Obama Trade Promotion Authority Put On Hold For Next President? — A Dirty Deal For American People In 38 Business Sectors Under The Trade In Services Agreement (TISA) — The Coming Legal Immigration Invasion of United States of America! — Videos

Posted on June 20, 2015. Filed under: American History, Articles, Blogroll, Books, British History, Business, College, Communications, Computers, Constitution, Corruption, Crime, Culture, Education, Employment, Faith, Family, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, Fraud, Freedom, government, government spending, history, Illegal, Language, Law, Legal, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Press, Radio, Television, Video | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Project_1

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 486 June 16, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 485 June 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 484 June 12, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 483 June 11, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 482 June 10, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 481 June 9, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 480 June 8, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 479 June 5, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 478 June 4, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 477 June 3, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 476 June 2, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 475 June 1, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 474 May 29, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 473 May 28, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 472 May 27, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 471 May 26, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 470 May 22, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 469 May 21, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 468 May 20, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 467 May 19, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 466 May 18, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 465 May 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 464 May 14, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 463 May 13, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 462 May 8, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 461 May 7, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 460 May 6, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 459 May 4, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 458 May 1, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 457 April 30, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 456: April 29, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 455: April 28, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 454: April 27, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 453: April 24, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 452: April 23, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 451: April 22, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 450: April 21, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 449: April 20, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 448: April 17, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 447: April 16, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 446: April 15, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 445: April 14, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 444: April 13, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 443: April 9, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 442: April 8, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 441: April 6, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 440: April 2, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 439: April 1, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 438: March 31, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 437: March 30, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 436: March 27, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 435: March 26, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 434: March 25, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 433: March 24, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 432: March 23, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 431: March 20, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 430: March 19, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 429: March 18, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 428: March 17, 2015 

Pronk Pops Show 427: March 16, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 426: March 6, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 425: March 4, 2015

Pronk Pops Show 424: March 2, 2015

Story 1: Obama Trade Promotion Authority Put On Hold For Next President? — A Dirty Deal For American People In 38 Business Sectors Under The Trade In Services Agreement (TISA) — The Coming Legal Immigration Invasion of United States of America! —  Videos

Unholy-Trinity-TISA-TPP-TTIPUS_visaUSA_Visa

SR 379 Fast Track Dead – Until July 31

Milton Friedman – Free Trade Vs Protectionism

Free Trade and the Trans-Pacific Partnership

Trade Deal Deadline for TAA Do Over Extended to July 30

Rand Paul wants TPP fast tracked without READING IT.. Corporate shill disguised as FREEDOM LOVER

Ron Paul Opposes Treasonous TPP Trade Deal

Why Is Obama Pushing The TPP?

WikiLeaks exposes new batch of secret US, EU trade negotiations

Mark Levin: Fast Track trade bill massively expands Obama’s executive authority over immigration!

The Glenn Beck Program Beck Blitz: The Trade Agreement w/ Rep. Dave Brat 06 11 15

The history and geopolitics of trade in services

EU Parliament to vote on EU-US trade agreement on June 10

Truthout Interviews with Mike Ludwig Mike Ludwig on TISA and Julian Assange

What’s in the TISA and why it’s a secret?

Trade in Services Agreement Moves Forward, But How Will It Affect Consumers? Pt.1

Who is Behind TISA? Pt. 2

A Plan Only Banksters Will Love: WikiLeaks Reveals Trade Deal Pushing Global Financial Deregulation

TAA To Be Forced Down America’s Throat

What is TTIP?

Transatlantic Trade & Investment Partnership Negotiations

What is the Transatlantic Trade Investment Partnership?

TTIP Explained: Understanding the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

Why is TTIP more than a trade agreement?

TTIP – good or bad? Hot debate between Philippe Lamberts and Peter Chase

TTIP Transatlantic Trade & Investment Partnership – secret EU/US legal merger

It’s Illegal to Disclose the Details of “Obamatrade”

Congressman Grayson on The TPP and Its Evil Cousin TISA

What the TiSA Leaked Documents Reveal About Negotiations

Rep. Alan Grayson: ‘88 seconds to Debate the TPP’?

Trade Treachery by Alan Grayson

John Birch Society Predicted 10 Steps To America’s Destruction 55 Years Ago

U.S. House votes to buy more time to revive Obama’s trade plans

McClatchy Washington BureauJune 16, 2015

The U.S. House voted Tuesday to give itself more time to try to salvage President Barack Obama’s faltering trade agenda.

House members will now have until July 30 to reconsider a vote on trade-adjustment assistance that failed last Friday. House leaders originally planned to bring up the issue early this week.

The House voted 236 to 189 for the extension, including it in a rule for debate on the 2016 intelligence authorization bill.

The measure is linked to Obama’s bid to win trade-promotion authority to help him pass the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a proposed 12-nation trade pact that would rank as the largest in history.

While trade backers said the postponement would give them more time to regroup, opponents said it was unfair to delay a vote for so long and to make it part of an intelligence bill.

“This is one more attempt to play games with the future of hard-working families,” said Connecticut Democratic Rep. Rosa DeLauro, one of the leading opponents of Obama’s trade plans.

Democratic Rep. Lloyd Doggett of Texas said the delay would allow House Speaker John Boehner of Ohio to bring up the issue for a vote at any time in the next six weeks, with no notice. He said Republicans are looking for “the ideal time to muscle through a broken trade policy.”

Republican Rep. Virginia Foxx of North Carolina said that 95 percent of the world’s customers now live overseas and that 1.2 million jobs in her state rely on trade. She said that passing trade-promotion authority, or TPA, is in the best economic interests of her state.

“The allegations that TPA is something for President Obama is false,” she said.

In a big loss for Obama, the House voted overwhelming last week to reject trade-adjustment assistance for American workers who lose their jobs as a result of global trade.

A majority of House Democrats fell in line behind House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi of California, who said that voting against trade-adjustment assistance was the only way to defeat trade-promotion authority.

The Senate passed trade-promotion authority, also known as fast-track authority, last month.

Under fast-track rules, Congress could not amend or filibuster a trade pact once it’s negotiated and submitted for approval.

Critics say that would give too much authority to Obama, while backers of trade-promotion authority say it would be the best way to gain concessions from foreign governments at the negotiating table.

Boehner told reporters Tuesday that he has talked with Obama several times, “trying to find a way to move ahead.”

“No decisions have been made, but when we have one, we’ll let you know,” he said.

Read more here: http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2015/06/16/270075/us-house-votes-to-buy-more-time.html#storylink=cpy

TiSA: A Secret Trade Agreement That Will Usurp America’s Authority to Make Immigration Policy

Proponents of Trade Promotion Authority (aka fast-track trade negotiating authority), which the House of Representatives will likely vote on soon, have made an unequivocal promise that future trade agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will explicitly exclude any provisions that would require a change to U.S. immigration law, regulations, policy, or practices. Many members of Congress in both parties have expressed concern that trade agreements might limit America’s ability to set immigration policy. Republican congressmen Paul Ryan and Robert Goodlatte have responded by explicitly assuring members of their party that there will be no immigration provisions in any trade bill.

U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman has stated in an interrogatory with Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) and via letter that nothing is being negotiated in the TPP that “would require any modification to U.S. immigration law or policy or any changes to the U.S. visa system.”

Furthermore, just a few weeks ago, the Senate Finance Committee released a statement titled “TPA Drives High-Quality Trade Agreements, Not Immigration Law: The Administration Has No Authority Under TPA or Any Pending Trade Agreement to Unilaterally Change U.S. Immigration Laws,” and the committee’s May 12 report on the Fast Track bill that was eventually passed by the full Senate contained this relevant language:

For many years, Congress has made it abundantly clear that international trade agreements should not change, nor require any change, to U.S. immigration law and practice…

The Committee continues to believe that it is not appropriate to negotiate in a trade agreement any provision that would (1) require changes to U.S. immigration law, regulations, policy, or practice; (2) accord immigration-related benefits to parties to trade agreements; (3) commit the United States to keep unchanged, with respect to nationals of parties to trade agreements, one or more existing provisions of U.S. immigration law, policy, or practice; or (4) expand to additional countries immigration-related commitments already made by the United States in earlier trade agreements.

Congress’ intent could not be any clearer, but there’s strong evidence to doubt that these assurances will be upheld. If you read these statements closely, you’ll see that most of them concern only the TPP and its lack of impact on immigration policy. But the Trade in Services Agreement, or “TiSA”—another trade deal being negotiated in secret by the Obama administration—is another story; there is little doubt that it will constrain the future ability of the United States Congress to regulate U.S. immigration policy. In fact, deregulating the U.S. work visa system, and therefore opening it up to foreign corporations that provide services (as opposed to goods) is the explicit purpose of an entire annex (section) in TiSA, entitled “Movement of Natural Persons.” The text was heretofore secret until Wikileaks published it on its website last week.

It should be noted that much of the text is a proposed draft for negotiation, and within the text, numerous parts of specific provisions are bracketed to denote which countries support or oppose particular sections or language within sections. But the thrust of the text in the annex is clear. For example, Article 4 is about the schedules (i.e., lists) of commitments that countries will have to put together regarding the “Entry and Temporary Stay of Natural Persons,” and a proposed version of Article 4, Section 2 would prohibit member states from “maintain[ing] or adopt[ing] Economic Needs Tests, including labor market tests, as a requirement for a visa or work permit” in the sectors where commitments are made. (In other words, U.S. laws or regulations limiting guestworkers only to jobs where no U.S. workers were available would violate the terms of the treaty.)

Proposed draft Article 5, Section 1 then requires that “Each Party shall take market access and national treatment commitments for intra-corporate transferees, business visitors and categories delinked from commercial presence: contractual service suppliers and independent professionals.” Section 3 gets more specific about the sectors of the economy where member states will have to allow access to intra-corporate transferees, business visitors, contractual service suppliers, and independent professionals:

3. Subject to any terms, limitations, conditions and qualifications that the Party sets out in its Schedule, Parties shall allow entry and temporary stay of [contractual service suppliers and independent professionals3] for a minimum of [X%] of the following sectors/sub-sectors:

Professional services:

  1. Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services (CPC 862)
  2. Architectural services (CPC 8671)
  3. Engineering services (CPC 8672)
  4. Integrated engineering services (CPC 8673)
  5. Urban planning and landscape architectural services (CPC 8674)
  6. Medical & dental services (CPC 9312)
  7. Veterinary services (CPC 932)
  8. Services provided by midwives, nurses, physiotherapists and paramedical personnel (CPC 93191)

Computer and related services:

  1. Consultancy services related to the installation of computer hardware (CPC 841)
  2. Software implementation services (CPC 842)
  3. Data processing services (CPC 843)
  4. Data base services (CPC 844)
  5. Other (CPC 845+849)

Research and Development services:

  1. R&D services on natural sciences (CPC 851)
  2. R&D services on social sciences and humanities (CPC 852)
  3. Interdisciplinary R&D services (CPC 853)

Other business services

  1. Advertising services (CPC 871)
  2. Market research and public opinion polling services (CPC 864)
  3. Management consulting services (CPC 865)
  4. Services related to management consulting (CPC 866)
  5. Technical testing & analysis services (CPC 8676)
  6. [CH propose: Services incidental to manufacturing]
  7. Related scientific and technical consulting services (CPC 8675)
  8. Maintenance and repair of equipment (not including maritime vessels, aircraft or other transport equipment) (CPC 633 + 8861-8866)
  9. Specialty design services (CPC 87907)

Construction and related engineering services:

  1. General construction work for buildings (CPC 512)
  2. General construction work for civil engineering (CPC 513)
  3. Installation and assembly work (CPC514+516)
  4. Building completion and finishing work (CPC 517)
  5. Other (CPC 511+515+518)

Environmental services:

  1. Sewage services (CPC 9401)
  2. Refuse disposal services (CPC 9402)
  3. Sanitation and similar services (CPC 9403)
  4. Other

[CH propose: Financial Services]

[CH propose: Financial advisors]

Tourism and travel related services:

  1. Hotels and Restaurants (CPC Ex. 641)
  2. Travel Agencies and Tour Operators services (CPC 7471)
  3. Tourist Guides services (CPC 7472)

[CH propose: Transport services

[CH propose: Other services auxiliary to all modes of transport CPC]

Recreational, cultural and sporting services:

38. Sporting and other recreational services (CPC 964)

In the United States, this means the L-1 intra-company transferee, B-1 business visitor visa programs, and any other applicable visa programs could be used to permit temporary employees from abroad to work in the United States, and no economic needs tests (i.e., testing the labor market) could ever be imposed by Congress. To translate, that means that foreign firms would not be required to advertise jobs to U.S. workers, or to hire U.S. workers if they were equally or better qualified for job openings in their own country. (It should be noted that the L-1 is already restricted in this way, as a result of the United States’ commitments under the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATS).) These visa programs are already under-regulated and abused by employers, but since neither the L-1 nor the B-1 visa program is numerically limited by law, this means that potentially hundreds of thousands of workers could enter the United States every year to work in these 38 sectors.

This is worrying and problematic, not because there shouldn’t be any foreign competition from service-providing companies in the United States, but because the competitive advantage foreign companies will get from TiSA is the ability to provide cheaper services by importing much cheaper labor to supplant American workers. They’ll do this by paying their workers the much lower salaries they would earn in their home countries (as they often already do in the L-1 and B-1 visa programs), and the United States might even be prohibited in future from imposing minimum or prevailing wage standards (at present, neither the L-1 or B-1 visa program has a minimum or prevailing wage rule).

There is clear precedent for this. The multilateral GATS agreement, to which the United States is a party, includes limits on the U.S. government’s ability to change the rules on H-1B and L-1 guestworker visas. That’s why when Congress wants to raise visa fees, as they did in 2010, the Indian government cries foul and threatens to formally complain to the World Trade Organization. The U.S.-Chile and U.S.-Singapore trade deals also included new guestworker programs similar to the H-1B and constraints on the U.S. government’s ability to set rules on L-1 intracompany transfers.

The TiSA draft annex on Movement of Natural Persons would also likely restrict the ability of the current and future administrations to continue some of the basic immigration procedures it currently follows, such as requiring an in-person interview with L-1 applicants. The draft treaty might even prohibit common sense legislative proposals that Congress has considered over the past few years, including minimum wage rules for companies seeking to hire guestworkers in the L-1 visa program. This is particularly disturbing since the L-1 visa program has been a primary vehicle to facilitate the offshoring of high wage jobs and for replacing American workers with cheaper guestworkers.

TiSA has been written in secret by and for major corporations that will benefit greatly if it becomes law. If the House of Representatives grants the Obama administration the fast-track trade promotion authority it seeks, the authority will be valid for six years, which means TiSA (like TPP) would also get an up-or-down vote in Congress without any amendments—making it very likely to pass and become law without the necessary democratic deliberations on immigration that such major changes should have. The leaked TiSA text makes it clear that contrary to the claims by proponents of fast-track trade promotion authority, the reality is that those voting for fast track are ceding key powers to make immigration law and policy to an unelected group of corporations and foreign governments.

http://www.epi.org/blog/tisa-a-secret-trade-agreement-that-will-usurp-americas-authority-to-make-immigration-policy/

TPP/TISA Will Give Barack Obama Vastly Expanded Immigration Powers Experts Say

The Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) is an international trade agreement between the U.S. and 23 other countries including Turkey, Mexico, Canada, Australia, Pakistan, Taiwan and Israel. The agreement aims at liberalizing the worldwide trade of services such as banking, health care and transport.

TISA is the sibling of the TPP and the TTIP. All are being negotiated in absolute secrecy and it appears that TISA is covered by TPP fast-track authority. TISA has immigration requirements that would allow Barack Obama to play fast and loose with our immigration laws.

Breitbart reported that inside the Obamatrade being debated on Friday, is a chapter that vastly expands Barack Obama’s power over immigration.

The documents released by Wikileaks had not been examined thoroughly but Breitbart brought in experts and they uncovered a serious problem with fast track. Their findings agree with VDare and Immigration Reform who reported on this last week.

TISA (The Trade and Services Agreement) is covered by fast track authority under TPA. The “implication” is that the U.S. intends to be a party to all or some of the provisions of this agreement. The U.S. would be required to “change its immigration laws”, according to Rosemary Jenks of Numbers USA.

Ten pages of TISA deal exclusively with immigration.

Rosemary Jenks, the Director of Government Relations at Numbers USA, said those 10 pages make it absolutely clear that the administration is negotiating immigration.

Since 2003, a Senate resolution said no immigration provision should be in trade agreements. Hillary Clinton voted for this resolution.

The U.S. Trade Representative who wrote TPA told Congress that the “U.S. is not negotiating immigration– or at least is not negotiating any immigration provisions that would require us to change our laws.” That appears to be inaccurate.

On page 4 and 5 of the agreement, about 40 industries are listed where potentially the U.S. visa processes would have to change to accommodate the requirements within the agreement.

There would be no requirement to show there aren’t U.S. workers available for the job.

On page 7 of the agreement, it suggests, “The period of processing applications may not exceed 30 days.”

There wouldn’t be enough time to vet the visas and the U.S. would end up rubber stamping visa approvals.

The application process has a footnote that says face-to-face interviews are too burdensome, yet we know from experience that they are invaluable and the best opportunity to vet the applicants..

On page 4 of the agreement. It only provides an “[X]” where the number of years would be filled in for the entry or temporary stay. That means our 7-year limit would have to change and Obama could do it constitutionally if he has fast-track authority.

TISA also impacts privacy laws.

On June 4th, Immigration Reform also saw red flags throughout the document. In addition to the ones mentioned by Breitbart, they found that the deal creates “a presumption that all spouses of L-1/B-1 visitors who stay for 12 months should also get visas.’

TISA also has “language about “independent professionals” that is very non-specific and it could be an attempt to allow self-petitioning.”

“Finally, the total impact is uncertain because even after the agreement is signed every signatory needs to publish a schedule of industry sectors that they will allow business visitors, contractual service professionals and independent professionals to enter.”

Senator Sessions said that the administration could use the fast-track authority to expand immigration but Paul Ryan said it was an ‘urban legend.” Ryan chairs the House Ways and Means Committee oversees trade. Right now it looks like Senator Sessions was correct.

Barack Obama is a serious and dangerous globalist. If there is any way that he can use these trade agreements to violate our laws and our sovereignty, he will.

TiSA Annex on Movement of Natural Persons

http://www.independentsentinel.com/tpptisa-will-give-barack-obama-vastly-expanded-immigration-powers-experts-say/

REVEALED: THE SECRET IMMIGRATION CHAPTER IN OBAMA’S TRADE AGREEMENT

Discovered inside the huge tranche of secretive Obamatrade documents released by Wikileaks are key details on how technically any Republican voting for Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) that would fast-track trade deals like the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade deal would technically also be voting to massively expand President Obama’s executive authority when it comes to immigration matters.

The mainstream media covered the Wikileaks document dump extensively, but did not mention the immigration chapter contained within it, so Breitbart News took the documents to immigration experts to get their take on it. Nobody has figured how big a deal the documents uncovered by Wikileaks are until now. (See below)

The president’s Trade in Services Act (TiSA) documents, which is one of the three different close-to-completely-negotiated deals that would be fast-tracked making up the president’s trade agreement, show Obamatrade in fact unilaterally alters current U.S. immigration law. TiSA, like TPP or the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) deals, are international trade agreements that President Obama is trying to force through to final approval. The way he can do so is by getting Congress to give him fast-track authority through TPA.

TiSA is even more secretive than TPP. Lawmakers on Capitol Hill can review the text of TPP in a secret, secured room inside the Capitol—and in some cases can bring staffers who have high enough security clearances—but with TiSA, no such draft text is available.

Voting for TPA, of course, would essentially ensure the final passage of each TPP, T-TIP, and TiSA by Congress, since in the history of fast-track any deal that’s ever started on fast-track has been approved.

Roughly 10 pages of this TiSA agreement document leak are specifically about immigration.

“The existence of these ten pages on immigration in the Trade and Services Agreement make it absolutely clear in my mind that the administration is negotiating immigration – and for them to say they are not – they have a lot of explaining to do based on the actual text in this agreement,” Rosemary Jenks, the Director of Government Relations at Numbers USA, told Breitbart News following her review of these documents.

Obama will be able to finalize all three of the Obamatrade deals, without any Congressional input, if Congress grants him fast-track authority by passing TPA. Fast-track lowers the vote thresholds in the Senate and blocks Congress from amending any trade deals—and also, since each of these three deals are pretty much entirely negotiated already, it wouldn’t lead to any more congressional involvement or transparency with each.

The Senate passed the TPA last month, so it is up to the House to put the brakes on Obama’s unilateral power. The House could vote as early as Friday on fast-track, but may head into next week. By all counts, it’s going to be a very tight vote—and may not pass. It remains to be seen what will happen in light of leaks about things like the immigration provisions of TiSA—which deals with 24 separate parties, mostly different nations but also the European Union. It is focused on increasing the free flow of services worldwide—and with that, comes labor. Labor means immigration and guestworkers.

“This Trade and Services Agreement is specifically mentioned in TPA as being covered by fast-track authority, so why would Congress be passing a Trade Promotion Authority Act that covers this agreement, if the U.S. weren’t intended to be a party to this agreement – so at the very least, there should be specific places where the U.S. exempts itself from these provisions and there are not,” explained Jenks.

She emphasized that this is a draft, but at this point “certainly the implication is that the U.S. intends to be a party to all or some of the provisions of this agreement. There is nothing in there that says otherwise, and there is no question in my mind that some of the provisions in this Trade and Services Agreement would require the United States to change its immigration laws.”

In 2003, the Senate unanimously passed a resolution that said no immigration provision should be in trade agreements – and in fact, former Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-NY) voted for this resolution.

The existence of these 10 pages is in clear violation of that earlier unanimous decision, and also in violation of the statements made by the U.S. Trade Representative.

“He has told members of Congress very specifically the U.S. is not negotiating immigration – or at least is not negotiating any immigration provisions that would require us to change our laws. So, unless major changes are made to the Trade and Services Agreement – that is not true,” said Jenks.

There are three examples within the 10 pages of areas where the U.S. would have to alter current immigration law.

First, on page 4 and 5 of the agreement, roughly 40 industries are listed where potentially the U.S. visa processes would have to change to accommodate the requirements within the agreement.

Jenks explained that under the agreement, the terms don’t have an economic needs based test, which currently U.S. law requires for some types of visa applications in order to show there aren’t American workers available to fill positions.

Secondly, on page 7 of the agreement, it suggests, “The period of processing applications may not exceed 30 days.”

Jenks said this is a massive problem for the U.S. because so many visa applications take longer than 30 days.

“We will not be able to meet those requirements without essentially our government becoming a rubber stamp because it very often takes more than 30 days to process a temporary worker visa,” she said.

Jenks also spotted another issue with the application process.

“The fact that there’s a footnote in this agreement that says that face to face interviews are too burdensome … we’re supposed to be doing face to face interviews with applicants for temporary visas,” she added.

“According to the State Department Consular Officer, it’s the in person interviews that really gives the Consular Officer an opportunity to determine – is this person is a criminal, is this person a terrorist … all of those things are more easily determined when you’re sitting face to face with someone and asking those questions.”

The third issue is present on page 4 of the agreement. It only provides an “[X]” where the number of years would be filled in for the entry or temporary stay.

Jenks explained that for example, with L visas under current U.S. immigration law, the time limit is seven years – so if the agreement were to go beyond seven years, it would change current U.S. law.

This wouldn’t be unconstitutional if Obama has fast-track authority under TPA, as Congress would essentially have given him the power to finalize all aspects of the negotiations, including altering immigration law.

“I think this whole thing makes it very clear that this administration is negotiating immigration – intends to make immigration changes if they can get away with it, and I think it’s that much more critical that Congress ensure that the administration does not have the authority to negotiate immigration,” Jenks said.

Breitbart News’ Matthew Boyle contributed to this report.

TiSA Annex on Movement of Natural Persons

http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/06/10/revealed-the-secret-immigration-chapter-in-obamas-trade-agreement/

Secret Immigration Provisions of Trade Deal Revealed by Wikileaks

//

// g?c=a+f+c:(g+=f.length,f=a.indexOf(“&”,g),c=0<=f?a.substring(0,g)+c+a.substring(f):a.substring(0,g)+c)}return 2E3<c.length?void 0!==d?r(a,b,d,void 0,e):a:c};var ba=function(){var a=/[&\?]exk=([^& ]+)/.exec(t.location.href);return a&&2==a.length?a[1]:null};var ca=function(a){var b=a.toString();a.name&&-1==b.indexOf(a.name)&&(b+=”: “+a.name);a.message&&-1==b.indexOf(a.message)&&(b+=”: “+a.message);if(a.stack){a=a.stack;var c=b;try{-1==a.indexOf(c)&&(a=c+”\n”+a);for(var d;a!=d;)d=a,a=a.replace(/((https?:\/..*\/)[^\/:]*:\d+(?:.|\n)*)\2/,”$1″);b=a.replace(/\n */g,”\n”)}catch(e){b=c}}return b},u=function(a,b){a.google_image_requests||(a.google_image_requests=[]);var c=a.document.createElement(“img”);c.src=b;a.google_image_requests.push(c)};var v=document,t=window;var da=String.prototype.trim?function(a){return a.trim()}:function(a){return a.replace(/^[\s\xa0]+|[\s\xa0]+$/g,””)},ea=function(a,b){return ab?1:0};var w=null,fa=function(a,b){for(var c in a)Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(a,c)&&b.call(null,a[c],c,a)};function x(a){return”function”==typeof encodeURIComponent?encodeURIComponent(a):escape(a)}var ga=function(){if(!v.body)return!1;if(!w){var a=v.createElement(“iframe”);a.style.display=”none”;a.id=”anonIframe”;w=a;v.body.appendChild(a)}return!0},ha={};var ia=!0,ja={},ma=function(a,b,c,d){var e=ka,f,g=ia;try{f=b()}catch(k){try{var q=ca(k);b=””;k.fileName&&(b=k.fileName);var E=-1;k.lineNumber&&(E=k.lineNumber);g=e(a,q,b,E,c)}catch(l){try{var y=ca(l);a=””;l.fileName&&(a=l.fileName);c=-1;l.lineNumber&&(c=l.lineNumber);ka(“pAR”,y,a,c,void 0,void 0)}catch(ya){la({context:”mRE”,msg:ya.toString()+”\n”+(ya.stack||””)},void 0)}}if(!g)throw k;}finally{if(d)try{d()}catch(ub){}}return f},ka=function(a,b,c,d,e,f){var g={};if(e)try{e(g)}catch(k){}g.context=a;g.msg=b.substring(0,512);c&&(g.file=c);0<d&&(g.line=d.toString());g.url=v.URL.substring(0,512);g.ref=v.referrer.substring(0,512);na(g);la(g,f);return ia},la=function(a,b){try{if(Math.random()c?Math.max(0,a.length+c):c;if(n(a))return n(b)&&1==b.length?a.indexOf(b,c):-1;for(;c<a.length;c++)if(c in a&&a[c]===b)return c;return-1},qa=A.map?function(a,b,c){return A.map.call(a,b,c)}:function(a,b,c){for(var d=a.length,e=Array(d),f=n(a)?a.split(“”):a,g=0;g<d;g++)g in f&&(e[g]=b.call(c,f[g],g,a));return e};var ra=function(a,b){for(var c in a)b.call(void 0,a[c],c,a)},sa=function(a){var b=arguments.length;if(1==b&&”array”==m(arguments[0]))return sa.apply(null,arguments[0]);for(var c={},d=0;dparseFloat(a))?String(b):a}(),Ca={},Da=function(a){if(!Ca[a]){for(var b=0,c=da(String(Ba)).split(“.”),d=da(String(a)).split(“.”),e=Math.max(c.length,d.length),f=0;0==b&&f<e;f++){var g=c[f]||””,k=d[f]||””,q=RegExp(“(\\d*)(\\D*)”,”g”),E=RegExp(“(\\d*)(\\D*)”,”g”);do{var l=q.exec(g)||[“”,””,””],y=E.exec(k)||[“”,””,””];if(0==l[0].length&&0==y[0].length)break;b=ea(0==l[1].length?0:parseInt(l[1],10),0==y[1].length?0:parseInt(y[1],10))||ea(0==l[2].length,0==y[2].length)||ea(l[2],y[2])}while(0==b)}Ca[a]=0<=b}},Ea=h.document,Fa=Aa(),Ga=!Ea||!D||!Fa&&C()?void 0:Fa||(“CSS1Compat”==Ea.compatMode?parseInt(Ba,10):5);var Ha={i:947190538,j:947190541,l:947190542,g:79463068,h:79463069},Ia={f:”ud=1″,o:”ts=1″,m:”sc=1″,c:”gz=1”};if(v&&v.URL)var F=v.URL,ia=!(F&&(0<F.indexOf(“?google_debug”)||0<F.indexOf(“&google_debug”)||0=b)){var d=0,e=function(){a();d++;db;){if(c.google_osd_static_frame)return c;if(c.aswift_0&&(!a||c.aswift_0.google_osd_static_frame))return c.aswift_0;b++;c=c!=c.parent?c.parent:null}}catch(e){}return null},Na=function(a,b,c,d,e){if(10<La)t.clearInterval(L);else if(++La,t.postMessage&&(b.b||b.a)){var f=Ma(!0);if(f){var g={};I(b,g);g[0]=”goog_request_monitoring”;g[6]=a;g[16]=c;d&&d.length&&(g[17]=d.join(“,”));e&&(g[19]=e);try{var k=K(g);f.postMessage(k,”*”)}catch(q){}}}},Oa=function(a){var b=Ma(!1),c=!b;!b&&t&&(b=t.parent);if(b&&b.postMessage)try{b.postMessage(a,”*”),c&&t.postMessage(a,”*”)}catch(d){}};sa(“area base br col command embed hr img input keygen link meta param source track wbr”.split(” “));var M=function(a,b){this.width=a;this.height=b};var Pa;if(!(Pa=!wa&&!D)){var Qa;if(Qa=D)Qa=D&&(C()||9<=Ga);Pa=Qa}Pa||wa&&Da(“1.9.1”);D&&Da(“9″);D&&Da(12);var Sa=function(){var a=t.parent&&t.parent!=t,b=a&&0<=”//tpc.googlesyndication.com”.indexOf(t.location.host);if(a&&t.name&&0==t.name.indexOf(“google_ads_iframe”)||b){var c;a=t||t;try{var d;if(a.document&&!a.document.body)d=new M(-1,-1);else{var e=(a||window).document,f=”CSS1Compat”==e.compatMode?e.documentElement:e.body;d=new M(f.clientWidth,f.clientHeight)}c=d}catch(g){c=new M(-12245933,-12245933)}return Ra(c)}c=t.document.getElementsByTagName(“SCRIPT”);return 0<c.length&&(c=c[c.length-1],c.parentElement&&c.parentElement.id&&0<c.parentElement.id.indexOf(“_ad_container”))?Ra(void 0,c.parentElement):null},Ra=function(a,b){var c=Ta(“IMG”,a,b);return c||(c=Ta(“IFRAME”,a,b))?c:(c=Ta(“OBJECT”,a,b))?c:null},Ta=function(a,b,c){var d=document;c=c||d;d=a&&”*”!=a?a.toUpperCase():””;c=c.querySelectorAll&&c.querySelector&&d?c.querySelectorAll(d+””):c.getElementsByTagName(d||”*”);for(d=0;d<c.length;d++){var e=c[d];if(“OBJECT”==a)a:{var f=e.getAttribute(“height”);if(null!=f&&0<f&&0==e.clientHeight)for(var f=e.children,g=0;g<f.length;g++){var k=f[g];if(“OBJECT”==k.nodeName||”EMBED”==k.nodeName){e=k;break a}}}f=e.clientHeight;g=e.clientWidth;if(k=b)k=new M(g,f),k=Math.abs(b.width-k.width)<.1*b.width&&Math.abs(b.height-k.height)<.1*b.height;if(k||!b&&10<f&&10<g)return e}return null};var Ua,N=0,O=””,P=!1,Q=!1,R=!1,Va=!0,Wa=!1,S=!1,T=0,Xa=[],J=null,Ya=””,Za=[],$a=null,ab=[],bb=!1,U=””,V=””,cb=(new Date).getTime(),db=!1,eb=””,fb=!1,gb=[“1″,”0″,”3″],W=0,X=0,hb=0,ib=””,jb=function(a,b,c){P&&(Va||3!=(c||3)||S)&&Y(a,b,!0);(R||Q&&Wa)&&Y(a,b)},kb=function(){var a=$a;return a?2!=a():!0},Y=function(a,b,c){if((b=b||Ya)&&!bb&&(2==X||c)&&kb()){var d;d=c?”osdim”:R?”osd2″:”osdtos”;var e=[“//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/activeview”,”?id=”,d];”osd2″==d&&Q&&Wa&&e.push(“&ts=1”);O&&e.push(“&avi=”,O);Ua&&e.push(“&cid=”,Ua);e.push(“&ti=1”);e.push(“&”,b);e.push(“&uc=”+hb);db?e.push(“&tgt=”+eb):e.push(“&tgt=nf”);e.push(“&cl=”+(fb?1:0));b=e.join(“”);for(d=0;d<Za.length;d++){try{var f=Za[d]()}catch(g){}e=”max_length”;2<=f.length&&(3==f.length&&(e=f[2]),b=r(b,x(f[0]),x(f[1]),e))}2E3<b.length&&(b=b.substring(0,2E3));u(a,b);c?P=!1:bb=!0}},Z=function(a,b){if(U){try{var c=r(U,”vi”,a);ga()&&u(w.contentWindow,c)}catch(d){}0<=pa(gb,a)&&(U=””);var c=b||Ya,e;e=r(“//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/gen_204?id=sldb”,”avi”,O);e=r(e,”vi”,a);c&&(e+=”&”+c);try{u(t,e)}catch(f){}}},lb=function(){Z(“-1”)},nb=function(a){if(a&&a.data&&n(a.data)){var b;var c=a.data;if(n(c)){b={};for(var c=c.split(“\n”),d=0;d=e)){var f=Number(c[d].substr(0,e)),e=c[d].substr(e+1);switch(f){case 5:case 8:case 11:case 15:case 16:case 18:e=”true”==e;break;case 4:case 7:case 6:case 14:e=Number(e);break;case 3:case 19:if(“function”==m(decodeURIComponent))try{e=decodeURIComponent(e)}catch(g){throw Error(“Error: URI malformed: “+e);}break;case 17:e=qa(decodeURIComponent(e).split(“,”),Number)}b[f]=e}}b=b[0]?b:null}else b=null;if(b&&(c=new H(b[4],b[12]),J&&J.match(c))){for(c=0;cW&&!Q&&2==X&&ob(t,”osd2″,”hs=”+W)},qb=function(){var a={};I(J,a);a[0]=”goog_dom_content_loaded”;var b=K(a);try{Ja(function(){Oa(b)},10,”osd_listener::ldcl_int”)}catch(c){}},rb=function(){var a={};I(J,a);a[0]=”goog_creative_loaded”;var b=K(a);Ja(function(){Oa(b)},10,”osd_listener::lcel_int”);fb=!0},sb=function(a){if(n(a)){a=a.split(“&”);for(var b=a.length-1;0<=b;b–){var c=a[b],d=Ia;c==d.f?(Va=!1,a.splice(b,1)):c==d.c&&(T=1,a.splice(b,1))}ib=a.join(“&”)}},tb=function(){if(!db){var a=Sa();a&&(db=!0,eb=a.tagName,a.complete||a.naturalWidth?rb():G(a,”load”,rb,”osd_listener::creative_load”))}};p(“osdlfm”,z(“osd_listener::init”,function(a,b,c,d,e,f,g,k,q,E){N=a;U=b;V=d;P=f;Ua=E;k&&sb(k);Q=g&&f;1!=q&&2!=q&&3!=q||Xa.push(Ha[“MRC_TEST_”+q]);J=new H(e,ba());G(t,”load”,lb,”osd_listener::load”);G(t,”message”,nb,”osd_listener::message”);O=c||””;G(t,”unload”,pb,”osd_listener::unload”);var l=t.document;!l.readyState||”complete”!=l.readyState&&”loaded”!=l.readyState?(“msie”in ha?ha.msie:ha.msie=-1!=navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase().indexOf(“msie”))&&!window.opera?G(l,”readystatechange”,function(){“complete”!=l.readyState&&”loaded”!=l.readyState||qb()},”osd_listener::rsc”):G(l,”DOMContentLoaded”,qb,”osd_listener::dcl”):qb();-1==N?X=f?3:1:-2==N?X=3:0

GOP LEADERSHIP’S LATEST OBAMATRADE PLOY REVEALED: SMALL BUSINESS TAX HIKE THAT VIOLATES GOP’S ANTI-TAX PLEDGE

Establishment Republicans desperately trying to secure the passage of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), which would give President Obama fast-track authority to secure congressional approval of at least three secretive trade deals, are now willing to increase taxes on small businesses in a way that would violate a pledge almost every Republican Congressman has taken when elected into office.

To secure final passage through Congress of a package that would include TPA fast-track authority—which would ensure finalization of the secretive Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP), Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) and Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA), among other deals—the House would need to pass the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) package that was necessary for Senate passage of TPA. The House voted TAA down 302-126 with widespread bipartisan opposition to last week, but House Ways and Means Committee chairman

Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI)

58%

and his allies in House GOP leadership have pledged that they will try to pass it again early next week. The vote would potentially be on Monday, but more likely on Tuesday—and if there is no vote by Tuesday, it’s unlikely that Ryan will be able to succeed in his ploy to revive TPA.

TAA is a big government program usually favored by Democrats—it increases the size and scope of government, and is essentially viewed by Republicans as a welfare program—so their opposition to it during Friday’s complicated and confusing House vote schedule was not opposition to TAA as a specific concept, but opposition to the full Obamatrade package, especially TPA.

House Minority Leader

Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

9%

gave a blistering floor speech against the full Obamatrade deal, causing a Democratic rebellion against TAA—and forcing Ryan to push Republicans to vote for that part of the package.

TAA was originally supposed to be financed with Medicare cuts – which sparked major outrage, and cries of hypocrisy in what would have certainly turned into boldly negative campaign advertisements against Republicans by Democrats this next cycle. But under pressure, Republican leadership, mainly Boehner and Ryan, negotiated with Democrats to remove the Medicare cuts from the financial backing of TAA and instead using direct tax hikes by raising the penalties for misfiled taxes.

“A vote for Obamatrade on Tuesday is a vote to give the IRS more power and more incentives to go after small businesses,” said Curtis Ellis, founder of the Obamatrade.com website, in an exclusive interview with Breitbart News.

Democrats overwhelmingly opposed TAA Friday after Pelosi voiced opposition to giving President Obama fast-track trade authority.

“So while I am a big supporter of TAA, if TAA slows down the fast-track, I am prepared to vote against the TAA because then its defeat, sad to say, is the only way that we will be able to slow down the fast-track,” Pelosi said just minutes before the crucial vote. She concluded: “The facts are these: If TAA fails, the fast-track bill is stopped.”

“It’s pretty outrageous what is called for in this bill that Congress is going to vote on Tuesday – it literally doubles and triples the taxes on small businesses,” explained Ellis.

Ellis spent hours researching this legislation and explained to Breitbart News how it could impact small business taxes if Congress passes the TAA during its vote on Tuesday.

“Small businesses that are already over-burdened with IRS paperwork will be penalized even further if they make a technical mistake on filing informational paperwork,” he said. “There’s a lot of dishonesty going on when the bill is described as raising the fines on tax violations. That’s dishonest because the fines aren’t for people who failed to pay their taxes, the fines are on businesses that for no fault of their own, they forget to fie a piece of paperwork telling the IRS how much someone else owes on their taxes.”

“It’s outrageous that Republicans who complain all the time – rightfully so – about the IRS’s overreach and over burdening small business are actually increasing the incentive for the IRS to spy on people – to spy on small businesses,” he added.

Essentially, as explained by Ellis, any time a small business paid an independent contractor or freelancer a commission or any tips, it must be reported to the IRS with a 1099 form, which a copy is also sent to the contractor or freelancer. If the small business is late in filing this form, then it is fined by the IRS. The proposal Tuesday, as it stands, would double and triple these fines.

“It is the height of cynicism for Congress to plan on paying for a welfare program for unions by increasing the penalties for small businesses,” Ellis reacted.

President of Americans for Limited Government Rick Manning agrees with Ellis about this increasing penalty being a tax increase on small businesses.

“There is no question that raising the penalty on small businesses who commit a paperwork error is a tax increase. It is directly intended to raise revenues, so it can’t be considered anything else. For Republican leadership to ask their members to vote to raise taxes on small business to fund a union bailout that Big Labor doesn’t want is both horrific policy and terrible politics,” Manning told Breitbart News.

This program was so unpopular with both Democrats and Republicans that they removed it from Obamacare.

“This is very similar to one of the ways Obamacare was going to be paid for – as Obamacare was enacted they were looking for revenue to pay for it by increasing the penalties on small businesses who failed to file 1099 forms – that was repealed because it was so unpopular,” Ellis said. “Republicans led the charge in repealing it and now they’re the ones leading the charge to once again increase the penalties in already burdensome paperwork for the IRS.”

Therefore, the Republicans that voted for TAA Friday, essentially voted to finance TAA at the expense of increasing small business taxes – a direct violation of the Grover Norquist tax pledge, which many Republican Congressmen took, pledging to the American public not to raise any more taxes.

Norquist, President of Americans for Tax Reform, a group for taxpayer advocacy to limit size of government, organized the Taxpayer Protection Pledge. The pledge asks all politicians for both federal and state office to sign the pledge, committing themselves to oppose tax increases.

“This is clearly a tax increase – and it’s a violation of Grover Norquist’s no tax increase pledge that most of these Congressmen signed,” Ellis said. “This legislation assumes that there are small businesses out there that will fail to file the 1099 form and will therefore have to pay a fine.”

“It assumes small businesses will be forced to pay the IRS and then it goes further and says ‘let’s make them pay more’ – it doubles and triples the fines,” he argued.

Nearly every elected Republican in America—with rare exception—has signed Norquist’s anti-tax pledge. As such, the 86 Republicans who voted to raise small business taxes through the TAA on Friday most likely did as well.

ATR spokesman John Kartch told Breitbart News he doesn’t think TAA as it’s structured now in the House is a tax and that it does not violate the tax pledge—but that ATR is vehemently opposed to the program and is recommending all Republicans vote against it. That means ATR is in agreement with other groups from a more conservative perspective—albeit for slightly different reasons—on this matter, and won’t back down to help Obamatrade across the finish line.

“The Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) is, like most government jobs training programs, a well intentioned, but flawed program,” Kartch said in an email on Sunday night.

“Americans for Tax Reform opposes the TAA program and any increase in funding for it. The TAA is tied to the Trade Promotion Authority designed to facilitate trade agreements that reduce tariffs. Tariffs are taxes. For most of our nation’s history our national government was largely funded by tariffs. The increases in fines for not filing 1099s are not tax hikes. Tax increases come from changes in tax law. ATR opposes the increase in the fines. Not every stupid move by government is a tax. Civil asset forfeiture is a vicious misuse of government power — but it is not a tax. Excise taxes are taxes and the bottom line of the drive to expand free trade is that — even with silly ‘bribes’ to Democrats like the TAA –freer trade driven by tariff reductions will reduce the taxes paid by American consumers and increase the nation’s economic strength. As has happened with every tariff reduction in our history.”

This is extraordinarily significant, since Norquist and his organization did support the TPA portion of Obamatrade, but the public opposition to its TAA portion means it’s unlikely any GOP votes will budge if and when leadership brings up TAA again next week. In fact, if any Republicans change their votes, they’re likely to switch from voting in favor of TAA to against it so not to violate their pledge.

Ellis, Manning and Norquist are hardly the only influential right-of-center figures opposing TAA.

“Regardless of how TAA is financed, it is a wasteful ineffective program that undermines the virtues of free trade,” Dan Holler, Communications Director for Heritage Action for America, told Breitbart News.

Heritage Action and Club for Growth – a conservative group – both oppose the TAA program saying it’s a wasteful welfare program. Heritage Action scored against TPA and TAA, but Club For Growth supported—like ATR—TPA but not TAA.

When TAA went down in the House last week, only 86 Republicans voted for it—and they were joined by just 40 Democrats.

A whopping 158 Republicans joined 144 Democrats to oppose TAA. To pass TAA this week, the only way to truly keep Obamatrade alive without having to go through a grueling conference committee strategy that would likely lead to even more lost votes on both the House and Senate side when they would vote on an eventual conference report, the establishment would need to pick up 92 votes to get to 218.

That seems highly unlikely, given that the widespread GOP opposition and the revelation that voting for this TAA portion is technically voting for a tax increase. That alone is likely to keep the 158 Republican noes in their column and probably add GOP opposition as several of the 86 GOP ayes are likely to change their votes to oppose it as Democrat opposition is getting stronger too. On Sunday, former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton—the likely eventual Democrat nominee for president in 2016—urged Democrats to trust Pelosi and oppose granting Obama fast track trade authority until a good deal is assured.

“The president should listen to and work with his allies in Congress, starting with

Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

9%

,” Clinton said in Iowa.

If TAA were to pass—which is even more unlikely now that there’s probably not going to be any Democrat or GOP defections into supporting it—then so does TPA. The bills would move on to President Obama’s desk together, giving him fast-track authority to finalize his trade deals without any amendments to his deals by Congress.

Ryan’s office has not responded to a request for comment in response to these revelations about Obamatrade’s tax increases.

http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/06/14/gop-leaderships-latest-obamatrade-ploy-revealed-small-business-tax-hike-that-violates-gops-anti-tax-pledge/

 Trade in Services Agreement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) is a proposed international trade treaty between 24 Parties, including the European Union and the United States. The agreement aims at liberalizing the worldwide trade of services such as banking, health care and transport.[1] Criticism about the secrecy of the agreement arose after WikiLeaks released in June 2014 a classified draft of the proposal’s financial services annex, dated the previous April.[2]

Origin

Parties to Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)

The process was an initiative of the United States. It was proposed to a group of countries meeting in Geneva and called the Really Good Friends. All negotiating meetings take place in Geneva. The EU and the US are the main proponents of the agreement, and the authors of most joint changes. The participating countries started crafting the proposed agreement in February 2012[3] and presented initial offers at the end of 2013.[4]

Proposed Agreement

The agreement covers about 70% of the global services economy. Its aim is privatizing the worldwide trade of services such as banking, healthcare and transport.[1][5] Services comprise 75% of American economic output; in EU states, almost 75% of its employment and gross domestic product.[6]

Once a particular trade barrier has unilaterally been removed, it cannot be reintroduced. This proposal is known as the ‘ratchet clause’.[7]

European Union

The EU has stated that companies outside its borders will not be allowed to provide publicly funded healthcare or social services.[7]

Market access for publicly-funded health, social services and education, water services, film or TV will not be taken. Therefore, the ‘racket clause’ will not apply.[7]

Parties involved

Initially having 16 members, the TISA has expanded to include 24 parties. Since the European Union represents 28 member states, there are 51 countries represented.[8] The number of countries represented in each continent are: 32 in Europe, 7 in Asia, 5 in North America, 5 in South America, and 2 in Oceania. The 24 TiSA parties in order of their income categories are:[9]

Income Group Parties
High Income Countries  Australia
 Canada
 Chile
 Hong Kong
 Iceland
 Israel
 Japan
 South Korea
 Liechtenstein
 New Zealand
 Norway
  Switzerland
 Taiwan
 United States
 Uruguay
 European Union
Upper Middle Income Countries  Colombia
 Costa Rica
 Mexico
 Panama
 Peru
 Turkey
Lower Middle Income Countries  Pakistan
 Paraguay

Controversy

The agreement has been criticized for the secrecy around the negotiation. The cover page of the negotiating document leaked by Wikileaks says: “Declassify on: Five years from entry into force of the TISA agreement or, if no agreement enters into force, five years from the close of the negotiations.”[2] Because of this practice it is not possible to be informed about the liberalizing rules that the participating countries propose for the future agreement. Only Switzerland has a practice of making public on the Internet all the proposals it submitted to the other parties since June 2012.[3] European Union published its “offer” for TISA only in July 2014,[10]after the Wikileaks disclosure.

Digital rights advocates have also brought attention to the fact that the agreement has provisions which would significantly weaken existing data protection provisions in signatory countries. In particular, the agreement would strip existing protections which aim to keep confidential or personally identifiable data within country borders or which prohibit its movement to other countries which do not have similar data protection laws in place.[11]

The agreement bans government mandates for use of open source software, stating “No Party may require the transfer of, or access to, source code of software owned by a person of another Party, as a condition of providing services related to such software in its territory.”[12] The open source word processing application LibreOffice has been deployed by many local governments throughout the EU to save money.[13][14][15][16]

Analysis

A preliminary analysis of the Financial Services Annex by prominent free trade critic Professor Jane Kelsey, Faculty of Law, University of Auckland, New Zealandwas published with the WikiLeaks release.[17]

The Public Services International (PSI) organization described TISA as:

a treaty that would further liberalize trade and investment in services, and expand “regulatory disciplines” on all services sectors, including many public services. The “disciplines,” or treaty rules, would provide all foreign providers access to domestic markets at “no less favorable” conditions as domestic suppliers and would restrict governments’ ability to regulate, purchase and provide services. This would essentially change the regulation of many public and privatized or commercial services from serving the public interest to serving the profit interests of private, foreign corporations.[18]

One concern is the provisions regarding retention of business records. David Cay Johnston said, “It is … hard to make the case that the cost of keeping a duplicate record at the home office in a different country is a burden.” He noted that business records requirements are sufficiently important that they were codified in law even before the Code of Hammurabi.[19]

Impacts of the law may include “whether people can get loans or buy insurance and at what prices as well as what jobs may be available.”[19]

Dr. Patricia Ranald, a research associate at the University of Sydney, said:

“Amendments from the US are seeking to end publicly provided services like public pension funds, which are referred to as ‘monopolies’ and to limit public regulation of all financial services … They want to freeze financial regulation at existing levels, which would mean that governments could not respond to new developments like another global financial crisis.”[20]

Regarding the secrecy of the draft, Professor Kelsey commented: “The secrecy of negotiating documents exceeds even the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement(TPP) and runs counter to moves in the WTO towards greater openness.”[17] Johnston adds, “It is impossible to obey a law or know how it affects you when the law is secret.”[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Dorling, Philip. “Medical tourism’ plan revealed: Australia leads top secret push for globalisation of healthcare”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved6 February 2015.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Wikileaks (19 June 2014). “Secret Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) – Financial Services Annex”. Wikileaks.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b “Trade in Services Agreement (TISA)”. State Secretariat for Economic Affairs. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  4. Jump up^ “Trade in Services Agreement (TISA)”. Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. Retrieved 3 July 2014..
  5. Jump up^ Palmer, Daniel (30 June 2014). “Major banking shake-up ahead”. The Australian. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  6. Jump up^ “U.S. says basic outline in place for international services trade deal”. Reuters. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Questions and answers”. European Commission. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  8. Jump up^ “Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)”. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade website – http://www.dfat.gov.au. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  9. Jump up^ Amit Sengupta (27 July 2014). “Trading Away Access to Public Services”.People’s Democracy. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  10. Jump up^ The EU publishes TiSA position papers, Brussels, 22 July 2014, Retrieved 2014-09-03
  11. Jump up^ “LEAKED: Secret Negotiations to Let Big Brother Go Global”. Wolf Street. Don Quijones. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  12. Jump up^ Glyn Moody (4 June 2015). “WikiLeaks releases secret TISA docs: The more evil sibling of TTIP and TPP”. Ars Technica.
  13. Jump up^ https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/news/mayor-munich-eu-laptops-should-have-libreoffice-or-openoffice
  14. Jump up^ “Munich shifts to LibreOffice”. ITworld. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February2014.
  15. Jump up^ “Toulouse saves 1 million euro with LibreOffice”. Joinup. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  16. Jump up^ “Moving to LibreOffice saves Toulouse 1 million”.
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b Professor Jane Kelsey (19 June 2014). “Memorandum on Leaked TISA Financial Services Text”. Wikileaks.
  18. Jump up^ “Meet TISA: Another Major Treaty Negotiated In Secret Alongside TPP And TTIP”. Techdirt. 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Johnston, David Cay. “Thanks to WikiLeaks, public can debate alarming new trade deal”. Al Jazeera America. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
  20. Jump up^ Hanai, Toru (2014-06-19). “Secret trade agreement covering 68 percent of world services published by WikiLeaks — RT USA”. Russia Today. Retrieved2014-07-03.

External links[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_in_Services_Agreement

Visa policy of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A US visa specimen

Entry passport stamp for the United States issued to a citizen of Canada by the U.S. Customs and Border Protectionat San Francisco International Airport.

The visa policy of the United States deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter the United States must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel to, enter and remain in the country. Visitors to the United States must obtain a visa from one of the United States diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or Visa Waiver Program countries. The same rules apply to Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands while slightly different rules apply to Guam, Northern Mariana Islands and American Samoa.[1]

The United States gives a visitor visa exemption to:

Overview

United States Visas were issued to 8.9 million foreign nationals visiting the United States and to 482,000 immigrants in 2012.[2] A foreign national wishing to enter the U.S. must obtain a visa unless he or she is

There are separate requirements for Mexican citizens.[3]

While there are about 185 different types of visas,[4] there are two main categories of U.S. visas:

  • Nonimmigrant visa – for temporary visits such as for tourism, business, work or studying.
  • Immigrant visa – for people to immigrate to the United States. At the port of entry, the immigrant visa holder is processed for a permanent resident card (I-551, a.k.a. green card). Upon endorsement (CBP admission stamp) it serves as temporary I-551 evidencing permanent residence for 1 year.

In order to immigrate, one should either have an immigrant visa or have a dual intent visa, which is one that is compatible with making a concurrent application for permanent resident status, or having an intention to apply for permanent residence.

Entering the U.S. on an employment visa may be described as a three-step process in most cases.[4] First, the employer files an application with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services requesting a particular type of category visa for a specific individual.[4] If the employer’s application is approved, it only authorizes the individual to apply for a visa; the approved application is not actually a visa.[4] The individual then applies for a visa and is usually interviewed at a U.S. embassy or consulate in the native country.[4] ƒIf the embassy or consulate gives the visa, the individual is then allowed to travel to the U.S.[4] At the border crossing, airport, or other point of entry into the U.S., the individual speaks with an officer from U.S. Customs and Border Protection to ask to admission to the U.S.[4] If approved, the individual may then enter the U.S.[4]

Contrary to a popular misconception, a U.S. visa does not authorize the alien‘s entry to the United States, nor does it authorize the alien’s stay in the U.S. in a particular status. A U.S. visa only serves as a preliminary permission given to the alien to travel to the United States and to seek admission to the United States at a designated port of entry.[5] The final admission to the United States in a particular status and for a particular period of time is made at the port of entry by a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officer. For aliens entering the U.S. in a nonimmigrant visa status these details are recorded by the CBP officer on the alien’sForm I-94 (Form I-94W for citizens of the Visa Waiver Program countries entering the U.S. for short visits), which serves as the official document authorizing the alien’s stay in the United States in a particular non-immigrant visa status and for a particular period of time.[6] Another type of U.S. visa is lottery visa. 50,000 additional visa numbers are available each year under the section of visa lottery. In the last few years more than 9 million people have participated in the visa lottery[7]

Visa exemption

  The United States and its territories
  Visa free countries
  Visa Waiver Program countries

Citizens of the following countries, linked with the USA by theCompacts of Free Association, do not require a visa to enter, reside, study, and work indefinitely in the United States:

Citizens of the following country do not require a visa to visit the United States and can study and work under special simplified procedure:

Visa Waiver Program

Main article: Visa Waiver Program

Currently, 38 countries have been selected by the U.S. government for inclusion in the Visa Waiver Program and their citizens do not need to acquire a US visa (but are required to get an electronic authorization if arriving by air or cruise ship[12]) to visit the United States (including Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands):[13]

Visitors may stay for 90 days in the United States which also includes the time spent in Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, or the islands in the Caribbean if the arrival was through the United States.

The Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) is not a visa. Rather, obtaining a travel authorization from ESTA is a prerequisite to travelling by air to the US under the Visa Waiver Program.[37] ESTA authorization, once obtained, is valid for two years unless during that time the person obtains a new passport or his/her answers to any of the eligibility questions change.[38]

Other arrangements

Citizens of the following countries and territories can travel without obtaining a visa for the United States under certain circumstances:

  •  BermudaBritish Overseas Territories citizens by virtue of their connection to Bermuda can enter the United States visa-free provided they are bona-fide visitors – no I-94 is required.[39] To qualify, they must not have had a criminal conviction or ineligibility, violated U.S. immigration laws in the past and must not be arriving the United States from outside the Western Hemisphere. In addition, they must present a Bermudian passport which fulfils the following criteria: the front cover has printed on it “Government of Bermuda”, the holder’s nationality must be stated as either “British Overseas Territory Citizen” or “British Dependant Territories Citizen”, the passport must contain one of the following endorsement stamps: “Holder is registered as a Bermudian”, “Holder Possesses Bermudian Status” or “Holder is deemed to possess Bermudian status”.
  •  Bahamas – Citizens do not require a visa to enter the United States if they apply for entry at one of the Preclearance Facilities located in Nassau orFreeport International Airports. Bahamian citizens must not have had a criminal conviction or ineligibility, violated U.S. immigration laws in the past and must be in possession of valid, unexpired passport or a Bahamian Travel Document indicating that they have Bahamian citizenship. In addition to a passport, all applicants 14 years of age or older must present a police certificate issued by the Royal Bahamas Police Force within the past six months. All Bahamians applying for admission at a port-of-entry other than the Preclearance Facilities located in Nassau or Freeport International Airport are required to be in possession of a valid visa to enter the United States.[40]
  •  British Virgin Islands – British Overseas Territories Citizens by virtue of their connection to the British Virgin Islands may travel without a visa to the United States Virgin Islands. They may also continue travel to other parts of the United States if they present a Certificate of Good Conduct issued by the Royal Virgin Islands Police Department indicating no criminal record.[41]
  •  Cayman Islands – Whilst residents of the Cayman Islands, as British Overseas Territories Citizens, are eligible automatically to register as a full British citizen under Section 4(A) of the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, thereby able additionally to enter the United States under the Visa Waiver Program, they can alternatively enter visa-free using their Cayman Islands passports. To qualify under the latter method, their Cayman Islands passports must confirm their British Overseas Territories citizenship and be endorsed by the Cayman Islands Passport and Corporate Services Office with a Cayman-U.S. visa waiver, issued at a cost of $15–25 and valid for one entry.[42][43] They must travel directly between the Cayman Islands and the United States and their Cayman Islands passport must also have a validity of at least six months beyond their intended departure date from the United States.[44] If Cayman Islanders elect to enter the U.S. using the Cayman-U.S. visa waiver, they are not required to apply for an ESTA online, since they are not entering under the VWP.
  •  Turks and Caicos Islands – British Overseas Territories Citizens by virtue of their connection to the Turks and Caicos Islands can enter the United States visa-free for short business and pleasure.[45] To qualify, they must not have had a criminal conviction or ineligibility, not violated U.S. immigration laws in the past and must arrive in the United States on a direct flight from the territory. In addition, they must present a Turks and Caicos Islands passport which states that they are a British Overseas Territory Citizen and have the right to abode in the Turks and Caicos Islands. In addition to a valid, unexpired passport, all travellers 14 years of age or older must present a police certificate issued by the Royal Turks and Caicos Islands Police Force within the past six months. All British Overseas Territories Citizens of the Turks and Caicos Islands who apply for admission at a port-of-entry that does not have direct air service to/from the territory, are required to be in possession of a valid visa to enter the United States.

Guam and Northern Mariana Islands Visa Waiver Program]

The U.S. territories of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands have a specific Guam-Northern Mariana Islands Visa Waiver Program too. Under this program, first enacted in October 1988 and periodically amended, nationals from several additional countries in Asia and the Pacific islands are permitted to enter the Northern Marianas and Guam as tourists without a visa for up to 45 days. Travel is not permitted onwards to the mainland United States, and because of special visa categories for the Northern Mariana Islands foreign workers, traveling between Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands still requires a full immigration inspection.[46] In addition to the citizens of Australia, Brunei, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and the United Kingdom who are also eligible for the Visa Waiver Program (but do not require ESTA for Guam and Northern Mariana Islands), citizens of the following countries and territories are eligible only for the Guam-CNMI Visa Waiver Program:[47][48]

  •  Russia – despite not being included in the new Guam-CNMI visa waiver program, as part of a parole arrangement, Russian citizens in possession of a machine-readable passport, a completed Form I-736 (Guam-CNMI Visa Waiver Information form) and Form I-94 (Arrival-Departure Record) and a non-refundable and non-transferable return ticket can visit both Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands visa-free for up to 45 days.[49]
  •  ChinaChinese citizens in possession of a machine-readable passport, completed Form I-736 (Guam-CNMI Visa Waiver Information form) and Form I-94 (Arrival-Departure Record) may enter the CNMI only visa-free for up to 45 days (travel to Guam still requires applying for a visa in advance).[50]

American Samoa

American Samoa entry stamp

The visa waiver does not apply to American Samoa.

Nationals of the following countries arriving for tourism purposes only do not require a visa (they are issued with a 30 day entry permit on arrival): Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland,Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway,Palau, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.[51]

Summary of visa exemptions

Country or territory Overland Air/Cruise ship All means of transport
United States
and Puerto Rico
United States
Virgin Islands
Guam Northern Mariana
Islands
American Samoa
 Canada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Marshall Islands Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Micronesia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Palau Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Bermuda Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Australia Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes Yes
 Brunei Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes Yes
 Japan Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes Yes
 New Zealand Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes Yes
 Singapore Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes Yes
 United Kingdom[Note 1] Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes Yes
 South Korea Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes No
 Taiwan[Note 2] Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes Yes No
 Andorra Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Austria Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Belgium Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Denmark Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Finland Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 France Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Germany Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Iceland Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Ireland Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Italy Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Liechtenstein Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Luxembourg Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Monaco Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Netherlands Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Norway Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Portugal Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 San Marino Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Spain Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Sweden Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
  Switzerland Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization Yes
 Chile Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Czech Republic Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Estonia Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Greece Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Hungary Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Latvia Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Lithuania Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Malta Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Slovakia Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Slovenia Yes electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization electronic authorization No
 Bahamas No preclearance preclearance preclearance preclearance No
 British Virgin Islands No police certificate Yes police certificate police certificate No
 Cayman Islands No police certificate police certificate police certificate police certificate No
 Turks and Caicos Islands No police certificate police certificate police certificate police certificate No
 Hong Kong[Note 3] No No No Yes Yes No
 Malaysia No No No Yes Yes No
 Nauru No No No Yes Yes No
 Papua New Guinea No No No Yes Yes No
 Russia No No No Yes Yes No
 China No No No No Yes No

Outlying islands

Visits to the United States Minor Outlying IslandsBaker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, Wake Island and Navassa Island – are severely restricted. Most of the islands are closed off, and prospective visitors require special permits, usually from the US army.[52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67]

Qualification process

The typical process for issuing a United States visa, possibly including aVisas Mantis check

Applicants for visitor visas must show that they qualify under provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act. The presumption in the law is that every nonimmigrant visa applicant (except certain employment-related applicants, who are exempt) is an intending immigrant unless otherwise proven. Therefore, applicants for most nonimmigrant visas must overcome this presumption by demonstrating that:

  • The purpose of their trip is to enter the U.S. for a specific, intended purpose;
  • They plan to remain for a specific, limited period; and
  • They have a residence outside the U.S. as well as other binding ties which will ensure their return at the end of their stay.

All visit, business, transit, student, and exchange visitor visa applicants must pay a US$160 application fee (up from $140 as of April 2012) to a US Consulate in order to be interviewed by a Consular Officer who will determine if the applicant is qualified to receive a visa to travel to the U.S (additionally, the officer may also ask the United States Department of State for a Security Advisory Opinion, which can take several weeks to resolve). The application fee is increased to $190 for most work visas (up from $150 as of April 2012) and can be even higher for certain categories. If the applicant is rejected, the application fee is not refunded. Amongst the items included in the qualification decision are financial independence, adequate employment, material assets and a lack of a criminal record in the applicant’s native country.

The immigration visa process is even more stringent and costly. After all processing fees have been paid, most immigration visa applicants pay well over 1000 U.S. dollars to become permanent residents in the United States and may be forced to wait several years before actually immigrating to the U.S.

Visitor visa statistics

Issued B-1,2 visas in fiscal 2013

  United States
  Visa exempt nationalities
  Over 400 thousand issued visas
  Over 100 thousand issued visas
  Over 50 thousand issued visas
  Over 25 thousand issued visas
  Over 10 thousand issued visas
  Over 5 thousand issued visas
  Under 5 thousand issued visas

In fiscal 2013 most B-1,2 visas were issued to the nationals of the following countries (listed over 40,000 visas):[68]

Nationality Issued B-1,2 visas in 2013
 Mexico[69] 1,324,496
 China 1,146,322
 Brazil 925,678
 Colombia 440,902
 India 376,998
 Argentina 240,653
 Russia 229,040
 Venezuela 204,758
 Israel 102,223
 Ecuador 105,125
 Nigeria 92,773
 Philippines 89,288
 Turkey 71,269
 Chile 70,517
 Poland 62,408
 Saudi Arabia 61,940
 Peru 56,116
 Dominican Republic 50,470
 Vietnam 49,247
 Indonesia 47,480
 South Africa 46,581
 Guatemala 44,764
 Thailand 41,987
 Hong Kong 41,969
 Jamaica 41,183
 Egypt 41,081

In fiscal 2013 most reasons to refuse a visa were cited as “failure to establish entitlement to nonimmigrant status”, “incompatible application” (most overcome), “unlawful presence”, “misrepresentation”, “criminal convictions”, “smugglers” and “controlled substance violators”. Smaller number of applications were rejected for “physical or mental disorder”, “prostitution”, “espionage”, “terrorist activities”, “falsely claiming citizenship” and other grounds for refusal including “presidential proclamation”, “money laundering”, “communicable disease” and “commission of acts of torture or extrajudicial killings”.[70]

Admission statistics

Number of non-immigrant admissions for tourists and for business purposes into the United States in fiscal year 2013

  United States
  Over 2 million admissions
  Over 1 million admissions
  Over 500 thousand admissions
  Over 250 thousand admissions
  Over 100 thousand admissions
  Over 15 thousand admissions
  Under 15 thousand admissions

Highest number of non-immigrant admissions for tourists and for business purposes into the United States in fiscal year 2013 was from the following countries (listed over 700,000 admissions):[71]

Country FY 2013
 Mexico 16,925,645
 United Kingdom 4,333,518
 Japan 4,051,814
 Canada 3,003,317
 Germany 2,212,435
 Brazil 2,035,737
 France 1,829,304
 China 1,623,290
 South Korea 1,454,738
 Australia 1,376,715
 Italy 1,133,189
 India 970,416
 Spain 858,402
 Colombia 773,375
 Venezuela 762,313
 Netherlands 741,859
 Argentina 707,863
Total (worldwide) 54,645,551

Classes of nonimmigrant visas

A visa

A visas are issued to representatives of a foreign government traveling to the United States to engage in official activities for that government. A visas are granted to foreign government ambassadors, ministers, diplomats, as well as other foreign government officials or employees traveling on official business (A-1 Visa). The A visa is also granted to immediate family members of such foreign government officials, defined as “the principal applicant’s spouse and unmarried sons and daughters of any age who are not members of some other household and who will reside regularly in the household of the principal alien” (A-2 Visa) and which “may also include close relatives of the principal alien or spouse who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption who are not members of some other household; who will reside regularly in the household of the principal alien; and who are recognized as dependents by the sending government (A-3 Visa).[72]

B-1 and B-2

Main article: B visa

The most common non-immigrant visa is the multiple-purpose B-1/B-2 visa, also known as the “visa for temporary visitors for business or pleasure.” Visa applicants sometimes receive either a B-1 (temporary visitor for business) or a B-2 (temporary visitor for pleasure) visa, if their reason for travel is specific enough that the consular officer does not feel they qualify for combined B-1/B-2 status.[73] Holders may also attend short non-credit courses. Mexican citizens are eligible for Border Crossing Cards.[74]

Validity period

US B visa validity period

  United States
  120 months
  60 months
  24-48 months
  12 months
  Under 12 months

Validity of visas by nationality for B-1/B-2 visa:[75]

Adjusted Visa refusal Rate

US B visa refusal rate

  United States
  Visa exempt countries
  Over 50%
  Over 40%
  Over 30%
  Over 20%
  Over 10%
  Over 5%
  Over 3%
  Under 3%

The Adjusted Visa Refusal Rate for fiscal year 2014 for B visas was:[90]

Use for other countries

US tourist visas that are valid for further travel are accepted as substitute visas for national visas in following countries:

  •  Albania — 90 days;
  •  Antigua and Barbuda — 30 days; USD 100 visa waiver fee applies.
  •  Belize — 30 days; USD 50 visa waiver fee applies.
  •  Colombia — 90 days;
  •  Costa Rica — 30 days or less if the visa is about to expire; must hold a multiple entry visa.
  •  Dominican Republic — 90 days;
  •  El Salvador — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Georgia — 90 days within any 180 day period;
  •  Guatemala — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Honduras — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Jamaica — 30 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Mexico — 180 days;[92][93]
  •  Montenegro — 30 days;
  •  Nicaragua — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Panama — 30/180 days; must hold a visa valid for at least 2 more entries.
  •  Philippines — 7 days; for nationals of China and India only.
  •  Serbia — 90 days;
  •  Taiwan — certain nationalities can obtain an online travel authority if holding a valid US visa.
  •  Turkey — certain nationalities can obtain an electronic Turkish visa if holding a valid US visa.

C visa

C-1 visa is a transit visa issued to individuals who are travelling in “immediate and continuous transit through the United States enroute to another country”. The only reason to enter the United States must be for transit purposes. A subtype C-2 visa is issued to diplomats transiting to and from the Headquarters of the United Nations and is limited to the vicinity of New York City.[94]

D visa

D visa is issued to crew members of sea-vessels and international airlines in the United States. This includes commercial airline pilots and flight attendants, captain, engineer, or deckhand of a sea vessel, service staff on a cruise ship and trainees on board a training vessel. Usually a combination of a C-1 visa and D visa is required.[95]

E visa

Main article: E visa

Treaty Trader (E-1 visa) and Treaty Investor (E-2 visa) visas are issued to citizens of countries that have signed treaties of commerce and navigation with the United States.[96] They are issued to individuals engaged in substantial trade activities in international banking, insurance, transportation, tourism or communications with significant economic impact in the United States.[97] The variant visa issued only to citizens of Australia is the E-3 visa (E-3D visa is issued to spouse or child of E-3 visa holder and E-3R to a returning E-3 holder).[98]

F visa

Main article: F visa

These visas are issued for foreign students enrolled at accredited US institutions. F-1 visas are for full-time students, F2 visas are for spouses and children of F-1 visa holders and F-3 visas are for “border commuters” who reside in their country of origin while attending school in the United States.[99] They are managed through SEVIS.[100]

G visa

Main article: G visa

The G visas are issued to diplomats, government officials, and employees who will work for international organizations in the United States. The international organization must be officially designated as such.[101] The G-1 visa is issued to permanent mission members, G-2 visa is issued to representatives of a recognized government traveling temporarily to attend meetings of a designated international organization, G-3 visa is issued to individuals representing non-recognized governments, G-4 visa is for those who are taking up an appointment and G-5 visa is issued to personal employees or domestic workers of G1-G4 visa holders.[102]G1-G4 visas are also issued to family members.[103]

Those working specifically for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization require a NATO visa. NATO–1 visa is issued to permanent representatives of NATO and their staff members, NATO-2 visa is issued to a representative of member state to NATO or its subsidiary bodies, advisor or technical expert of the NATO delegation visiting the United States, a member of the NATO military forces component or a staff member of the NATO representative, NATO-3 visa is issued to official clerical staff accompanying the representative of a NATO member state, NATO-4 visa is issued to foreign national recognized as a NATO official, NATO-5 visa is issued to a foreign national recognized as a NATO expert and NATO-6 visa is issued to a member of the civilian component of the NATO. All NATO visas are issued to immediate family members as well. NATO-7 visas are issued to personal employees or domestic workers of a NATO-1 – NATO-6 visa holders.[104]

H visa

H visas are issued to temporary workers in the United States.

Specialty Occupations, DOD Cooperative Research and Development Project Workers, and Fashion Models
Main article: H-1B visa

The H-1B classification is for professional-level jobs that require a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in a specific academic field. In addition, the employee must have the degree or the equivalence of such a degree through education and experience. There is a required wage, which is at least equal to the wage paid by the employer to similarly qualified workers or a prevailing wage for such positions in the geographic regions where the jobs are located. This visa also covers fashion models of distinguished merit and ability.[105][106] H-1B1 visa is the variant issued to citizens of Singapore and Chile.

Temporary Agricultural Workers
Main article: H-2A visa

The H-2A visa allows a foreign national entry into the US for temporary or seasonal agricultural work for eligible employers under certain conditions (seasonal job, no available US workers).[107]

Temporary Non-Agricultural Workers
Main article: H-2B visa

The H-2B visa allows a foreign national entry into the US for temporary or seasonal non-agricultural work for eligible employers under certain conditions (seasonal job, no available US workers).[108]

Nonimmigrant Trainee or Special Education Exchange Visitor
Main article: H-3 visa

The H-3 visa is available to those foreign nationals looking to “receive training in any field of endeavor, other than graduate medical education or training, that is not available in the foreign national’s home country” or ” participate in a special education exchange visitor training program that provides for practical training and experience in the education of children with physical, mental, or emotional disabilities.”.[109]

Family members
Main article: H-4 visa

H-4 visa is issued to immediate family members of H visa holders. They are also eligible for employment.[110]

I visa

Main article: I visa

The I-1 visa is issued to representatives of the foreign media, including members of the press, radio, film, and print industries travelling to temporarily work in the United States in the profession.[111]

J visa

Main article: J-1 visa
See also: J-2 visa

J-1 visa is issued to participants of work-and study-based exchange visitor programs.[112] The Exchange Visitor Program is carried out under the provisions of theFulbright-Hays Act of 1961, officially known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (Pub.L. 87–256, 75 Stat. 527). The purpose of the Act is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries by means of educational and cultural exchanges. The Exchange Visitor Program is administered by the Office of Exchange Coordination and Designation in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. In carrying out the responsibilities of the Exchange Visitor Program, the Department designates public and private entities to act as exchange sponsors. Spouses and dependents of J-1 exchange visitors are issued a J-2 visa.[113]

Exchange visa categories are:

Exchange Visitor Pilot Programs exist for citizens of Australia,[128] Ireland,[129] New Zealand[130] and South Korea.[131]

K visa

Main article: K-1 visa

A K-1 visa is a visa issued to the fiancé or fiancée of a United States citizen to enter the United States. A K-1 visa requires a foreigner to marry his or her U.S. citizen petitioner within 90 days of entry, or depart the United States. Once the couple marries, the foreign citizen can adjust status to become a lawful permanent residentof the United States (Green Card holder).[132] K-2 visa is issued to unmarried children under the age of 21.[133] Foreign same-sex partners of United States citizens are currently recognized by USCIS and accordingly can be sponsored for K-1 visas and for permanent resident status.[134]

K-3/K-4 visas are issued to foreign spouses and children of US citizens.[135]

L visa

Main article: L-1 visa
See also: L-2 visa

The L-1 classification is for international transferees who have worked for a related organization abroad for at least one continuous year in the past three years and who will be coming to the United States to work in an executive or managerial (L-1A) or specialized knowledge capacity (L-1B).[136] L-2 visa is issued to dependent spouse and unmarried children under 21 years of age of qualified L-1 visa holders.

M visa

Main article: M-1 visa

The M-1 visa is a type of student visa reserved for vocational and technical schools. Students in M-1 status may not work on or off campus while studying, and they may not change their status to F-1. The M-2 visa permits the spouse and minor children of an M-1 vocational student to accompany him or her to the United States.[137]

O visa

Main article: O visa

O visa is a classification of non-immigrant temporary worker visa granted to an alien “who possesses extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics (O-1A visa), or who has a demonstrated record of extraordinary achievement in the motion picture or television industry and has been recognized nationally or internationally for those achievements,” (O-1B visa) and to certain assistants (O-2 visa) and immediate family members of such aliens (O-3 visa).[138]

P visa

Main article: P visa

P visas are issued to individuals or team athletes, or member of an entertainment group including persons providing essential support services (P-1 visa), artists or entertainers (individual or group) under a reciprocal exchange program (P-2 visa) and artists or entertainers (individual or group) visiting to perform, teach or coach under a program that is culturally unique.[139] P-4 visas are issued to spouses, or children under the age of 21, of a P-1, P-2, or P-3 alien and who is accompanying, or following to join.

Q visa

Q visa is issued to participants in an international cultural exchange program.[139]

R visa

Main article: R visa

R-1 visa is issued to temporary religious workers. They must have been a member of a religious denomination having a bona fide non-profit religious organization in the United States for at least 2 years.[140] R-2 visa is issued to dependent family members.[141]

TN visa

Main article: TN status

NAFTA Professional (TN) visa allows citizens of Canada and Mexico whose profession is on the NAFTA list[142] and who must hold a bachelor’s degree to work in the United States on a prearranged job. Canadian citizens usually do not require a visa to work under the TN status (unless they live outside Canada with non-Canadian family members) while Mexican citizens require a TN visa. Spouse and dependent children of a TN professional can be admitted into the United States in the TD status.[143]

U and T visas

U-1 visa is a nonimmigrant visa which is set aside for victims of crimes (and their immediate family members) who have suffered substantial mental or physical abuse and are willing to assist law enforcement and government officials in the investigation or prosecution of the criminal activity.[144] Subtypes of this visa are U-2 issued to spouses of U-1, U-3 issued to children of U-1, U-4 issued to parents of U-1 under the age of 21 and U-5 issued to unmarried siblings under the age of 18 of U-1 who is under 21.

T-1 visa is issued to victims of severe forms of human trafficking. Holders may adjust their status to permanent resident status.[145] Subtypes of this visa are T-2 issued to spouses of T-1, T-3 issued to children of T-1, T-4 issued to parents of T-1 under the age of 21 and T-5 issued to unmarried siblings under the age of 18 of T-1 who is under 21.

V visa

Main article: V visa

The V visa is a temporary visa available to spouses and minor children (unmarried, under 21) of U.S. lawful permanent residents (LPR, also known as green cardholders). It allows permanent residents to achieve family unity with their spouses and children while the immigration process takes its course. It was created by the Legal Immigration Family Equity Act of 2000.[146] The Act is to relieve those who applied for immigrant visas on or before December 21, 2000. Practically, the V visa is currently not available to spouses and minor children of LPRs who have applied after December 21, 2000.[147]

List of US visa types

All US visa types and subtypes are listed below:[148][149]

Immigrants

Symbol Description
Immediate Relatives
IR-1 Spouse of U.S. citizen
IR-2 Child of U.S. citizen
IR-3 Orphan from a non-Hague country (i.e., not a party to the Hague Adoption Convention) adopted abroad by U.S. citizen
IR-4 Orphan from a non-Hague country to be adopted in the United States by U.S. citizen
IR-5 Parent of U.S. citizen at least 21 years of age
IH-3 Orphan from a Hague country adopted abroad by U.S. citizen
IH-4 Orphan from a Hague country to be adopted in the United States by U.S. citizen
CR-1 Spouse of U.S. citizen (conditional status)
CR-2 Child of U.S. citizen (conditional status)
IW-1 Certain spouses of deceased U.S. citizens
IW-2 Child of IW-1 IB-1
IB-2 Self-petition child of U.S. citizen
IB-3 Child of IB-1
VI-5 Parent of U.S. citizen who acquired permanent resident status under the Virgin Islands Nonimmigrant Alien Adjustment Act
Vietnam Amerasian Immigrants
AM-1 Vietnam Amerasian principal
AM-2 Spouse/Child of AM-1
AM-3 Natural mother of AM-1 (and spouse or child of such mother), or person who has acted in effect as the mother, father, or next-of-kin of AM-1 (and spouse or child of such person)
Special Immigrants
SB-1 Returning resident
SC-1 Certain persons who lost U.S. citizenship by marriage
SC-2 Certain persons who lost U.S. citizenship by serving in foreign armed forces
Family-Sponsored Immigrants: First Preference
F11 Unmarried son or daughter of U.S. citizen
F12 Child of F11
B11 Self-petition unmarried son or daughter of U.S. citizen
B12 Child of B11
Family-Sponsored Immigrants: Second Preference (Subject to Country Limitations)
F21 Spouse of permanent resident
F22 Child of permanent resident
F23 Child of F21 or F22
F24 Unmarried son/daughter of permanent resident
F25 Child of F24
B21 Self-petition spouse of permanent resident
B22 Self-petition child of permanent resident
B23 Child of B21 or B22
B24 Self-petition unmarried son/daughter of permanent resident
B25 Child of B24
Family-Sponsored Immigrants: Second Preference (Exempt from Country Limitations)
FX1 Spouse of permanent resident
FX2 Child of permanent resident
FX3 Child of FX1 or FX2
BX1 Self-petition spouse of permanent resident
BX2 Self-petition child of permanent resident
BX3 Child of BX1 or BX2
Family-Sponsored Immigrants: Third Preference
F31 Married son or daughter of U.S. citizen
F32 Spouse of F31
F33 Child of F31
B31 Self-petition married son or daughter of U.S. citizen B32
B33 Child of B31
Family-Sponsored Immigrants: Fourth Preference
F41 Brother or sister of U.S. citizen who is at least 21 years of age
F42 Spouse of F41
F43 Child of F41
Employment-Based Immigrants: First Preference (Priority Workers)
E11 Person with extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics
E12 Outstanding professor or researcher
E13 Multinational executive or manager
E14 Spouse of E11, E12, or E13
E15 Child of E11, E12, or E13
Employment-Based Immigrants: Second Preference (Professionals Holding Advanced Degrees or Persons of Exceptional Ability)
E21 Professional holding advanced degree or person of exceptional ability in the sciences, arts, or business
E22 Spouse of E21
E23 Child of E21
Employment-Based Immigrants: Third Preference (Skilled Workers, Professionals, and Other Workers)
E31 Skilled worker
E32 Professional holding baccalaureate degree
E34 Spouse of E31 or E32
E35 Child of E31 or E32
EW3 Other workers (subgroup numerical limit)
EW4 Spouse of EW3
EW5 Child of EW3
Employment-Based Immigrants: Fourth Preference (Certain Special Immigrants)
BC-1 Certain international broadcasters
BC-2 Spouse of BC-1
BC-3 Child of BC-1
SD-1 Minister of religion
SD-2 Spouse of SD-1
SD-3 Child of SD-1
SE-1 Certain employees or former employees of the U.S. Government abroad
SE-2 Spouse of SE-1
SE-3 Child of SE-1
SF-1 Certain former employees of the Panama Canal Company or Canal Zone Government
SF-2 Spouse or child of SF-1
SG-1 Certain former employees of the U.S. Government in the Panama Canal Zone SG-2
SH-2 Spouse or child of SH-1
SJ-2 Spouse or child of SJ-1 (certain foreign medical graduates)
SK-1 Certain retired international organization employees
SK-2 Spouse of SK-1 SK-3
SK-4 Certain surviving spouses of deceased international organization employees SL-1
SM-1 Person recruited outside the United States who has served, or is enlisted to serve, in the U.S. Armed Forces for 12 years (became eligible after October 1, 1991)
SM-2 Spouse of SM-1
SM-3 Child of SM-1
SM-4 Person recruited outside the United States who has served, or is enlisted to serve, in the U.S. Armed Forces for 12 years (eligible as of October 1, 1991)
SM-5 Spouse or child of SM-4
SN-1 Certain retired NATO-6 civilian employees
SN-2 Spouse of SN-1
SN-3 Certain unmarried sons or daughters of NATO-6 civilian employees
SN-4 Certain surviving spouses of deceased NATO-6 civilian employees
SR-1 Certain religious workers (subgroup numerical limit)
SR-2 Spouse of SR-1
SR-3 Child of SR-1
Employment-Based Immigrants: Fifth Preference (Employment Creation – Investors) (Conditional Status)
C51 Employment creation outside targeted area
C52 Spouse of C51
C53 Child of C51
T51 Employment creation in targeted rural/high unemployment area (subgroup numerical set-aside)
T52 Spouse of T51
T53 Child of T51
R51 Investor pilot program, not in targeted area
R52 Spouse of R51
R53 Child of R51
I51
I52 Spouse of I51
I53 Child of I51
Other Numerically Limited Categories: Diversity Immigrants
DV-1 Diversity immigrant
DV-2 Spouse of DV-1
DV-3 Child of DV-1

Nonimmigrants

Symbol Description
A-1 Head of state and immediate family, prime minister and immediate family, government minister, ambassador, career diplomat or consular officer, or immediate family
A-2 Minister of state, other foreign government official or employee, or immediate family
A-3 Attendant, servant, or personal employee of A-1 or A-2, and immediate family
B-1 Temporary visitor for business, domestic employees, academics, researchers and students
B-2 Temporary visitor for holiday, tourism, medical treatment
B1/B2 Temporary visitor for business & pleasure
C-1 Person in transit
C-2 Person in transit to United Nations Headquarters district under Section 11 (3), (4), or (5) of the Headquarters Agreement
C-3 Foreign government official, immediate family, attendant, servant or personal employee, in transit
D Crewmember (sea or air)
E-1* Treaty trader, spouse and children
E-2* Treaty investor, spouse and children
E-3* Treaty traders and investors: Australian Free Trade Agreement
E-3D* Spouse or child of E3
E-3R* Returning E3
F-1 Student (academic or language training program)
F-2 Spouse or child of F-1
F-3 Canadian or Mexican national commuter student in an academic or language training program
G-1 Principal resident representative of recognized foreign member government to international organization, staff, and immediate family
G-2 Other representative of recognized foreign member government to international organization, and immediate family
G-3 Representative of nonrecognized or nonmember foreign government to international organization, and immediate family
G-4 International organization officer or employee, and immediate family
G-5 Attendant, servant, or personal employee of G-1 through G-4, and immediate family
GB Temporary visitors: for business, visa waiver, Guam
GT Temporary visitors: for pleasure, visa waiver, Guam
H-1B* Alien in a specialty occupation (profession)
H1B1* Chilean or Singaporean national to work in a specialty occupation
H-2A Temporary worker performing agricultural services unavailable in the United States
H-2B Temporary worker performing other services unavailable in the United States
H-3 Temporary workers and trainees: industrial trainees
H-4* Temporary workers and trainees: spouses and children of H-1, H-2, and H-3 workers
I Representative of foreign information media, spouse and children
J-1 Exchange visitor
J-2 Spouse or child of exchange visitor
K-1* Fiance(e) of U.S. citizen
K-2* Child of fiance(e) of U.S. citizen
K-3* Spouse of U.S. citizen awaiting availability of immigrant visa
K-4* Child of K-3
L-1* Intracompany transferee (executive, managerial, and specialized personnel continuing employment with international firm or corporation)
L-2* Spouse or child of intracompany transferee
M-1 Vocational student or other nonacademic student
M-2 Spouse or child of M-1
M-3 Border commuter student (vocational or nonacademic)[150]
N-8 Parent of SK-3 special immigrant
N-9 Child of N-8 or of SK-1, SK-2 or SK-4 special immigrant
NATO-1 Principal permanent representative of member state to NATO (including any of its subsidiary bodies) resident in the U.S. and resident members of official staff; Secretary General, Assistant Secretaries General, and Executive Secretary of NATO; other permanent NATO officials of similar rank, and members of immediate family
NATO-2 Other representatives of member states to NATO (including any of its subsidiary bodies) including representatives, advisers, and technical experts of delegations, and members of immediate family; dependents of members of a force entering in accordance with the provisions of the NATO Status-of-Forces Agreement or in accordance with provisions of the “Protocol on the Status of International Military Headquarters”; members of such a force if issued visas
NATO-3 Official clerical staff accompanying a representative of member state to NATO (including any of its subsidiary bodies), and members of immediate family
NATO-4 Officials of NATO (other than those classifiable as NATO-1), and members of immediate family
NATO-5 Experts, other than officials classifiable as NATO-4, employed in missions on behalf of NATO, and their dependents
NATO-6 Members of a civilian component accompanying a force entering in accordance with the provisions of the NATO Status-of-Forces Agreement; members of a civilian component attached to or employed by an Allied Headquarters under the “Protocol on the Status of International Military Headquarters” set up pursuant to the North Atlantic Treaty; and their dependents
NATO-7 Attendant, servant, or personal employee of NATO-1 through NATO-6 classes, and immediate family
O-1* Person with extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics
O-2* Person accompanying and assisting in the artistic or athletic performance by O-1
O-3* Spouse or child of O-1 or O-2
P-1* Internationally recognized athlete or member of an internationally recognized entertainment group
P-2* Artist or entertainer in a reciprocal exchange program
P-3* Artist or entertainer in a culturally unique program
P-4* Spouse or child of P-1, P-2, or P-3
Q-1 Participant in an international cultural exchange program
R-1 Person in a religious occupation
R-2 Spouse or child of R-1
S-5 Informant possessing information on criminal activity
S-6 Informant possessing information on terrorism
S-7 Spouse, married or unmarried son or daughter, or parent of S-5 or S-6
SIJS Special Immigrant Juvenile Status: Qualifying children present in the U.S. who are declared dependents of a juvenile court and who would be harmed if returned to their home country
TN NAFTA professional
TD Spouse or child of TN
T-1 Victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons
T-2 Spouse of T-1
T-3 Child of T-1
T-4 Parent of T-1 under 21 years of age
T-5 Under-18 unmarried sibling of T-1
U-1 Victim of criminal activity
U-2 Spouse of U-1
U-3 Child of U-1
U-4 Parent of U-1 under 21 years of age
U-5 Under-18 unmarried sibling of U-1 under 21 at time of filing
V-1* Spouse of lawful permanent resident awaiting availability of immigrant visa
V-2* Child of lawful permanent resident awaiting availability of immigrant visa
V-3* Derivative child of V-1 and V-2
WB Temporary visitors: visa waiver, business
WT Temporary visitors: visa waiver, pleasure

[151][152][153]

* Persons with H-1B visas, H-4 visas (as immediate family members of H-1B visa holders), K visas, L visas, and V visas are permitted to have dual intent under the Immigration and Nationality Act. Federal regulations also appear to recognize dual intent O visas, P visas, and E visas.

Visa denial

Section 221(g) of Immigration and Nationality Act defined several classes of aliens ineligible to receive visas.

Grounds for denial may include, but are not limited to:

  • Health grounds
  • Criminal grounds
  • Security grounds
  • Public charge (charge means burden in this context)
  • Illegal entrants or immigration violators
  • Failure to produce requested documents
  • Ineligible for citizenship
  • Previously removed from US
  • The spouse of a US Citizen is almost always denied a visitor’s (B1/B2) visa on grounds that the spouse might want to stay in the United States. However, the spouse of a USC is able to immigrate to the US without much of a hurdle.

Section 214(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (also cited as 8 United States Code § 1184(b))[154] states that most aliens must be presumed to be intending to remain in the US, until and unless they are able to show that they are entitled to nonimmigrant status. This means there are two sides to a 214(b) denial. Either

  1. The applicant didn’t convince the consular officer that he didn’t intend to stay in the US permanently, or
  2. The applicant didn’t convince the consular officer that he was qualified for the visa for which he had applied.

An example of a denial based upon the first ground would be an applicant for an F-1 student visa who the consular officer felt was secretly intending to remain in the US permanently.

An example of a denial based upon the second ground would be an H-1B applicant who couldn’t prove he possessed the equivalent of a US bachelor’s degree in a specialty field—such an equivalency being a requirement for obtaining an H-1B visa.

In order to thereafter obtain a visa applicants are recommended to objectively evaluate their situation, see in what way they fell short of the visa requirements, and then reapply.[155]

In 2005, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi (then Chief Minister of Gujarat) was denied a diplomatic visa to the United States. In addition, the B-1/B-2 visa that had previously been granted to him was also revoked, under a section of the Immigration and Nationality Act which makes any foreign government official who was responsible or “directly carried out, at any time, particularly severe violations of religious freedom” ineligible for the visa.[156] Modi is the only person ever denied a visa to the U.S. under this provision.[157]

Exceptions

There are cases when a US visa has been granted to aliens who were technically ineligible. Japanese mafia (yakuza) leader Tadamasa Goto and three others were issued visas for travel between 2000 and 2004 to undergo liver transplant surgery at UCLA Medical Center.[158] The FBI had aided the men in the visa application process hoping that they would provide information regarding yakuza activities in the US.[158]

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visa_policy_of_the_United_States

Exports as Share of GDP By Country

This page shows Exports as Share of GDP across various countries.

Click on any country name on this page to see a time series of Exports as Share of GDP for that country, along with options for graphing, downloading and validating the underlying data.

For any country, click on the Country Page icon to see a collection of 65+ economic, demographic and societal indicators for that country.

Countries are grouped by region. A single sortable table showing all the countries of the world is at the bottom of this page.

G-20 Economies

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
USA 13.49% % of GDP 2013 -0.08% 11.01% 9.63% 8.91%
China 26.40% % of GDP 2013 -0.92% 26.72% 34.08% 10.60%
Japan 14.73% % of GDP 2012 -0.40% 17.71% 11.87% 9.76%
Germany 50.67% % of GDP 2013 -1.12% 42.46% 38.55% 24.22%
France 28.28% % of GDP 2013 0.20% 24.07% 25.91% 21.48%
Brazil 12.55% % of GDP 2013 -0.03% 10.98% 16.43% 8.93%
UK 29.84% % of GDP 2013 -0.41% 27.01% 24.36% 22.59%
Italy 28.56% % of GDP 2013 0.30% 22.47% 24.05% 18.57%
Russia 28.37% % of GDP 2013 -1.23% 27.94% 34.42% 21.90%
India 24.82% % of GDP 2013 0.82% 20.05% 17.55% 6.90%
Canada 30.08% % of GDP 2013 0.05% 28.44% 37.46% 25.12%
Australia 19.88% % of GDP 2013 -1.44% 22.53% 17.01% 15.14%
Spain 31.56% % of GDP 2013 1.24% 22.67% 25.18% 16.68%
Mexico 31.75% % of GDP 2013 -0.90% 27.28% 26.23% 19.00%
South Korea 53.92% % of GDP 2013 -2.42% 47.55% 38.30% 28.53%
Indonesia 23.74% % of GDP 2013 -0.55% 24.16% 32.22% 24.29%
Turkey 25.65% % of GDP 2013 -0.65% 23.32% 23.55% 16.20%
Saudi Arabia 51.79% % of GDP 2013 -2.63% 47.09% 50.99% 33.75%
Argentina 14.27% % of GDP 2013 -1.53% 17.40% 21.50% 13.06%
South Africa 31.14% % of GDP 2013 1.22% 27.29% 26.42% 26.69%

Click to download all data for G-20 Economies (csv).

Western Europe

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Austria 57.44% % of GDP 2013 0.25% 50.05% 51.48% 36.37%
Belgium 82.76% % of GDP 2013 0.53% 69.26% 70.68% 62.99%
Cyprus 40.11% % of GDP 2010 -0.15% 48.00% 55.99% 45.04%
Denmark 54.27% % of GDP 2013 0.30% 46.72% 43.80% 35.25%
Finland 38.18% % of GDP 2013 -1.45% 36.27% 38.59% 23.01%
France 28.28% % of GDP 2013 0.20% 24.07% 25.91% 21.48%
Germany 50.67% % of GDP 2013 -1.12% 42.46% 38.55% 24.22%
Greece 30.23% % of GDP 2013 1.99% 19.01% 20.78% 15.87%
Hungary 88.76% % of GDP 2013 1.35% 75.06% 60.02% 36.04%
Iceland 55.73% % of GDP 2013 -0.99% 49.69% 32.60% 32.66%
Ireland 105.30% % of GDP 2013 -0.34% 87.06% 80.43% 58.99%
Italy 28.56% % of GDP 2013 0.30% 22.47% 24.05% 18.57%
Luxembourg 203.32% % of GDP 2013 9.95% 168.17% 153.87% 102.47%
Netherlands 82.94% % of GDP 2013 0.90% 63.91% 63.36% 56.02%
Norway 38.88% % of GDP 2013 -2.02% 40.04% 41.80% 38.01%
Portugal 39.26% % of GDP 2013 1.91% 27.08% 27.25% 29.46%
San Marino n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Spain 31.56% % of GDP 2013 1.24% 22.67% 25.18% 16.68%
Sweden 43.79% % of GDP 2013 -2.53% 44.45% 43.45% 30.46%
Switzerland 72.15% % of GDP 2013 5.09% 57.44% 51.55% 43.42%
Turkey 25.65% % of GDP 2013 -0.65% 23.32% 23.55% 16.20%
UK 29.84% % of GDP 2013 -0.41% 27.01% 24.36% 22.59%

Click to download all data for Western Europe (csv).

Eastern Europe

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Albania 35.05% % of GDP 2013 1.77% 29.60% 21.54% 17.94%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 31.96% % of GDP 2013 1.09% 24.70% 32.24% n.a.
Bulgaria 68.39% % of GDP 2013 3.79% 43.79% 41.33% 46.42%
Croatia 42.94% % of GDP 2013 1.37% 34.52% 39.45% n.a.
Czech Republic 77.20% % of GDP 2013 0.68% 58.81% 57.43% n.a.
Kosovo 17.41% % of GDP 2013 -0.82% 17.07% n.a. n.a.
Macedonia 53.89% % of GDP 2013 0.28% 39.18% 39.94% n.a.
Montenegro 41.78% % of GDP 2013 -2.34% 32.12% 42.02% n.a.
Poland 47.80% % of GDP 2013 1.14% 39.44% 37.49% n.a.
Romania 41.98% % of GDP 2013 1.99% 30.60% 35.84% n.a.
Serbia 40.75% % of GDP 2013 3.82% 26.85% 24.22% n.a.
Slovak Republic 92.95% % of GDP 2013 1.15% 67.64% 68.61% 28.84%
Slovenia 74.69% % of GDP 2013 1.44% 57.24% 54.97% n.a.

Click to download all data for Eastern Europe (csv).

Former Soviet Republics

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Armenia 26.99% % of GDP 2013 2.41% 15.47% 29.73% n.a.
Azerbaijan 48.72% % of GDP 2013 -4.99% 51.64% 48.79% n.a.
Belarus 61.18% % of GDP 2013 -20.16% 50.53% 67.89% n.a.
Estonia 86.08% % of GDP 2013 -2.18% 60.84% 61.53% n.a.
Georgia 44.69% % of GDP 2013 6.54% 29.74% 31.56% 42.36%
Kazakhstan 38.25% % of GDP 2013 -6.83% 41.84% 52.50% n.a.
Kyrgyzstan 47.17% % of GDP 2013 2.76% 54.70% 42.56% n.a.
Latvia 58.84% % of GDP 2011 5.03% 42.35% 40.87% n.a.
Lithuania 77.13% % of GDP 2011 9.31% 53.79% 52.71% n.a.
Moldova 44.12% % of GDP 2013 0.64% 36.87% 50.71% n.a.
Russia 28.37% % of GDP 2013 -1.23% 27.94% 34.42% 21.90%
Tajikistan 19.18% % of GDP 2013 -2.36% 15.15% 58.31% 35.90%
Turkmenistan 73.26% % of GDP 2012 -1.44% 64.06% 62.31% n.a.
Ukraine 46.87% % of GDP 2013 -4.11% 46.38% 61.21% 32.08%
Uzbekistan 27.66% % of GDP 2013 -0.01% 35.59% 40.21% n.a.

Click to download all data for Former Soviet Republics (csv).

East Asia

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Brunei 76.16% % of GDP 2013 -5.21% 72.78% 68.80% 61.81%
Cambodia 65.72% % of GDP 2013 2.93% 49.22% 63.61% n.a.
China 26.40% % of GDP 2013 -0.92% 26.72% 34.08% 10.60%
Hong Kong 229.59% % of GDP 2013 4.03% 191.23% 186.65% 130.13%
Indonesia 23.74% % of GDP 2013 -0.55% 24.16% 32.22% 24.29%
Japan 14.73% % of GDP 2012 -0.40% 17.71% 11.87% 9.76%
Laos 37.22% % of GDP 2013 -1.62% 30.88% 30.55% 12.13%
Malaysia 81.68% % of GDP 2013 -3.57% 91.42% 115.37% 71.38%
Mongolia 45.14% % of GDP 2013 -5.42% 50.28% 60.79% 22.49%
Myanmar 0.18% % of GDP 2004 0.00% 0.49% 0.83% 9.10%
North Korea n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Philippines 27.91% % of GDP 2013 -2.87% 32.23% 48.57% 28.11%
Singapore 190.52% % of GDP 2013 -4.55% 191.88% 216.34% 179.54%
South Korea 53.92% % of GDP 2013 -2.42% 47.55% 38.30% 28.53%
Thailand 73.57% % of GDP 2013 -1.41% 68.35% 70.70% 34.92%
Vietnam 83.88% % of GDP 2013 3.85% 62.97% 54.90% 23.85%

Click to download all data for East Asia (csv).

South Asia

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Afghanistan 6.28% % of GDP 2013 0.77% 14.71% 34.00% n.a.
Bangladesh 19.54% % of GDP 2013 -0.62% 16.94% 15.46% 5.75%
Bhutan 40.85% % of GDP 2013 2.12% 44.70% 31.29% 28.05%
India 24.82% % of GDP 2013 0.82% 20.05% 17.55% 6.90%
Sri Lanka 22.47% % of GDP 2013 -0.36% 21.33% 35.33% 27.26%
Maldives 111.32% % of GDP 2012 2.61% 104.13% 61.47% 75.86%
Nepal 10.70% % of GDP 2013 0.63% 12.42% 16.68% 11.07%
Pakistan 13.22% % of GDP 2013 0.82% 12.40% 15.67% 13.88%

Click to download all data for South Asia (csv).

Middle East and North Africa

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Algeria 33.14% % of GDP 2013 -4.60% 35.37% 40.05% 18.64%
Bahrain 0.00% % of GDP 2013 -74.30% 68.47% 78.61% 98.64%
Djibouti 57.09% % of GDP 2007 17.20% 39.91% 40.45% n.a.
Egypt 17.62% % of GDP 2013 0.20% 24.96% 28.23% 17.89%
Iran 32.18% % of GDP 2007 -0.27% 27.23% 13.63% 15.45%
Iraq n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Israel 32.92% % of GDP 2013 -3.32% 33.50% 39.42% 36.81%
Jordan 42.47% % of GDP 2013 -3.77% 45.88% 52.27% 56.05%
Kuwait 71.56% % of GDP 2013 -3.17% 59.47% 56.92% 52.40%
Lebanon 62.55% % of GDP 2013 6.06% 34.12% 36.22% 18.36%
Libya 67.38% % of GDP 2008 -0.18% 63.26% 23.86% n.a.
Malta 93.61% % of GDP 2011 5.42% 89.22% 83.12% 69.58%
Morocco 33.65% % of GDP 2013 -2.26% 28.70% 29.37% 23.29%
Oman 62.65% % of GDP 2012 -4.46% 58.48% 49.76% 40.01%
Qatar 75.62% % of GDP 2012 3.96% 61.36% 61.70% n.a.
Saudi Arabia 51.79% % of GDP 2013 -2.63% 47.09% 50.99% 33.75%
Syria 37.99% % of GDP 2012 2.66% 36.84% 33.47% 17.15%
Tunisia 46.99% % of GDP 2013 -2.19% 45.83% 42.22% 44.35%
UAE 95.15% % of GDP 2012 4.84% 78.87% 55.92% n.a.
Yemen 30.48% % of GDP 2010 2.26% 41.26% 35.90% n.a.

Click to download all data for Middle East and North Africa (csv).

Sub-Saharan Africa

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Angola 55.78% % of GDP 2013 -6.16% 55.01% 70.14% 33.87%
Burundi 7.40% % of GDP 2013 -1.55% 6.80% 6.95% 9.75%
Benin 18.27% % of GDP 2013 2.97% 15.79% 20.03% 13.50%
Burkina Faso 27.49% % of GDP 2012 6.34% 9.88% 8.71% 11.00%
Botswana 55.12% % of GDP 2013 11.64% 35.35% 49.61% 59.22%
Central African Republic 11.65% % of GDP 2012 0.13% 11.70% 18.24% 17.74%
Cameroon 20.66% % of GDP 2013 1.86% 16.04% 19.40% 20.71%
Congo 55.49% % of GDP 2012 -14.54% 40.21% 24.00% 25.50%
Congo-Brazzaville 76.53% % of GDP 2013 -7.24% 70.42% 80.53% 48.52%
Comoros 16.41% % of GDP 2013 0.26% 14.34% 15.47% 14.88%
Cape Verde 34.92% % of GDP 2012 3.45% 32.10% 31.36% 16.71%
Eritrea 19.53% % of GDP 2012 5.16% 4.43% 6.44% n.a.
Ethiopia 12.49% % of GDP 2013 -1.28% 10.50% 14.75% 6.55%
Gabon 58.72% % of GDP 2013 0.14% 52.50% 62.20% 45.80%
Ghana 42.16% % of GDP 2013 -5.96% 29.29% 39.30% 16.74%
Guinea 28.46% % of GDP 2013 -1.26% 26.54% 24.63% 31.09%
Gambia 36.95% % of GDP 2013 0.98% 22.91% 20.33% 55.06%
Guinea-Bissau 17.32% % of GDP 2012 -9.15% 15.89% 16.25% 12.44%
Equatorial Guinea 88.46% % of GDP 2013 -4.35% 91.31% 110.62% 47.33%
Ivory Coast 45.38% % of GDP 2013 -2.99% 50.70% 48.56% 32.03%
Kenya 17.73% % of GDP 2013 -2.12% 20.03% 26.61% 23.03%
Liberia 32.36% % of GDP 2012 4.86% 34.39% 91.51% n.a.
Lesotho 44.98% % of GDP 2012 -4.10% 56.02% 60.07% 20.91%
Madagascar 30.07% % of GDP 2013 1.06% 22.37% 32.64% 18.45%
Mali 31.26% % of GDP 2012 4.94% 29.20% 26.42% 16.37%
Mozambique 30.18% % of GDP 2013 0.30% 28.65% 30.88% 8.22%
Mauritania 66.71% % of GDP 2013 0.00% 44.90% 29.41% 49.83%
Mauritius 54.31% % of GDP 2013 -0.28% 48.96% 54.02% 63.93%
Malawi 46.33% % of GDP 2013 8.77% 24.65% 24.96% 18.78%
Namibia 43.01% % of GDP 2013 -0.33% 52.35% 39.81% 49.63%
Niger 23.34% % of GDP 2013 -1.27% 20.32% 17.36% 16.60%
Nigeria 18.04% % of GDP 2013 -13.40% 30.77% 30.16% 43.98%
Rwanda 14.41% % of GDP 2013 1.54% 10.18% 11.12% 6.14%
Sudan 9.58% % of GDP 2013 -0.37% 15.97% 17.76% 5.34%
Senegal 26.20% % of GDP 2013 1.91% 24.33% 27.14% 24.46%
Sierra Leone 53.10% % of GDP 2013 17.91% 13.50% 16.67% 23.92%
Somalia 9.79% % of GDP 1990 2.10% 6.96% 24.82% 14.96%
South Sudan 18.19% % of GDP 2013 8.07% 60.31% n.a. n.a.
Sao Tome and Principe 11.01% % of GDP 2013 -1.92% 9.98% 13.61% n.a.
Swaziland 55.30% % of GDP 2013 2.27% 59.15% 84.93% 84.11%
Seychelles 76.32% % of GDP 2013 -13.99% 100.28% 67.74% 11.24%
Chad 32.17% % of GDP 2013 -4.75% 35.14% 51.01% 13.78%
Togo 39.43% % of GDP 2011 -0.73% 37.92% 36.52% 41.37%
Tanzania 24.72% % of GDP 2013 -4.60% 23.23% 19.65% n.a.
Uganda 23.73% % of GDP 2013 0.54% 24.13% 12.70% 7.95%
South Africa 31.14% % of GDP 2013 1.22% 27.29% 26.42% 26.69%
Zambia 41.88% % of GDP 2013 2.46% 29.25% 33.54% 26.81%
Zimbabwe 29.49% % of GDP 2013 -3.24% 22.01% 34.47% 23.34%

Click to download all data for Sub-Saharan Africa (csv).

North America

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
USA 13.49% % of GDP 2013 -0.08% 11.01% 9.63% 8.91%
Canada 30.08% % of GDP 2013 0.05% 28.44% 37.46% 25.12%
Mexico 31.75% % of GDP 2013 -0.90% 27.28% 26.23% 19.00%

Click to download all data for North America (csv).

Caribbean

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Antigua and Barbuda 44.08% % of GDP 2013 -0.88% 46.55% 59.44% 81.00%
The Bahamas 41.95% % of GDP 2013 -3.49% 39.86% 44.55% 53.83%
Barbados 42.48% % of GDP 2012 3.14% 46.03% 42.15% 48.71%
Cuba 19.96% % of GDP 2011 -2.21% 20.34% 11.53% 32.90%
Dominica 32.83% % of GDP 2013 1.68% 29.62% 34.82% 47.14%
Dominican Republic 25.52% % of GDP 2013 1.20% 21.13% 42.33% 33.47%
Grenada 25.10% % of GDP 2013 -0.71% 24.28% 33.00% 40.28%
Haiti 18.24% % of GDP 2013 1.33% 15.71% 15.35% n.a.
Jamaica 30.43% % of GDP 2012 0.04% 41.95% 36.61% 43.63%
Saint Kitts and Nevis 34.25% % of GDP 2012 2.94% 31.31% 35.82% 59.33%
Saint Lucia 45.99% % of GDP 2013 -0.38% 46.23% 52.44% 80.19%
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 27.35% % of GDP 2013 0.20% 28.49% 35.35% 65.34%
Trinidad and Tobago 63.15% % of GDP 2013 7.50% 52.35% 56.04% 42.64%

Click to download all data for Caribbean (csv).

Central America

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Belize 60.85% % of GDP 2013 -1.60% 51.62% 50.56% 59.74%
Costa Rica 35.14% % of GDP 2013 -2.06% 42.28% 46.26% 30.27%
El Salvador 26.39% % of GDP 2013 0.80% 23.20% 26.96% 13.24%
Guatemala 23.66% % of GDP 2013 -1.21% 23.98% 26.98% 17.31%
Honduras 47.93% % of GDP 2013 -2.46% 39.53% 58.42% 31.00%
Nicaragua 40.52% % of GDP 2013 -2.52% 30.89% 23.06% 32.54%
Panama 71.01% % of GDP 2013 -8.78% 75.53% 67.61% 78.90%

Click to download all data for Central America (csv).

South America

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Argentina 14.27% % of GDP 2013 -1.53% 17.40% 21.50% 13.06%
Bolivia 44.18% % of GDP 2013 -3.08% 35.72% 31.14% 22.50%
Brazil 12.55% % of GDP 2013 -0.03% 10.98% 16.43% 8.93%
Chile 32.56% % of GDP 2013 -1.68% 37.17% 37.86% 35.39%
Colombia 17.83% % of GDP 2013 -0.43% 16.03% 16.77% 18.00%
Ecuador 29.18% % of GDP 2013 -0.85% 25.25% 24.55% 20.28%
Guyana 84.62% % of GDP 2005 -11.17% 94.99% 102.62% 68.92%
Paraguay 49.38% % of GDP 2013 -0.54% 51.54% 54.42% 35.70%
Peru 23.74% % of GDP 2013 -2.86% 25.19% 22.49% 9.67%
Suriname 58.66% % of GDP 2012 28.24% n.a. 19.74% 29.31%
Uruguay 24.00% % of GDP 2013 -2.66% 28.16% 32.11% 23.49%
Venezuela 26.17% % of GDP 2012 -3.77% 30.82% 33.85% 20.57%

Click to download all data for South America (csv).

Australia and Oceania

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Australia 19.88% % of GDP 2013 -1.44% 22.53% 17.01% 15.14%
Fiji 58.79% % of GDP 2013 -3.87% 49.51% 53.81% 62.67%
Kiribati 10.51% % of GDP 2013 -0.70% 14.34% 11.62% 18.59%
New Zealand 29.65% % of GDP 2013 0.01% 29.32% 29.81% 26.42%
Papua New Guinea 51.00% % of GDP 2012 -2.23% 74.57% 69.42% 43.25%
Samoa 30.64% % of GDP 2013 2.99% 30.16% 28.20% n.a.
Solomon Islands 54.54% % of GDP 2013 -9.63% 39.30% 30.93% 28.98%
Timor-Leste n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Tonga 17.81% % of GDP 2012 0.29% 13.71% 19.31% 22.74%
Tuvalu n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Vanuatu 47.82% % of GDP 2013 -1.26% 49.11% 45.60% 37.40%

Click to download all data for Australia and Oceania (csv).

World

Country Level Units As Of 1Y Chg ~5Y Ago ~10Y Ago ~25Y Ago Country Page
Afghanistan 6.28% % of GDP 2013 0.77% 14.71% 34.00% n.a.
Albania 35.05% % of GDP 2013 1.77% 29.60% 21.54% 17.94%
Algeria 33.14% % of GDP 2013 -4.60% 35.37% 40.05% 18.64%
Angola 55.78% % of GDP 2013 -6.16% 55.01% 70.14% 33.87%
Antigua and Barbuda 44.08% % of GDP 2013 -0.88% 46.55% 59.44% 81.00%
Argentina 14.27% % of GDP 2013 -1.53% 17.40% 21.50% 13.06%
Armenia 26.99% % of GDP 2013 2.41% 15.47% 29.73% n.a.
Australia 19.88% % of GDP 2013 -1.44% 22.53% 17.01% 15.14%
Austria 57.44% % of GDP 2013 0.25% 50.05% 51.48% 36.37%
Azerbaijan 48.72% % of GDP 2013 -4.99% 51.64% 48.79% n.a.
Bahrain 0.00% % of GDP 2013 -74.30% 68.47% 78.61% 98.64%
Bangladesh 19.54% % of GDP 2013 -0.62% 16.94% 15.46% 5.75%
Barbados 42.48% % of GDP 2012 3.14% 46.03% 42.15% 48.71%
Belarus 61.18% % of GDP 2013 -20.16% 50.53% 67.89% n.a.
Belgium 82.76% % of GDP 2013 0.53% 69.26% 70.68% 62.99%
Belize 60.85% % of GDP 2013 -1.60% 51.62% 50.56% 59.74%
Benin 18.27% % of GDP 2013 2.97% 15.79% 20.03% 13.50%
Bhutan 40.85% % of GDP 2013 2.12% 44.70% 31.29% 28.05%
Bolivia 44.18% % of GDP 2013 -3.08% 35.72% 31.14% 22.50%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 31.96% % of GDP 2013 1.09% 24.70% 32.24% n.a.
Botswana 55.12% % of GDP 2013 11.64% 35.35% 49.61% 59.22%
Brazil 12.55% % of GDP 2013 -0.03% 10.98% 16.43% 8.93%
Brunei 76.16% % of GDP 2013 -5.21% 72.78% 68.80% 61.81%
Bulgaria 68.39% % of GDP 2013 3.79% 43.79% 41.33% 46.42%
Burkina Faso 27.49% % of GDP 2012 6.34% 9.88% 8.71% 11.00%
Burundi 7.40% % of GDP 2013 -1.55% 6.80% 6.95% 9.75%
Cambodia 65.72% % of GDP 2013 2.93% 49.22% 63.61% n.a.
Cameroon 20.66% % of GDP 2013 1.86% 16.04% 19.40% 20.71%
Canada 30.08% % of GDP 2013 0.05% 28.44% 37.46% 25.12%
Cape Verde 34.92% % of GDP 2012 3.45% 32.10% 31.36% 16.71%
Central African Republic 11.65% % of GDP 2012 0.13% 11.70% 18.24% 17.74%
Chad 32.17% % of GDP 2013 -4.75% 35.14% 51.01% 13.78%
Chile 32.56% % of GDP 2013 -1.68% 37.17% 37.86% 35.39%
China 26.40% % of GDP 2013 -0.92% 26.72% 34.08% 10.60%
Colombia 17.83% % of GDP 2013 -0.43% 16.03% 16.77% 18.00%
Comoros 16.41% % of GDP 2013 0.26% 14.34% 15.47% 14.88%
Congo 55.49% % of GDP 2012 -14.54% 40.21% 24.00% 25.50%
Congo-Brazzaville 76.53% % of GDP 2013 -7.24% 70.42% 80.53% 48.52%
Costa Rica 35.14% % of GDP 2013 -2.06% 42.28% 46.26% 30.27%
Croatia 42.94% % of GDP 2013 1.37% 34.52% 39.45% n.a.
Cuba 19.96% % of GDP 2011 -2.21% 20.34% 11.53% 32.90%
Cyprus 40.11% % of GDP 2010 -0.15% 48.00% 55.99% 45.04%
Czech Republic 77.20% % of GDP 2013 0.68% 58.81% 57.43% n.a.
Denmark 54.27% % of GDP 2013 0.30% 46.72% 43.80% 35.25%
Djibouti 57.09% % of GDP 2007 17.20% 39.91% 40.45% n.a.
Dominica 32.83% % of GDP 2013 1.68% 29.62% 34.82% 47.14%
Dominican Republic 25.52% % of GDP 2013 1.20% 21.13% 42.33% 33.47%
Ecuador 29.18% % of GDP 2013 -0.85% 25.25% 24.55% 20.28%
Egypt 17.62% % of GDP 2013 0.20% 24.96% 28.23% 17.89%
El Salvador 26.39% % of GDP 2013 0.80% 23.20% 26.96% 13.24%
Equatorial Guinea 88.46% % of GDP 2013 -4.35% 91.31% 110.62% 47.33%
Eritrea 19.53% % of GDP 2012 5.16% 4.43% 6.44% n.a.
Estonia 86.08% % of GDP 2013 -2.18% 60.84% 61.53% n.a.
Ethiopia 12.49% % of GDP 2013 -1.28% 10.50% 14.75% 6.55%
Fiji 58.79% % of GDP 2013 -3.87% 49.51% 53.81% 62.67%
Finland 38.18% % of GDP 2013 -1.45% 36.27% 38.59% 23.01%
France 28.28% % of GDP 2013 0.20% 24.07% 25.91% 21.48%
Gabon 58.72% % of GDP 2013 0.14% 52.50% 62.20% 45.80%
Gambia 36.95% % of GDP 2013 0.98% 22.91% 20.33% 55.06%
Georgia 44.69% % of GDP 2013 6.54% 29.74% 31.56% 42.36%
Germany 50.67% % of GDP 2013 -1.12% 42.46% 38.55% 24.22%
Ghana 42.16% % of GDP 2013 -5.96% 29.29% 39.30% 16.74%
Greece 30.23% % of GDP 2013 1.99% 19.01% 20.78% 15.87%
Grenada 25.10% % of GDP 2013 -0.71% 24.28% 33.00% 40.28%
Guatemala 23.66% % of GDP 2013 -1.21% 23.98% 26.98% 17.31%
Guinea 28.46% % of GDP 2013 -1.26% 26.54% 24.63% 31.09%
Guinea-Bissau 17.32% % of GDP 2012 -9.15% 15.89% 16.25% 12.44%
Guyana 84.62% % of GDP 2005 -11.17% 94.99% 102.62% 68.92%
Haiti 18.24% % of GDP 2013 1.33% 15.71% 15.35% n.a.
Honduras 47.93% % of GDP 2013 -2.46% 39.53% 58.42% 31.00%
Hong Kong 229.59% % of GDP 2013 4.03% 191.23% 186.65% 130.13%
Hungary 88.76% % of GDP 2013 1.35% 75.06% 60.02% 36.04%
Iceland 55.73% % of GDP 2013 -0.99% 49.69% 32.60% 32.66%
India 24.82% % of GDP 2013 0.82% 20.05% 17.55% 6.90%
Indonesia 23.74% % of GDP 2013 -0.55% 24.16% 32.22% 24.29%
Iran 32.18% % of GDP 2007 -0.27% 27.23% 13.63% 15.45%
Iraq n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Ireland 105.30% % of GDP 2013 -0.34% 87.06% 80.43% 58.99%
Israel 32.92% % of GDP 2013 -3.32% 33.50% 39.42% 36.81%
Italy 28.56% % of GDP 2013 0.30% 22.47% 24.05% 18.57%
Ivory Coast 45.38% % of GDP 2013 -2.99% 50.70% 48.56% 32.03%
Jamaica 30.43% % of GDP 2012 0.04% 41.95% 36.61% 43.63%
Japan 14.73% % of GDP 2012 -0.40% 17.71% 11.87% 9.76%
Jordan 42.47% % of GDP 2013 -3.77% 45.88% 52.27% 56.05%
Kazakhstan 38.25% % of GDP 2013 -6.83% 41.84% 52.50% n.a.
Kenya 17.73% % of GDP 2013 -2.12% 20.03% 26.61% 23.03%
Kiribati 10.51% % of GDP 2013 -0.70% 14.34% 11.62% 18.59%
Kosovo 17.41% % of GDP 2013 -0.82% 17.07% n.a. n.a.
Kuwait 71.56% % of GDP 2013 -3.17% 59.47% 56.92% 52.40%
Kyrgyzstan 47.17% % of GDP 2013 2.76% 54.70% 42.56% n.a.
Laos 37.22% % of GDP 2013 -1.62% 30.88% 30.55% 12.13%
Latvia 58.84% % of GDP 2011 5.03% 42.35% 40.87% n.a.
Lebanon 62.55% % of GDP 2013 6.06% 34.12% 36.22% 18.36%
Lesotho 44.98% % of GDP 2012 -4.10% 56.02% 60.07% 20.91%
Liberia 32.36% % of GDP 2012 4.86% 34.39% 91.51% n.a.
Libya 67.38% % of GDP 2008 -0.18% 63.26% 23.86% n.a.
Lithuania 77.13% % of GDP 2011 9.31% 53.79% 52.71% n.a.
Luxembourg 203.32% % of GDP 2013 9.95% 168.17% 153.87% 102.47%
Macedonia 53.89% % of GDP 2013 0.28% 39.18% 39.94% n.a.
Madagascar 30.07% % of GDP 2013 1.06% 22.37% 32.64% 18.45%
Malawi 46.33% % of GDP 2013 8.77% 24.65% 24.96% 18.78%
Malaysia 81.68% % of GDP 2013 -3.57% 91.42% 115.37% 71.38%
Maldives 111.32% % of GDP 2012 2.61% 104.13% 61.47% 75.86%
Mali 31.26% % of GDP 2012 4.94% 29.20% 26.42% 16.37%
Malta 93.61% % of GDP 2011 5.42% 89.22% 83.12% 69.58%
Mauritania 66.71% % of GDP 2013 0.00% 44.90% 29.41% 49.83%
Mauritius 54.31% % of GDP 2013 -0.28% 48.96% 54.02% 63.93%
Mexico 31.75% % of GDP 2013 -0.90% 27.28% 26.23% 19.00%
Moldova 44.12% % of GDP 2013 0.64% 36.87% 50.71% n.a.
Mongolia 45.14% % of GDP 2013 -5.42% 50.28% 60.79% 22.49%
Montenegro 41.78% % of GDP 2013 -2.34% 32.12% 42.02% n.a.
Morocco 33.65% % of GDP 2013 -2.26% 28.70% 29.37% 23.29%
Mozambique 30.18% % of GDP 2013 0.30% 28.65% 30.88% 8.22%
Myanmar 0.18% % of GDP 2004 0.00% 0.49% 0.83% 9.10%
Namibia 43.01% % of GDP 2013 -0.33% 52.35% 39.81% 49.63%
Nepal 10.70% % of GDP 2013 0.63% 12.42% 16.68% 11.07%
Netherlands 82.94% % of GDP 2013 0.90% 63.91% 63.36% 56.02%
New Zealand 29.65% % of GDP 2013 0.01% 29.32% 29.81% 26.42%
Nicaragua 40.52% % of GDP 2013 -2.52% 30.89% 23.06% 32.54%
Niger 23.34% % of GDP 2013 -1.27% 20.32% 17.36% 16.60%
Nigeria 18.04% % of GDP 2013 -13.40% 30.77% 30.16% 43.98%
North Korea n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Norway 38.88% % of GDP 2013 -2.02% 40.04% 41.80% 38.01%
Oman 62.65% % of GDP 2012 -4.46% 58.48% 49.76% 40.01%
Pakistan 13.22% % of GDP 2013 0.82% 12.40% 15.67% 13.88%
Panama 71.01% % of GDP 2013 -8.78% 75.53% 67.61% 78.90%
Papua New Guinea 51.00% % of GDP 2012 -2.23% 74.57% 69.42% 43.25%
Paraguay 49.38% % of GDP 2013 -0.54% 51.54% 54.42% 35.70%
Peru 23.74% % of GDP 2013 -2.86% 25.19% 22.49% 9.67%
Philippines 27.91% % of GDP 2013 -2.87% 32.23% 48.57% 28.11%
Poland 47.80% % of GDP 2013 1.14% 39.44% 37.49% n.a.
Portugal 39.26% % of GDP 2013 1.91% 27.08% 27.25% 29.46%
Qatar 75.62% % of GDP 2012 3.96% 61.36% 61.70% n.a.
Romania 41.98% % of GDP 2013 1.99% 30.60% 35.84% n.a.
Russia 28.37% % of GDP 2013 -1.23% 27.94% 34.42% 21.90%
Rwanda 14.41% % of GDP 2013 1.54% 10.18% 11.12% 6.14%
Saint Kitts and Nevis 34.25% % of GDP 2012 2.94% 31.31% 35.82% 59.33%
Saint Lucia 45.99% % of GDP 2013 -0.38% 46.23% 52.44% 80.19%
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 27.35% % of GDP 2013 0.20% 28.49% 35.35% 65.34%
Samoa 30.64% % of GDP 2013 2.99% 30.16% 28.20% n.a.
San Marino n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Sao Tome and Principe 11.01% % of GDP 2013 -1.92% 9.98% 13.61% n.a.
Saudi Arabia 51.79% % of GDP 2013 -2.63% 47.09% 50.99% 33.75%
Senegal 26.20% % of GDP 2013 1.91% 24.33% 27.14% 24.46%
Serbia 40.75% % of GDP 2013 3.82% 26.85% 24.22% n.a.
Seychelles 76.32% % of GDP 2013 -13.99% 100.28% 67.74% 11.24%
Sierra Leone 53.10% % of GDP 2013 17.91% 13.50% 16.67% 23.92%
Singapore 190.52% % of GDP 2013 -4.55% 191.88% 216.34% 179.54%
Slovak Republic 92.95% % of GDP 2013 1.15% 67.64% 68.61% 28.84%
Slovenia 74.69% % of GDP 2013 1.44% 57.24% 54.97% n.a.
Solomon Islands 54.54% % of GDP 2013 -9.63% 39.30% 30.93% 28.98%
Somalia 9.79% % of GDP 1990 2.10% 6.96% 24.82% 14.96%
South Africa 31.14% % of GDP 2013 1.22% 27.29% 26.42% 26.69%
South Korea 53.92% % of GDP 2013 -2.42% 47.55% 38.30% 28.53%
South Sudan 18.19% % of GDP 2013 8.07% 60.31% n.a. n.a.
Spain 31.56% % of GDP 2013 1.24% 22.67% 25.18% 16.68%
Sri Lanka 22.47% % of GDP 2013 -0.36% 21.33% 35.33% 27.26%
Sudan 9.58% % of GDP 2013 -0.37% 15.97% 17.76% 5.34%
Suriname 58.66% % of GDP 2012 28.24% n.a. 19.74% 29.31%
Swaziland 55.30% % of GDP 2013 2.27% 59.15% 84.93% 84.11%
Sweden 43.79% % of GDP 2013 -2.53% 44.45% 43.45% 30.46%
Switzerland 72.15% % of GDP 2013 5.09% 57.44% 51.55% 43.42%
Syria 37.99% % of GDP 2012 2.66% 36.84% 33.47% 17.15%
Tajikistan 19.18% % of GDP 2013 -2.36% 15.15% 58.31% 35.90%
Tanzania 24.72% % of GDP 2013 -4.60% 23.23% 19.65% n.a.
Thailand 73.57% % of GDP 2013 -1.41% 68.35% 70.70% 34.92%
The Bahamas 41.95% % of GDP 2013 -3.49% 39.86% 44.55% 53.83%
Timor-Leste n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Togo 39.43% % of GDP 2011 -0.73% 37.92% 36.52% 41.37%
Tonga 17.81% % of GDP 2012 0.29% 13.71% 19.31% 22.74%
Trinidad and Tobago 63.15% % of GDP 2013 7.50% 52.35% 56.04% 42.64%
Tunisia 46.99% % of GDP 2013 -2.19% 45.83% 42.22% 44.35%
Turkey 25.65% % of GDP 2013 -0.65% 23.32% 23.55% 16.20%
Turkmenistan 73.26% % of GDP 2012 -1.44% 64.06% 62.31% n.a.
Tuvalu n.a. % of GDP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UAE 95.15% % of GDP 2012 4.84% 78.87% 55.92% n.a.
Uganda 23.73% % of GDP 2013 0.54% 24.13% 12.70% 7.95%
UK 29.84% % of GDP 2013 -0.41% 27.01% 24.36% 22.59%
Ukraine 46.87% % of GDP 2013 -4.11% 46.38% 61.21% 32.08%
Uruguay 24.00% % of GDP 2013 -2.66% 28.16% 32.11% 23.49%
USA 13.49% % of GDP 2013 -0.08% 11.01% 9.63% 8.91%
Uzbekistan 27.66% % of GDP 2013 -0.01% 35.59% 40.21% n.a.
Vanuatu 47.82% % of GDP 2013 -1.26% 49.11% 45.60% 37.40%
Venezuela 26.17% % of GDP 2012 -3.77% 30.82% 33.85% 20.57%
Vietnam 83.88% % of GDP 2013 3.85% 62.97% 54.90% 23.85%
Yemen 30.48% % of GDP 2010 2.26% 41.26% 35.90% n.a.
Zambia 41.88% % of GDP 2013 2.46% 29.25% 33.54% 26.81%
Zimbabwe 29.49% % of GDP 2013 -3.24% 22.01% 34.47% 23.34%

https://www.quandl.com/collections/economics/exports-as-share-of-gdp-by-country

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 480-486

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 473-479

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 464-472

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 455-463

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 447-454

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 439-446

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 431-438

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 422-430

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 414-421

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 408-413

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 400-407

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 391-399

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 383-390

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 376-382

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 369-375

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 360-368

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 354-359

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 346-353

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 338-345

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 328-337

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 319-327

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 307-318

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 296-306

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 287-295

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 277-286

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 264-276

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 250-263

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 236-249

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 222-235

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 211-221

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 202-210

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 194-201

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 184-193

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 174-183

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 165-173

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 158-164

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 151-157

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 143-150

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 135-142

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 131-134

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 124-130

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 121-123

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 118-120

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 113 -117

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 112

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 108-111

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 106-108

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 104-105

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 101-103

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 98-100

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 94-97

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 93

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 92

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 91

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 88-90

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 84-87

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 79-83

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 74-78

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 71-73

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 68-70

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 65-67

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 62-64

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 58-61

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 55-57

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 52-54

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 49-51

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 45-48

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 41-44

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 38-40

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 34-37

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 30-33

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 27-29

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 17-26

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 16-22

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 10-15

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Shows 01-09


Make a Comment

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Liked it here?
Why not try sites on the blogroll...

%d bloggers like this: