.86/bbl, in order to reach their long-term average in terms of gold. As mentioned earlier, such an increase would drive up retail gasoline prices by somewhere between $0.65 and $0.75 per gallon.

At this point, we can be certain that, unless gold prices come down, gasoline prices are going to go up—by a lot. And, because the dollar is currently a floating, undefined, fiat currency, there is no inherent limit to how far the price of gold in dollars can rise, and therefore no ultimate ceiling on gasoline prices. …"

<a href="http://www.forbes.com/sites/louiswoodhill/2012/02/22/gasoline-prices-are-not-rising-the-dollar-is-falling/">http://www.forbes.com/sites/louiswoodhill/2012/02/22/gasoline-prices-are-not-rising-the-dollar-is-falling/</a>

<strong>Why Gas Prices Are Actually Falling   </strong>
<div><strong>By Gary Gibson</strong></div>
"…It’s not gold and silver prices that are volatile. Those have been incredibly consistent for thousands of years in terms of commodities they could buy. And because of the increasing standard of living being raised by free market economies, in a very real sense these eternal monies actually buy more. It’s the dollar that has been erratic in its overall declining trend ever since it’s been cut loose from gold (and silver).

Again, people looking at the cost of a gallon of gas, or of milk, or the cost of a nice suit, or rent from behind their piles of gold and silver are finding very little to worry about. In fact, to them, prices are lower than normal and declining.

Also the price of oil has tended to track the price of silver awfully closely for about as long as oil has been industrially useful. And so it’s no mistake that you can still get a gallon of gas for about about $0.20…as long as that $0.20 is composed of a pre-1964 90% silver dimes. …"

<a href="https://raymondpronk.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/silver_quarter.png"><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-55554" title="silver_quarter" src="https://raymondpronk.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/silver_quarter.png" alt="" width="544" height="195" /></a>

"…You see, the pre-1965 quarter is worth $6.38 as I type this. The pre-1965 dime is worth $2.55. These coins hail from a time when the dollar was still tied to gold (at the official price of $35 per ounce prior to Nixon nixing the gold standard). The dollar was still as good as gold — even though Americans themselves were forbidden to own gold bullion from 1933 till 1974 — and there was actual silver in the coinage until that content was reduced in 1964 and eliminated in 1965.

Those old silver coins shine the harsh light on the strength of the currency and the abuse that currency suffers from the feds and the Federal Reserve.

If you’d been saving in gold, then from your point of view gas prices have been coming down for the past few years. If you’d been saving in that old “junk” silver (pre-1965 quarters, dimes and half dollars), then gas prices are a downright bargain, too. …"

<a href="http://whiskeyandgunpowder.com/why-gas-prices-are-actually-falling/">http://whiskeyandgunpowder.com/why-gas-prices-are-actually-falling/</a>
<h4><strong>Consequences to Expect if the U.S. Invades Iran   </strong></h4>
<h4><strong>By Whiskey Contributor<small>Feb 22nd, 2012</small></strong></h4>
<h4><strong>Exploding Oil Prices</strong></h4>
The U.S. has had a ban on Iranian oil imports since 1979, however, Iran still supplies about 5% of the global oil market. This might not seem like much, but Iran also has the means and ability to shut down the Straight of Hormuz, which is one of two major petroleum choke points in the world. Around 17 million barrels of oil per day are shipped through the Straight of Hormuz, or about 20% of all oil traded worldwide.
<p align="center"><img src="http://www.ezimages.net/WHISKEY/022212_pic2.png" alt="" width="363" height="208" /></p>
"…In 2006, during the last major Iran war scare, experts predicted gasoline price increases in excess of <a href="http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/07/news/international/iran_oil/" target="_blank">$10 a gallon if Iran was invaded.</a>

This would devastate the U.S. economy, which is already hanging by a thin thread. Iran has announced this past weekend it will cease all oil shipments to Britain and France in protest of their support of economic sanctions. This alone is causing oil to spike today. A global energy crisis will financially decimate average citizens who will have their savings sapped by extreme price inflation, not just in gasoline, but in all goods that require the use of gasoline in their production and shipping. If you like this idea, then by all means, support an invasion of Iran.

<strong>War Domino Effect</strong>

In January of 2010, I wrote an article for Neithercorp Press entitled <a href="http://www.alt-market.com/neithercorp/press/2010/01/will-globalists-trigger-yet-another-world-war/" target="_blank">“Will Globalists Trigger Yet Another World War</a>“. In that article, I warned about the dangers of an invasion of Iran or Syria being used to foment a global conflict, in order to create a crisis large enough to distract the masses away from the international banker created economic collapse.

In 2006, Iran signed a mutual defense pact with its neighbor, Syria, which is also in the middle of its own turmoil and possible NATO intervention. Syria has strong ties to Russia, and even has a revamped Russian naval base off its coast, a fact rarely mentioned by the mainstream media. Both Russia and China have made their opposition clear in the case of any Western intervention in Iran or Syria. An invasion by the U.S. or Israel in these regions could quickly intensify into wider war between major world powers. If you like the idea of a world war which could eventually put you and your family in direct danger, then by all means, support an invasion of Iran.

<strong>Dollar Collapse</strong>

Make no mistake, the U.S. dollar is already on the verge of collapse, along with the U.S. economy. Bilateral trade agreements between BRIC and ASEAN nations are sprouting up everywhere the past couple months, and these agreements are specifically designed to end the dollar’s status as the world reserve currency. An invasion of Iran will only expedite this process. If global anger over the resulting chaos in oil prices doesn’t set off a dump of the dollar, the eventual debt obligation incurred through the overt costs of war will. Ron Paul has always been right; it doesn’t matter whether you think invasion is a good idea or not. We simply CANNOT afford it. America is bankrupt. Our only source of income is our ability to print money from thin air. Each dollar created to fund new wars brings our currency ever closer to its demise. …"

<a href="http://whiskeyandgunpowder.com/consequences-to-expect-if-the-u-s-invades-iran/">http://whiskeyandgunpowder.com/consequences-to-expect-if-the-u-s-invades-iran/</a>
<h1 style="text-align: center;">Background Articles and Videos</h1>
<h4 style="text-align: center;"></h4>
<h4 style="text-align: center;"></h4>
<h4 id="watch-headline-title" style="text-align: center;">Introduction to Futures</h4>
<p style="text-align: center;"></p>

<h4 id="watch-headline-title" style="text-align: center;">What is a Future?</h4>
<p style="text-align: center;"></p>

<h4 id="watch-headline-title" style="text-align: center;">Investopedia Video: How Do Futures Contracts Work?</h4>
<p style="text-align: center;"></p>

<h4 id="watch-headline-title" style="text-align: center;">Commodity futures margin accounts</h4>
<p style="text-align: center;"></p>

<div><strong> Security Futures—Know Your Risks, or Risk Your Future</strong></div>
<div>

<strong>"…Margin & Leverage</strong>

When a brokerage firm lends you part of the funds needed to purchase a security, such as common stock, the term "margin" refers to the amount of cash, or down payment, the customer is required to deposit. By contrast, a security futures contract is an obligation not an asset and has no value as collateral for a loan. When you enter into a security futures contract, you are required to make a payment referred to as a "margin payment" or "performance bond" to cover potential losses.

For a relatively small amount of money (the margin requirement), a futures contract worth several times as much can be bought or sold. The smaller the margin requirement in relation to the underlying value of the futures contract, the greater the leverage. Because of this leverage, small changes in price can result in large gains and losses in a short period of time.

<strong>Example:</strong> Assuming a security futures contract is for 100 shares of stock, if a security futures contract is established at a contract price of $50, the contract has a nominal value of $5,000 (see definition below). The margin requirement may be as low as 20 percent, which would require a margin deposit of $1,000. Assume the contract price rises from $50 to $52 (a $200 increase in the nominal value). This represents a $200 profit to the buyer of the futures contract, and a 20 percent return on the $1,000 deposited as margin.

The reverse would be true if the contract price decreased from $50 to $48. This represents a $200 loss to the buyer, or 20 percent of the $1,000 deposited as margin. Thus, leverage can either benefit or harm an investor.
Note that a 4 percent decrease in the value of the contract resulted in a loss of 20 percent of the margin deposited. A 20 percent decrease in the contract price ($50 to $40) would mean a drop in the nominal value of the contract from $5,000 to $4,000, thereby wiping out 100 percent of the margin deposited on the security futures contract. …"

</div>
<div><a href="http://www.finra.org/Investors/InvestmentChoices/P005912">http://www.finra.org/Investors/InvestmentChoices/P005912</a></div>
<div></div>
<div>
<h4>Futures Margins<a href="http://www.dpbolvw.net/click-2519541-10992963" target="_blank"> </a></h4>
<!– google_ad_section_start –>Participants in a futures contract are required to post performance bond margins in order to open and maintain a futures position.

Futures margin requirements are set by the exchanges and are typically only 2 to 10 percent of the full value of the futures contract.

Margins are financial guarantees required of both buyers and sellers of futures contracts to ensure that they fulfill their futures contract obligations.
<h4>Initial Margin</h4>
Before a futures position can be opened, there must be enough available balance in the futures trader’s margin account to meet the initial margin requirement. Upon opening the futures position, an amount equal to the initial margin requirement will be deducted from the trader’s margin account and transferred to the exchange’s clearing firm. This money is held by the exchange clearinghouse as long as the futures position remains open.
<h4>Maintenance Margin</h4>
The maintenance margin is the minimum amount a futures trader is required to maintain in his margin account in order to hold a futures position. The maintenance margin level is usually slightly below the initial margin.

If the balance in the futures trader’s margin account falls below the maintenance margin level, he or she will receive a margin call to top up his margin account so as to meet the initial margin requirement.
<h4>Example</h4>
Let’s assume we have a speculator who has $10000 in his trading account. He decides to buy August Crude Oil at $40 per barrel. Each Crude Oil futures contract represents 1000 barrels and requires an initial margin of $9000 and has a maintenance margin level set at $6500.

Since his account is $10000, which is more than the initial margin requirement, he can therefore open up one August Crude Oil futures position.

One day later, the price of August Crude Oil drops to $38 a barrel. Our speculator has suffered an open position loss of $2000 ($2 x 1000 barrels) and thus his account balance drops to $8000.

Although his balance is now lower than the initial margin requirement, he did not get the margin call as it is still above the maintenance level of $6500.

Unfortunately, on the very next day, the price of August Crude Oil crashed further to $35, leading to an additional $3000 loss on his open Crude Oil position. With only $5000 left in his trading account, which is below the maintenance level of $6500, he received a call from his broker asking him to top up his trading account back to the initial level of $9000 in order to maintain his open Crude Oil position.

This means that if the speculator wishes to stay in the position, he will need to deposit an additional $4000 into his trading account.

Otherwise, if he decides to quit the position, the remaining $5000 in his account will be available to use for trading once again. …"
<a href="http://www.theoptionsguide.com/futures-margin.aspx">http://www.theoptionsguide.com/futures-margin.aspx</a>

</div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div><strong>Federal Regulation of Margin in the Commodities Futures Industry: History and Theory</strong></div>
<div>
<div>
<div>
<h4><a href="http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/bibarticles/markham_margin.pdf">http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/bibarticles/markham_margin.pdf</a></h4>
<h4></h4>
<h4></h4>
<h4>How does oil speculation raise gas prices?</h4>
<h4>by Josh Clark</h4>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div align="left">

"…The next time you drive to the gas station, only to find prices are still sky high compared to just a few years ago, take notice of the rows of <a href="http://money.howstuffworks.com/personal-finance/debt-management/foreclosure.htm">foreclosed</a> houses you’ll pass along the way. They may seem like two parts of a spell of economic bad luck, but high gas prices and home foreclosures are actually very much interrelated. Before most people were even aware there was an <a href="http://money.howstuffworks.com/government-bailout.htm">economic crisis</a>, investment managers abandoned failing <a href="http://money.howstuffworks.com/mortgage-backed-security.htm">mortgage-backed securities</a> and looked for other lucrative investments. What they settled on was oil futures.

An <strong>oil future</strong> is simply a contract between a buyer and seller, where the buyer agrees to purchase a certain amount of a commodity — in this case <a href="http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/oil-refining.htm">oil</a>– at a fixed price

. Futures offer a way for a purchaser to bet on whether a commodity will increase in price down the road. Once locked into a contract, a futures buyer would receive a barrel of oil for the price dictated in the future contract, even if the market price was higher when the barrel was actually delivered. …”

“…What speculators do is bet on what price a commodity will reach by a future date, through instruments called derivatives. Unlike an investment in an actual commodity (such as a barrel of oil), a derivative’s value is based on the value of a commodity (for example, a bet on whether a barrel of oil will increase or decrease in price). Speculators have no hand in the sale of the commodity they’re betting on; they’re not the buyer or the seller.

By betting on the price outcome with only a single futures contract, a speculator has no effect on a market. It’s simply a bet. But a speculator with the capital to purchase a sizeable number of futures derivatives at one price can actually sway the market. As energy researcher F. William Engdahl put it, “[s]peculators trade on rumor, not fact”

. A speculator purchasing vast futures at higher than the current market price can cause oil producers to horde their commodity in the hopes they’ll be able to sell it later on at the future price. This drives prices up in reality — both future and present prices — due to the decreased amount of oil currently available on the market.

Investment firms that can influence the oil futures market stand to make a lot; oil companies that both produce the commodity and drive prices up of their product up through oil futures derivatives stand to make even more. Investigations into the unregulated oil futures exchanges turned up major financial institutions like Goldman Sachs and Citigroup. But it also revealed energy producers like Vitol, a Swiss company that owned 11 percent of the oil futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange alone

.

As a result of speculation among these and other major players, an estimated 60 percent of the price of oil per barrel was added; a $100 barrel of oil, in reality, should cost $40

. And despite having an agency created to prevent just such speculative price inflation, by the time oil prices skyrocketed, the government had made a paper tiger out of it. …”

http://money.howstuffworks.com/oil-speculation-raise-gas-price.htm

Weekly Petroleum Status Report

Highlights

“…U.S. crude oil refinery inputs averaged just under 14.9 million barrels per

day during the week ending February 17, 170 thousand barrels per day

above the previous week’s average. Refineries operated at 85.5 percent

of their operable capacity last week. Gasoline production increased

last week, averaging nearly 9.0 million barrels per day. Distillate fuel

production decreased last week, averaging just under 4.3 million barrels

per day.

U.S. crude oil imports averaged nearly 9.1 million barrels per day last

week, up by 335 thousand barrels per day from the previous week. Over

the last four weeks, crude oil imports have averaged about 8.8 million

barrels per day, 211 thousand barrels per day above the same four-week

period last year. Total motor gasoline imports (including both finished

gasoline and gasoline blending components) last week averaged 845

thousand barrels per day. Distillate fuel imports averaged 122 thousand

barrels per day last week.

U.S. commercial crude oil inventories (excluding those in the Strategic

Petroleum Reserve) increased by 1.6 million barrels from the previous

week. At 340.7 million barrels, U.S. crude oil inventories are in the

upper limit of the average range for this time of year. Total motor

gasoline inventories decreased by 0.6 million barrels last week and are

in the upper limit of the average range. Finished gasoline inventories

decreased while blending components inventories increased last week.

Distillate fuel inventories decreased by 0.2 million barrels last week and

are in the middle of the average range for this time of year. Propane/

propylene inventories decreased by 1.6 million barrels last week and are

above the upper limit of the average range. Total commercial petroleum

inventories increased by 3.3 million barrels last week.

Total products supplied over the last four-week period have averaged

about 18.1 million barrels per day, down by 6.7 percent compared to

the similar period last year. Over the last four weeks, motor gasoline

product supplied has averaged 8.2 million barrels per day, down by 6.1

percent from the same period last year. Distillate fuel product supplied

has averaged about 3.6 million barrels per day over the last four weeks,

down by 5.9 percent from the same period last year. Jet fuel product

supplied is 9.1 percent lower over the last four weeks compared to the

same four-week period last year.

WTI was $103.27 per barrel on February 17, 2012, $4.59 more than

last week’s price and $18.24 above a year ago. The spot price for

conventional gasoline in the New York Harbor was $3.023 per gallon,

$0.022 more than last week’s price and $0.483 above last year. The

spot price for No. 2 heating oil in the New York Harbor was $3.185 per

gallon, $0.002 less than last week’s price but $0.474 above a year ago.

The national average retail regular gasoline price increased for the fourth

week in a row to $3.591 per gallon on February 20, 2012, $0.068 per

gallon more than last week and $0.402 above a year ago. The national

average retail diesel fuel price also increased for the fourth straight week

in a row to $3.960 per gallon, $0.017 per gallon more than last week and

$0.387 above a year ago. …”

http://www.eia.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/weekly_petroleum_status_report/current/pdf/highlights.pdf

Inflation:  Calculating the rate of inflation

Historical CPI-U data from 1913 to the present

“…For just current CPI data, see CPI page. The following table provides all the Consumer Price Index data CPI-U from 1913 to the Present.

The Consumer Price Index (CPI-U)  is compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and is based upon a 1982 Base of 100. A Consumer Price Index of 158 indicates 58% inflation since 1982. The commonly quoted inflation rate of say 3% is actually the change in the Consumer Price Index from a year earlier. By looking at the change in the Consumer Price Index we can see that what cost an average of 9.9 cents in 1913 would cost us about $1.82 in 2003 and $2.02 in 2007.

To find Prior Consumer Price Index (CPI) data on this table (back through 1913) click on the date range links below the table.

For Inflation data rather than Consumer Price Index data go to the Historical Inflation page. If you would like to calculate the inflation rate between two dates using the Consumer Price Index data from this chart, use our handy easy to use Inflation calculator or you might prefer to use our Cost of Living Calculator to compare the costs in two cities. You can find links to Inflation and Consumer Price Index data for other countries HERE. A chart of Inflation by decade, Annual Inflation and Confederate Inflation is also available. Menu navigation is available on the menu bar on the left of every page. We have a complete listing of all of our Articles on inflation, including Inflation Definitions, Which is better High or Low Inflation, and How to Calculate Inflation.

You might also be interested in the wide variety of articles on our sister site Financial Trend Forecaster a complete list of the articles on Financial Trend Forecaster is at the FTF Article Archives.

Note Effective January 2007 the BLS began publishing the CPI index to three decimal places (prior to that it was only one decimal place).  But InflationData.com is still the only place to get the Inflation Rate calculated to two decimal places.

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2012 226.665
2011 220.223 221.309 223.467 224.906 225.964 225.722 225.922 226.545 226.889 226.421 226.230 225.672 224.939
2010 216.687 216.741 217.631 218.009 218.178 217.965 218.011 218.312 218.439 218.711 218.803 219.179 218.056
2009 211.143 212.193 212.709 213.240 213.856 215.693 215.351 215.834 215.969 216.177 216.330 215.949 214.537
2008 211.080 211.693 213.528 214.823 216.632 218.815 219.964 219.086 218.783 216.573 212.425 210.228 215.303
2007 202.416 203.499 205.352 206.686 207.949 208.352 208.299 207.917 208.490 208.936 210.177 210.036 207.342
2006 198.300 198.700 199.800 201.500 202.500 202.900 203.500 203.900 202.900 201.800 201.500 201.800 201.600
2005 190.700 191.800 193.300 194.600 194.400 194.500 195.400 196.400 198.800 199.200 197.600 196.800 195.300
2004 185.200 186.200 187.400 188.000 189.100 189.700 189.400 189.500 189.900 190.900 191.000 190.300 188.900
2003 181.700 183.100 184.200 183.800 183.500 183.700 183.900 184.600 185.200 185.000 184.500 184.300 183.960
2002 177.100 177.800 178.800 179.800 179.800 179.900 180.100 180.700 181.000 181.300 181.300 180.900 179.880
2001 175.100 175.800 176.200 176.900 177.700 178.000 177.500 177.500 178.300 177.700 177.400 176.700 177.100
2000 168.800 169.800 171.200 171.300 171.500 172.400 172.800 172.800 173.700 174.000 174.100 174.000 172.200
1999 164.300 164.500 165.000 166.200 166.200 166.200 166.700 167.100 167.900 168.200 168.300 168.300 166.600
1998 161.600 161.900 162.200 162.500 162.800 163.000 163.200 163.400 163.600 164.000 164.000 163.900 163.000
1997 159.100 159.600 160.000 160.200 160.100 160.300 160.500 160.800 161.200 161.600 161.500 161.300 160.500
1996 154.400 154.900 155.700 156.300 156.600 156.700 157.000 157.300 157.800 158.300 158.600 158.600 156.900
1995 150.300 150.900 151.400 151.900 152.200 152.500 152.500 152.900 153.200 153.700 153.600 153.500 152.400
1994 146.200 146.700 147.200 147.400 147.500 148.000 148.400 149.000 149.400 149.500 149.700 149.700 148.200
1993 142.600 143.100 143.600 144.000 144.200 144.400 144.400 144.800 145.100 145.700 145.800 145.800 144.500
1992 138.100 138.600 139.300 139.500 139.700 140.200 140.500 140.900 141.300 141.800 142.000 141.900 140.300
1991 134.600 134.800 135.000 135.200 135.600 136.000 136.200 136.600 137.200 137.400 137.800 137.900 136.200
1990 127.400 128.000 128.700 128.900 129.200 129.900 130.400 131.600 132.700 133.500 133.800 133.800 130.700
1989 121.100 121.600 122.300 123.100 123.800 124.100 124.400 124.600 125.000 125.600 125.900 126.100 124.000
1988 115.700 116.000 116.500 117.100 117.500 118.000 118.500 119.000 119.800 120.200 120.300 120.500 118.300
1987 111.200 111.600 112.100 112.700 113.100 113.500 113.800 114.400 115.000 115.300 115.400 115.400 113.600
1986 109.600 109.300 108.800 108.600 108.900 109.500 109.500 109.700 110.200 110.300 110.400 110.500 109.600
1985 105.500 106.000 106.400 106.900 107.300 107.600 107.800 108.000 108.300 108.700 109.000 109.300 107.600
1984 101.900 102.400 102.600 103.100 103.400 103.700 104.100 104.500 105.000 105.300 105.300 105.300 103.900
1983 97.800 97.900 97.900 98.600 99.200 99.500 99.900 100.200 100.700 101.000 101.200 101.300 99.600
1982 94.300 94.600 94.500 94.900 95.800 97.000 97.500 97.700 97.900 98.200 98.000 97.600 96.500
1981 87.000 87.900 88.500 89.100 89.800 90.600 91.600 92.300 93.200 93.400 93.700 94.000 90.900
1980 77.800 78.900 80.100 81.000 81.800 82.700 82.700 83.300 84.000 84.800 85.500 86.300 82.400
1979 68.300 69.100 69.800 70.600 71.500 72.300 73.100 73.800 74.600 75.200 75.900 76.700 72.600
1978 62.500 62.900 63.400 63.900 64.500 65.200 65.700 66.000 66.500 67.100 67.400 67.700 65.200
1977 58.500 59.100 59.500 60.000 60.300 60.700 61.000 61.200 61.400 61.600 61.900 62.100 60.600
1976 55.600 55.800 55.900 56.100 56.500 56.800 57.100 57.400 57.600 57.900 58.000 58.200 56.900
1975 52.100 52.500 52.700 52.900 53.200 53.600 54.200 54.300 54.600 54.900 55.300 55.500 53.800
1974 46.600 47.200 47.800 48.000 48.600 49.000 49.400 50.000 50.600 51.100 51.500 51.900 49.300
1973 42.600 42.900 43.300 43.600 43.900 44.200 44.300 45.100 45.200 45.600 45.900 46.200 44.400
1972 41.100 41.300 41.400 41.500 41.600 41.700 41.900 42.000 42.100 42.300 42.400 42.500 41.800
1971 39.800 39.900 40.000 40.100 40.300 40.600 40.700 40.800 40.800 40.900 40.900 41.100 40.500
1970 37.800 38.000 38.200 38.500 38.600 38.800 39.000 39.000 39.200 39.400 39.600 39.800 38.800
1969 35.600 35.800 36.100 36.300 36.400 36.600 36.800 37.000 37.100 37.300 37.500 37.700 36.700
1968 34.100 34.200 34.300 34.400 34.500 34.700 34.900 35.000 35.100 35.300 35.400 35.500 34.800
1967 32.900 32.900 33.000 33.100 33.200 33.300 33.400 33.500 33.600 33.700 33.800 33.900 33.400
1966 31.800 32.000 32.100 32.300 32.300 32.400 32.500 32.700 32.700 32.900 32.900 32.900 32.400
1965 31.200 31.200 31.300 31.400 31.400 31.600 31.600 31.600 31.600 31.700 31.700 31.800 31.500
1964 30.900 30.900 30.900 30.900 30.900 31.000 31.100 31.000 31.100 31.100 31.200 31.200 31.000
1963 30.400 30.400 30.500 30.500 30.500 30.600 30.700 30.700 30.700 30.800 30.800 30.900 30.600
1962 30.000 30.100 30.100 30.200 30.200 30.200 30.300 30.300 30.400 30.400 30.400 30.400 30.200
1961 29.800 29.800 29.800 29.800 29.800 29.800 30.000 29.900 30.000 30.000 30.000 30.000 29.900
1960 29.300 29.400 29.400 29.500 29.500 29.600 29.600 29.600 29.600 29.800 29.800 29.800 29.600
1959 29.000 28.900 28.900 29.000 29.000 29.100 29.200 29.200 29.300 29.400 29.400 29.400 29.100
1958 28.600 28.600 28.800 28.900 28.900 28.900 29.000 28.900 28.900 28.900 29.000 28.900 28.900
1957 27.600 27.700 27.800 27.900 28.000 28.100 28.300 28.300 28.300 28.300 28.400 28.400 28.100
1956 26.800 26.800 26.800 26.900 27.000 27.200 27.400 27.300 27.400 27.500 27.500 27.600 27.200
1955 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.800 26.800 26.900 26.900 26.900 26.800 26.800
1954 26.900 26.900 26.900 26.800 26.900 26.900 26.900 26.900 26.800 26.800 26.800 26.700 26.900
1953 26.600 26.500 26.600 26.600 26.700 26.800 26.800 26.900 26.900 27.000 26.900 26.900 26.700
1952 26.500 26.300 26.300 26.400 26.400 26.500 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.700 26.500
1951 25.400 25.700 25.800 25.800 25.900 25.900 25.900 25.900 26.100 26.200 26.400 26.500 26.000
1950 23.500 23.500 23.600 23.600 23.700 23.800 24.100 24.300 24.400 24.600 24.700 25.000 24.100
1949 24.000 23.800 23.800 23.900 23.800 23.900 23.700 23.800 23.900 23.700 23.800 23.600 23.800
1948 23.700 23.500 23.400 23.800 23.900 24.100 24.400 24.500 24.500 24.400 24.200 24.100 24.100
1947 21.500 21.500 21.900 21.900 21.900 22.000 22.200 22.500 23.000 23.000 23.100 23.400 22.300
1946 18.200 18.100 18.300 18.400 18.500 18.700 19.800 20.200 20.400 20.800 21.300 21.500 19.500
1945 17.800 17.800 17.800 17.800 17.900 18.100 18.100 18.100 18.100 18.100 18.100 18.200 18.000
1944 17.400 17.400 17.400 17.500 17.500 17.600 17.700 17.700 17.700 17.700 17.700 17.800 17.600
1943 16.900 16.900 17.200 17.400 17.500 17.500 17.400 17.300 17.400 17.400 17.400 17.400 17.300
1942 15.700 15.800 16.000 16.100 16.300 16.300 16.400 16.500 16.500 16.700 16.800 16.900 16.300
1941 14.100 14.100 14.200 14.300 14.400 14.700 14.700 14.900 15.100 15.300 15.400 15.500 14.700
1940 13.900 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.100 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.100 14.000
1939 14.000 13.900 13.900 13.800 13.800 13.800 13.800 13.800 14.100 14.000 14.000 14.000 13.900
1938 14.200 14.100 14.100 14.200 14.100 14.100 14.100 14.100 14.100 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.100
1937 14.100 14.100 14.200 14.300 14.400 14.400 14.500 14.500 14.600 14.600 14.500 14.400 14.400
1936 13.800 13.800 13.700 13.700 13.700 13.800 13.900 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.000 14.000 13.900
1935 13.600 13.700 13.700 13.800 13.800 13.700 13.700 13.700 13.700 13.700 13.800 13.800 13.700
1934 13.200 13.300 13.300 13.300 13.300 13.400 13.400 13.400 13.600 13.500 13.500 13.400 13.400
1933 12.900 12.700 12.600 12.600 12.600 12.700 13.100 13.200 13.200 13.200 13.200 13.200 13.000
1932 14.300 14.100 14.000 13.900 13.700 13.600 13.600 13.500 13.400 13.300 13.200 13.100 13.700
1931 15.900 15.700 15.600 15.500 15.300 15.100 15.100 15.100 15.000 14.900 14.700 14.600 15.200
1930 17.100 17.000 16.900 17.000 16.900 16.800 16.600 16.500 16.600 16.500 16.400 16.100 16.700
1929 17.100 17.100 17.000 16.900 17.000 17.100 17.300 17.300 17.300 17.300 17.300 17.200 17.100
1928 17.300 17.100 17.100 17.100 17.200 17.100 17.100 17.100 17.300 17.200 17.200 17.100 17.100
1927 17.500 17.400 17.300 17.300 17.400 17.600 17.300 17.200 17.300 17.400 17.300 17.300 17.400
1926 17.900 17.900 17.800 17.900 17.800 17.700 17.500 17.400 17.500 17.600 17.700 17.700 17.700
1925 17.300 17.200 17.300 17.200 17.300 17.500 17.700 17.700 17.700 17.700 18.000 17.900 17.500
1924 17.300 17.200 17.100 17.000 17.000 17.000 17.100 17.000 17.100 17.200 17.200 17.300 17.100
1923 16.800 16.800 16.800 16.900 16.900 17.000 17.200 17.100 17.200 17.300 17.300 17.300 17.100
1922 16.900 16.900 16.700 16.700 16.700 16.700 16.800 16.600 16.600 16.700 16.800 16.900 16.800
1921 19.000 18.400 18.300 18.100 17.700 17.600 17.700 17.700 17.500 17.500 17.400 17.300 17.900
1920 19.300 19.500 19.700 20.300 20.600 20.900 20.800 20.300 20.000 19.900 19.800 19.400 20.000
1919 16.500 16.200 16.400 16.700 16.900 16.900 17.400 17.700 17.800 18.100 18.500 18.900 17.300
1918 14.000 14.100 14.000 14.200 14.500 14.700 15.100 15.400 15.700 16.000 16.300 16.500 15.100
1917 11.700 12.000 12.000 12.600 12.800 13.000 12.800 13.000 13.300 13.500 13.500 13.700 12.800
1916 10.400 10.400 10.500 10.600 10.700 10.800 10.800 10.900 11.100 11.300 11.500 11.600 10.900
1915 10.100 10.000 9.900 10.000 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.100 10.200 10.300 10.300 10.100
1914 10.000 9.900 9.900 9.800 9.900 9.900 10.000 10.200 10.200 10.100 10.200 10.100 10.000
1913 9.800 9.800 9.800 9.800 9.700 9.800 9.900 9.900 10.000 10.000 10.100 10.000 9.900

To calculate inflation from a month and year to a later month and year, try our Inflation calculator

http://inflationdata.com/Inflation/Consumer_Price_Index/HistoricalCPI.aspx

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The Progressive Radical Socialist Gang Are Robbing The American People Blind By Using The Federal Reserve And Banks To Create More Money To Devalue The U.S. Dollar Resulting in Inflation and Higher Prices For All Goods and Services!–Videos

Posted on April 22, 2011. Filed under: American History, Banking, Blogroll, Business, Communications, Crime, Culture, Demographics, Economics, Employment, Federal Government, government, government spending, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Monetary Policy, Money, People, Philosophy, Politics, Private Sector, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Security, Talk Radio, Taxes, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

The US Economy… is over. Gold + Silver – the only hope for Middle Class survival…

 

Marc Faber – Obama is a prostitute – Laughs at interviewer

 

 

 

Marc Faber on Inflation – “The Ben Bernanke is a Murderer of the Working & Middle Class!”

 

Peter Schiff 2011 – A Financial Earthquake is Next – Get Prepared! – Free Food Offer Below!

 

Peter Schiff – Predictions for 2011 – Dollar Is Collapsing

 

 

END FED Inflation Created By Gov Buying Bonds; QE2 ‘Wealth Effect’; Companies Game System; QE3

 

END FED Social Security Looted By Government And Banks; Fund By Transaction Fee On Derivitives

 

END FED Budget-Entitlements Scapegoating Welfare Moms&Senior Not The Big Issue The Bankers

 

 

END FED: Celente On Economic-Fed Ponzi Scheme; Economy To Fall Once Interest Rates Rise

 

 

Glenn Beck-04/21/11-A

Glenn Beck-04/21/11-B

 

Glenn Beck-04/21/11-C

Background Articles and Videos

END FED: Keiser Explains How Fed-Banks Create Revolutions & Genocide; Speculation, Food-Oil

 

Related Posts On Pronk Palisades 

Ending The Crimes of Centuries–Ideas Whose Time Have Come–Constitutional Republics and Market Capitalism–Videos

Glenn Beck and G. Edward Griffin On The Federal Reserve System–The Creature from Jekyll Island–Videos

Economists

Milton Friedman On Monetary Policy–Videos

David Gordon–Five Best Books on the Current Crisis–Video

Robert Higgs–The Great Depression and the Current Recession–Videos

Robert Higgs–Why Are Politicians Always Trying to Scare Us?–Videos

Jörg Guido Hülsmann–The Ethics of Money Production–Videos 

Murray Rothbard–A History of Money and Banking in The United States–Videos

Murray Rothbard–The American Economy and the End of Laissez-Faire: 1870 to World War II–Videos

Murray Rothbard–The Case Against The Fed–Videos 

Murray Rothbard– What Has Government Done to Our Money?–Videos

Peter Schiff–Videos

Schiff, Forbers and Bloomberg Nail The Financial Crisis and Recession–Mistakes Were Made–Greed, Arrogance, Stupidity–Three Chinese Curses!

L. William Seidman on The Economic Crisis: Causes and Cures–Videos

Thomas Sowell On The Housing Boom and Bust–Videos

Thomas E. Woods–The Economic Crisis and The Federal Reserve–Videos

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Banking Cartel’s Public Relations Campaign Continues:Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke On The Record

Banking–Videos

Creature from Jekyll Island: The Federal Reserve System–Videos

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A Conversation With George Soros – MIT–Videos

Posted on February 25, 2011. Filed under: Blogroll, Business, Communications, Cult, Demographics, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Foreign Policy, government, Investments, Language, liberty, Life, Links, media, Medicine, People, Politics, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Security, Taxes, Technology, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

Nov. 03, 2008 – 1 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 2 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 3 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 4 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 5 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 6 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 7 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 8 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

 

 

Nov. 03, 2008 – 9 of 9 – A Conversation With George Soros – MIT

 

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Cheap Money and Rampant Speculation Drive Skyrocketing Oil Prices–Videos

Posted on January 18, 2011. Filed under: Agriculture, Banking, Blogroll, Communications, Crime, Economics, Employment, Energy, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, government, government spending, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Monetary Policy, Money, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Technology, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , |

  

Hearing on Energy Speculation, Gas Prices: Masters Testimony

 

Hearing on Energy Speculation & Gas Prices: Stupak Questions

 

Goldman Vet Sparks Conflict On Hill

 

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Cantwell and McCain Hold A Press Conference

 

Oil Price Manipulation 1

 

Oil Price Manipulation 2

 

Oil Price Manipulation 3

 

Oil Price Manipulation 4

 

Oil Price Manipulation 5

 

Oil Price Manipulation 6

 

Oil Price Manipulation 7

 

Oil Price Manipulation 8

 

Oil Price Manipulation 9

 

Oil Price Manipulation 10

Oil Price Manipulation 11

 

Oil Price Manipulation 12

 

Oil Price Manipulation 13

 

Oil Price Manipulation 14

 

Blame High Gas Prices on Laziness and Greed

Just as the U.S. economy seems about to recover, oil speculators are again ratcheting up gas prices. Don’t let them get away with it, says Ed Wallace

“…Of course the oil pundits—whether industry analysts, commentators, lobbyists, or executives—validate the high price of oil. They usually do, saying as always that either gasoline supplies or crude oil on hand is in short supply, hence the increased prices. But that hasn’t been true. Gasoline inventories on Dec. 17 were 217 million barrels, slightly more than gasoline inventories in the last week of February 2009—when the price of crude neared $33 a barrel in the wake of the previous fall’s financial meltdown.

Likewise on Dec. 17, oil inventories in the U.S. stood at 340.6 million barrels. That’s only 10 million barrels less than we had in the last week of February 2009—again, when oil had fallen back to $33.

Fact is, we have more oil on hand today (13 million barrels) and just three million barrels of gasoline less than we did at the end of January 1999, a period when gasoline prices were down near the $1 mark. As for strong economic growth dictating higher oil and gas prices, it should be noted that our GDP grew 5.4 percent in late 1998—and growth would improve to 7.1 percent at the start of 1999. Yet gasoline was a buck a gallon. …”

“…Yes, it’s 2008 redux: Energy prices are rising in the face of four-year weakened U.S. demand and high inventories worldwide.

At this rate, it won’t take long until skyrocketing oil and gasoline prices drag the current economic recovery to a halt. Worse, if oil and gasoline prices go up for consumers and business in 2011 by a substantial amount, reducing the unemployment numbers may not be possible. …”

“…After all, speculators who never intend to take delivery of one drop of oil continue to plow more cheap capital into those contracts, thereby distorting the real discovery price.

After five years of this costly behavior, it has become clear that they’re not going to change if they don’t have to. The government could fix this problem quickly by severely reducing the amount of leverage or borrowing permitted to purchase commodity contracts and by raising interest rates. But neither move seems likely. …”

http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/dec2010/bw20101230_850060.htm 

Background Articles and Videos

 

FRONTLINE: THE WARNING – Part 1

 

FRONTLINE: THE WARNING – Part 2

 

 

FRONTLINE: THE WARNING – Part 3

 

FRONTLINE: THE WARNING – Part 4

 

FRONTLINE The Warning PART 7

Petrodollar, Petrodollar warfare 1

 

Petrodollar, Petrodollar warfare 2

 

Petrodollar, Petrodollar warfare3

 

 

Michael Greenberger Talks Speculation In Commodity Markets

Derivatives Warning – Michael Greenberger interview

Mike Masters on Regulating Commodities Speculation

 

CHHS Director explains derivatives regulation on C-SPAN – 5/15/09

 

The Biz Flog — Blaming Oil Speculators for High Gas Prices

The Oil Speculator

Hedge Funds’ Black Gold – Why the oil price is so high PART1

 

Hedge Funds’ Black Gold – Why the oil price is so high PART2

 

Cost of carry model to price forwards & futures

 

Contango & backwardation in commodity forward markets

 

List of the Primary Government Securities Dealers Reporting to the Government Securities Dealers Statistics Unit of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York

BNP Paribas Securities Corp.
Barclays Capital Inc.
Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC
Daiwa Capital Markets America Inc.
Deutsche Bank Securities Inc.
Goldman, Sachs & Co.
HSBC Securities (USA) Inc.
Jefferies & Company, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Securities LLC
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated
Mizuho Securities USA Inc.
Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated
Nomura Securities International, Inc.
RBC Capital Markets, LLC
RBS Securities Inc.
UBS Securities LLC.

http://www.ny.frb.org/markets/pridealers_current.html

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Clothing, Commodity, Food and Energy Prices Rising–Wall Street Speculation Screwing American People At Gas Pump Again!–Videos

Posted on January 6, 2011. Filed under: Agriculture, Banking, Blogroll, College, Economics, Education, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, government, government spending, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Money, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Taxes, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

 

Glenn Beck-01/06/11-A

 

Glenn Beck-01/06/11-B

 

Glenn Beck-01/06/11-C

 

Oil Speculators Gone Wild

 

How to stop oil Speculation

 

Mike Masters on Regulating Commodities Speculation

 

Crude Oil Speculation

 

Energy Commodity Market Regulations

 

Michael Greenberger on Over-the-Counter Derivatives (Roosevelt Institute)

 

 

Background Artilces and Videos

Oil’s Rise: What’s Causing It?; Wall Street & Oil’s Spike

Oil Speculators Take Heat

The Price Of Oil

 

The Real TRUTH Behind The OIL PRICES

 

Steenland & Chilton: Oil Prices Inflated Due to Speculation

 

Inside Story – Oil prices near $100-a-barrel – 11Nov07- Pt 1

 

Inside Story – Oil prices near $100-a-barrel – 11Nov07- Pt 2

 

 Hedge Funds – Paul Solman

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The American People Paid Off The Bets (Credit Default Swaps) Of Wall Street Investment Banks–Videos

Posted on October 20, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Economics, Energy, Federal Government, government, government spending, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Security, Technology, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

Derivatives Warning – Michael Greenberger interview

 

Credit Default Swaps

 

Greenspan Admits Philisophical Error in “The Warning”

 

Late 90s fight to regulate derivatives (clip from BBC’s “The Love of Money: The Age of Risk”)

 

Financial Derivatives: What are They? – Housing Bubble Collapse – Unregulated Insurance

 

Derivatives: the most crucial aspect of financial regulatory reform

 

CHHS Director on CNBC’s “Goldman Sachs: Power and Peril”

 

Goldman Sachs-Robbing and Thieving The American Sucker-AGAIN

The Young Turks: Fraud Exposed At Goldman Sachs

 

Background Articles and Videos

The Fall of Lehman Brothers P1

The Fall of Lehman Brothers P2

The Fall of Lehman Brothers P3

The Fall of Lehman Brothers P4

The Fall of Lehman Brothers P5

The Fall of Lehman Brothers P6

Credit Default Swap

“…A credit default swap (CDS) is a swap contract and agreement in which the protection buyer of the CDS makes a series of payments (often referred to as the CDS “fee” or “spread”) to the protection seller and, in exchange, receives a payoff if a credit instrument (typically a bond or loan) experiences a credit event.

In its simplest form, a credit default swap is a bilateral contract between the buyer and seller of protection. The CDS will refer to a “reference entity” or “reference obligor”, usually a corporation or government. The reference entity is not a party to the contract. The protection buyer makes quarterly premium payments—the “spread”—to the protection seller. If the reference entity defaults, the protection seller pays the buyer the par value of the bond in exchange for physical delivery of the bond, although settlement may also be by cash or auction.[1][2] A default is referred to as a “credit event” and include such events as failure to pay, restructuring and bankruptcy.[2] Most CDSs are in the $10–$20 million range with maturities between one and 10 years.[3]

A holder of a bond may “buy protection” to hedge its risk of default. In this way, a CDS is similar to credit insurance, although CDS are not similar to or subject to regulations governing casualty or life insurance. Also, investors can buy and sell protection without owning any debt of the reference entity. These “naked credit default swaps” allow traders to speculate on debt issues and the creditworthiness of reference entities. Credit default swaps can be used to create synthetic long and short positions in the reference entity.[4] Naked CDS constitute most of the market in CDS.[5][6] In addition, credit default swaps can also be used in capital structure arbitrage.

Credit default swaps have existed since the early 1990s, but the market increased tremendously starting in 2003. By the end of 2007, the outstanding amount was $62.2 trillion, falling to $38.6 trillion by the end of 2008.[7]

Most CDSs are documented using standard forms promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA), although some are tailored to meet specific needs. Credit default swaps have many variations.[2] In addition to the basic, single-name swaps, there are basket default swaps (BDS), index CDS, funded CDS (also called a credit linked notes), as well as loan only credit default swaps (LCDS). In addition to corporations or governments, the reference entity can include a special purpose vehicle issuing asset backed securities.[8]

Credit default swaps are not traded on an exchange and there is no required reporting of transactions to a government agency.[9] During the 2007-2010 financial crisis the lack of transparency became a concern to regulators, as was the trillion dollar size of the market, which could pose a systemic risk to the economy.[2][4][10] In March 2010, the DTCC Trade Information Warehouse (see Sources of Market Data) announced it would voluntarily give regulators greater access to its credit default swaps database.[11]

…”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_default_swap

Center for Health and Homeland Security (CHHS) Director on NBC Nightly News – 3/17/09

Center for Health and Homeland Security (CHHS) Director on CBS Evening News – 3/26/09

 

Center for Health and Homeland Security (CHHS) Director Michael Greenberger on ’60 Minutes’ – Part 1

 

Michael Greenberger Talks Speculation In Commodity Markets

 

Center for Health and Homeland Security (CHHS) Director Michael Greenberger on ’60 Minutes’ – Part 2

Credit Default Swaps 2

 

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The Monetarization of The Debt and Quantitative Easing: The Federal Reserve is printing $1,000,000,000,000!–Run-Away Inflation Coming Soon!

Posted on March 20, 2009. Filed under: Blogroll, Employment, Investments, Music, Politics, Rants, Raves, Resources, Taxes, Video | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

Glenn Beck alerted the American people to what is happening with the U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve:

Glenn Beck’s ‘One Thing’: 03-19-09

 

 

Federal Reserve Monetizes U.S. Debt While Americans Cry over AIG Bonuses. Glenn Beck

 

Peter Schiff 3/18/09 – Schiff Report Video Blog


 

No Risk of Hyperinflation Says Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke. Rest easy Glenn Beck

 

Jim Rogers “America is out of control” demise of the dollar

 

Jim Rogers the Dollar is Doomed 23 Mar 2009

 

Voices of Freedom: Ron Paul, Peter Schiff, and Jim Rogers school Obama, Bush, Bernanke, and Paulson

 

LOL

It’s not AIG. It’s the GOV…

Fed to pump another $1 trillion into U.S. economy

“The Federal Reserve sharply stepped up its efforts to bolster the economy on Wednesday, announcing that it would pump an extra $1 trillion into the financial system by purchasing Treasury bonds and mortgage securities.

Having already reduced the key interest rate it controls nearly to zero, the central bank has increasingly turned to alternatives like buying securities as a way of getting more dollars into the economy, a tactic that amounts to creating vast new sums of money out of thin air. But the moves on Wednesday were its biggest yet, almost doubling all of the Fed’s measures in the last year.

The action makes the Fed a buyer of long-term government bonds rather than the short-term debt that it typically buys and sells to help control the money supply.

The idea was to encourage more economic activity by lowering interest rates, including those on home loans, and to help the financial system as it struggles under the crushing weight of bad loans and poor investments.

Investors responded with surprise and enthusiasm. The Dow Jones industrial average, which had been down about 50 points just before the announcement, jumped immediately and ended the day up almost 91 points at 7,486.58. Yields on long-term Treasury bonds dropped markedly, and analysts predicted that interest rates on fixed-rate mortgages would soon drop below 5 percent. …”

“…Since last September, the Fed’s lending programs have roughly doubled the size of its balance sheet, to about $1.8 trillion, from $900 billion. The actions announced on Wednesday are likely to expand that to well over $3 trillion over the next year.

Despite a trickle of encouraging data in the last few weeks, Fed officials were clearly still worried and in no mood to cut back on their emergency efforts.

Fed policy makers sharply reduced their economic forecasts in January, predicting that the economy would continue to experience steep contractions for the first half of 2009, that unemployment could approach 9 percent by the end of the year and that there was at least a small risk of a drop in consumer prices like those that Japan experienced for nearly a decade.

The Fed rarely buys long-term government bonds. The last occasion was nearly 50 years ago under different economic circumstances when it tried to reduce long-term interest rates while allowing short term rates to rise.”

http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/18/business/fed.php

 

Monetary Policy Rebooted

Francis Cianfrocca

“…The Federal Reserve announced a momentous shift in policy yesterday. Its import was easy to miss because, as always with the Fed, it was written in a jargon only superficially resembling English. But its intention is to take actions that will deeply shift the policy landscape, probably to a much greater extent than Congress’s various stimulus plans.

The Fed announced an American version of what has been called “quantitative easing,” or QE. The Japanese have done this before, and the British got into it a few weeks ago. You can think of it, with no loss of accuracy, as inflation.

QE is what monetary authorities resort to when policy interest rates go to zero, which is where they are now. If you can’t reduce the price of money any further, you simply increase the amount of money. The Fed will be monetizing (purchasing) about $750 billion in mortgage-backed securities and about $300 billion in straight Treasury debt.

They’ve purchased mortgage paper before (last December), but the Treasury debt purchases are new. And the bond market’s reaction to the news was electric, as interest rates fell sharply, particularly for the 10-year note. Inflation-sensitive commodities like oil, gold and copper also shot up 5% or more in price, and are holding those gains this morning. The news is also a mild positive for the stock market, which can benefit from inflation.

What is Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke really trying to do? He wants to unfreeze the “credit crunch” that is making it too expensive or even impossible for U.S. consumers and businesses to borrow money, which was the trigger for the current recession. The Fed directly controls only the shortest-term interest rates. But consumer purchases (including mortgages) and business investments are sensitive to longer-term interest rates. QE is the Fed’s way of trying to reduce real interest rates in the 2 to 10-year range of the spectrum.

This is also the biggest experiment in monetary policy in history. Milton Friedman is known for having explained the genesis of the Great Depression in monetary terms. Bernanke, a close student of the early Depression, is determined to prevent the wicked asset deflation of 1930-32 that ruined so many lives. At what cost? Well, the Fed’s balance sheet just grew by $1.15 trillion: it’s now 50% bigger than it was a day ago. That’s a scary amount of inflation. …”

“…What no one really knows yet is the exact linkage between the formation of new money, and the formation of new credit. Bernanke and his Fed are gambling that a giant pulse of monetary inflation will reignite private lending. We can only hope they’ve pointed their fire hose at the right problem.

For every lender, there’s a borrower. The Fed will succeed if the problem in credit markets is the reluctance of lenders to write new loans. But if the problem turns out to be a lack of demand for credit, then all we’ll get out of this is stagflation.”

http://www.commentarymagazine.com/blogs/index.php/cianfrocca/59211 

I will add more to this post Monday.

I need to do some more research.

Consider this a heads-up!

This is not good for it will devalue the dollar and could lead to inflation if the Federal Reserve does not quickly reduce the money supply and raise interest rates once inflation rears it head starting in 2011.

This is truly a dangerous game and if your timing is off will lead to hyperinflation.

The Federal Reserve Chairman understands this but is currently more concerned about deflation and a even worse recession in terms of duration from two to four years and unemployment rates exceeding 10%.

Both fiscal policy and monetary policy are scaring people and this in and of itself is enough to prolong the return of consumer and business confidence.

President Obama is proving once again he is One Big Awful Mistake America.

President Obama neither understand nor really cares about the financial crisis and his only concern is the establishment of his radical socialist agenda in the United States by remaining in power.

The President will say and do anything to make this a reality.

While the Fed Chairman is on the side of free markets, it is an open question whether monetary policy alone can counter the fiscal irresponsibility of the Obama administration.–massively huge deficits and stimulus bills. Instead I am afraid the Federal Reserve is prepared to enable socialism in America by purchasing US Treasury bond and notes used to finance the massive deficits for the next four or eight years. This is madness for it is printing money and will result in hyperinflation. Speculation is already starting again in oil, where actual demand for oil has declined. The investment banks are at it again! Enough is enough. Are there an adults in Washington D.C. or just mad fools?

Also, the potential for the biggest tax increase in US history in the form of dramatic increases in the general price level will happen in 2011 on top of Obama’s own huge tax increase.

Inflation rates exceeding 10% would hurt low income and those on a fixed income the most and would wipe out any tax decreases obtained from lower tax rates or earned income credits.

This would be an economic disaster of the first order and would result in a jobless recovery and stagflation, high unemployment rates (over 10%)  and high inflation rates (over 10%)–a repeat but only worse of the Carter years–call it Obama’s 1010 Depression!

Join the second American Revolution before it is too late.

Second American Revolution–Tea Party Celebrations–Washington Fair–July 4, 2009–An Open Invitation To The American People

American People’s Plan = 6 Month Tax Holiday + FairTax = Real Hope + Real Change!–Millions To March On Washington D.C. Saturday, July 4, 2009! Revised and Updated

Beck Speaks to the 21st Century Thomas Paine

Beck found and interviewed the creator of the hugely successful viral video “The Second American Revolution.” It is a must-see, my friends.

 

Background Articles and Videos

 

Dallas Fed’s Fisher: The Fed Should Staunchly Resist Monetizing the Debt

Richard Fisher, president of the Dallas Fed, says “from time immemorial any central banker worth his or her salt has been genetically unable to tolerate inflation.” That means, among other things, never, ever voting to monetize the debt: …” 

http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2005/10/dallas_feds_fis.html

 

Monetization

Monetization is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender. It usually refers to the printing of banknotes by central banks, but things such as gold, diamonds and emeralds, and art can also be monetized by Standby Letter of Credit brokers. Even intrinsically worthless items can be made into money, as long as they are difficult to make or acquire. Monetization may also refer to exchanging securities for currency, selling a possession, charging for something that used to be free or making money on goods or services that were previously unprofitable.

Debt monetization occurs when a nation’s central bank (e.g. the Federal Reserve in the United States) buys government bonds. [1] If a government’s expenses exceed its tax revenue, if nothing is done the government will draw resources (capital) out of the private market. Since there is a limited amount of capital available in the market, there will be less available to fund business growth if the government takes out a substantial portion. If the debt is monetized, the capital is thereby returned to the private market.

Excessive debt monetization can be inflationary, which in some eyes can be seen as a flat tax because the ultimate result is that the government acquires additional funds and the currency decreases in value.[citation needed] However, monetization helps the government temporarily to meet its short term commitments at the beginning.[citation needed] On the other hand, some degree of debt monetization is useful for increasing the money supply, to keep up with increased production or economic growth.

Hence it is a primary tool of the Federal Reserve in managing interest rates. Excessive debt monetization has the drawback of increasing the twin deficit. That is, when government financing is increased, along with interest rates and foreign capital, the trade deficit also goes up along with the budget deficit.[citation needed]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monetize

The David Copperfield School of Economic Recovery

By Michelle Malkin  

“…The Federal Reserve performed another empty magic trick yesterday to the tune of $1 trillion.

While the Kabuki Theater of AIG outrage played out in Washington, the Fed was pulling its David Copperfield School of Economic Recovery routine. They’ll be printing up a trillion buck and “pumping it into the U.S. economy”…by buying up bonds and mortgage securities…sold and backed by the government. Voila:

The Federal Reserve sharply stepped up its efforts to bolster the economy on Wednesday, announcing that it would pump an extra $1 trillion into the financial system by purchasing Treasury bonds and mortgage securities.

Having already reduced the key interest rate it controls nearly to zero, the central bank has increasingly turned to alternatives like buying securities as a way of getting more dollars into the economy, a tactic that amounts to creating vast new sums of money out of thin air. But the moves on Wednesday were its biggest yet, almost doubling all of the Fed’s measures in the last year.

The action makes the Fed a buyer of long-term government bonds rather than the short-term debt that it typically buys and sells to help control the money supply.

The illusion melts: …”

http://michellemalkin.com/2009/03/19/the-david-copperfield-school-of-economic-recovery/

 

The David Copperfield School of Economic Recovery, Pt. II

By Michelle Malkin  

Now what?

Last week, the Obama administration brought us a $1 trillion Federal Reserve magic trick hatched by the David Copperfield School of Economic Recovery — printing up a trillion bucks and “pumping it into the U.S. economy”…by buying up bonds and mortgage securities…sold and backed by the government.

Today, hapless, truth-challenged tax cheat Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner officially unveils another $1 trillion magic trick. Instead of letting failed banks fail, we’ll have another desperately massive and massively desperate attempt to prop them up through a “public private partnership investment program.” Eager to get the still-unfolding Bonus-gate behind them (see “Geithner Aides Worked With AIG for Months on Bonuses” and “AIG paid over $218 million in bonus payments”), Team Obama leaked details of the plan over the weekend. World stock markets were up this morning, full of audaciously blind hope.

Geithner ’s WSJ op-ed this morning lays out some of the details he failed to deliver when he first unveiled his non-plan plan a month ago: …”

http://michellemalkin.com/2009/03/23/the-david-copperfield-school-of-economic-recovery-pt-ii/

 

The Chairman Part 1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=odPfHY4ekHA&feature=related 

The Chairman Part 2 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0zY8o0laZY

Ron Paul: Quit bankrupting this country & MONITOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE

 

Market 2 Market- FX: Helicopter Ben
 

 

Ron Paul tells Bernanke you can’t reinflate the bubble 2-25-09

 

CNBC: Ron Paul’s question makes Ben Bernake’s voice quiver

09

 

Money, Banking & The Federal Reserve ( part 1 of 4 )

 

Money, Banking & The Federal Reserve ( part 2 of 4 )

 

Money, Banking & The Federal Reserve ( part 3 of 4 )

 

Money, Banking & The Federal Reserve ( part 4 of 4 )


 

Bernanke Speaks on Economy (Part 1) – Bloomberg

 

Bernanke Speaks on Economy (Part 2) – Bloomberg

 

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