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Neal Stephenson — Reamde — Videos

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Neal Stephenson interview – Reamde

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Saul Bellow — Ravelstein — Videos

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bellowsSaul-Bellow bellows_2ravelsteinSaul Bellow - Ravelsteinsaul-bellow-wife daughterSaul-Bellow (1)principal-saul-bellow_grande Ravelstein

Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow reads his fiction

Saul Bellow Interview

Saul Bellow

Norman Manea, Great Jewish Writers of Our Time Series: Excerpts from an Interview with Saul Bellow

The Greatest American Essays: Saul Bellow (Herzog, Seize the Day, Humboldt’s Gift) (1998)

Saul Bellow (June 10, 1915 — April 5, 2005) was a Canadian-born American writer. For his literary contributions, Bellow was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, the Nobel Prize for Literature, and the National Medal of Arts. He is the only writer to win the National Book Award for Fiction three times and he received the Foundation’s lifetime Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters in 1990.

In the words of the Swedish Nobel Committee, his writing exhibited “the mixture of rich picaresque novel and subtle analysis of our culture, of entertaining adventure, drastic and tragic episodes in quick succession interspersed with philosophic conversation, all developed by a commentator with a witty tongue and penetrating insight into the outer and inner complications that drive us to act, or prevent us from acting, and that can be called the dilemma of our age.” His best-known works include The Adventures of Augie March, Henderson the Rain King, Herzog, Mr. Sammler’s Planet, Seize the Day, Humboldt’s Gift and Ravelstein. Widely regarded as one of the 20th century’s greatest authors, Bellow has had a “huge literary influence.”

Bellow said that of all his characters Eugene Henderson, of “Henderson the Rain King,” was the one most like himself. Bellow grew up as an insolent slum kid, a “thick-necked” rowdy, and an immigrant from Quebec. As Christopher Hitchens describes it, Bellow’s fiction and principal characters reflect his own yearning for transcendence, a battle “to overcome not just ghetto conditions but also ghetto psychoses.” Bellow’s protagonists, in one shape or another, all wrestle with what Corde (Albert Corde, the dean in “The Dean’s December”) called “the big-scale insanities of the 20th century.” This transcendence of the “unutterably dismal” (a phrase from Dangling Man) is achieved, if it can be achieved at all, through a “ferocious assimilation of learning” (Hitchens) and an emphasis on nobility.

In 1989, Bellow received the Peggy V. Helmerich Distinguished Author Award. The Helmerich Award is presented annually by the Tulsa Library Trust.

Bellow attended the University of Chicago but later transferred to Northwestern University. He originally wanted to study literature, but he felt the English department was anti-Jewish. Instead, he graduated with honors in anthropology and sociology. It has been suggested Bellow’s study of anthropology had an influence on his literary style, and anthropological references pepper his works. Bellow later did graduate work at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Paraphrasing Bellow’s description of his close friend Allan Bloom (see Ravelstein), John Podhoretz has said that both Bellow and Bloom “inhaled books and ideas the way the rest of us breathe air.”

In the 1930s, Bellow was part of the Chicago branch of the Works Progress Administration Writer’s Project, which included such future Chicago literary luminaries as Richard Wright and Nelson Algren. Many of the writers were radical: if they were not members of the Communist Party USA, they were sympathetic to the cause. Bellow was a Trotskyist, but because of the greater numbers of Stalinist-leaning writers he had to suffer their taunts.

In 1941 Bellow became a naturalized US citizen. In 1943, Maxim Lieber was his literary agent.

During World War II, Bellow joined the merchant marine and during his service he completed his first novel, Dangling Man (1944) about a young Chicago man waiting to be drafted for the war.

From 1946 through 1948 Bellow taught at the University of Minnesota, living on Commonwealth Avenue, in St. Paul, Minnesota.

In 1948, Bellow was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship that allowed him to move to Paris, where he began writing The Adventures of Augie March (1953). Critics have remarked on the resemblance between Bellow’s picaresque novel and the great 17th Century Spanish classic Don Quixote. The book starts with one of American literature’s most famous opening paragraphs, and it follows its titular character through a series of careers and encounters, as he lives by his wits and his resolve. Written in a colloquial yet philosophical style, The Adventures of Augie March established Bellow’s reputation as a major author.

In the late 1950s he taught creative writing at the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras. One of his students was William Kennedy, who was encouraged by Bellow to write fiction.

Christopher Hitchens Book TV aired 11/3/2007 Saul Bellow

Saul Bellow

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saul Bellow
SaulBellow.jpg
Born Solomon Bellows
10 June 1915
Lachine, Quebec, Canada
Died 5 April 2005 (aged 89)
Brookline, Massachusetts, United States
Occupation Writer
Nationality Canadian/American
Alma mater University of Chicago
Northwestern University
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Literature
1976
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
1976
National Medal of Arts
1988
National Book Award
1954, 1965, 1971
Spouse Anita Goshkin (1937–56), Alexandra (Sondra) Tschacbasov (1956–59), Susan Glassman (1961–64), Alexandra Bagdasar Ionescu Tulcea (1974–85), Janis Freedman (1989–2005)

Signature

Saul Bellow (10 June 1915 – 5 April 2005) was a Canadian-born American writer. For his literary contributions, Bellow was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, the Nobel Prize for Literature, and the National Medal of Arts.[1] He is the only writer to win the National Book Award for Fiction three times[2] and he received the Foundation’s lifetimeMedal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters in 1990.[3]

In the words of the Swedish Nobel Committee, his writing exhibited “the mixture of rich picaresque novel and subtle analysis of our culture, of entertaining adventure, drastic and tragic episodes in quick succession interspersed with philosophic conversation, all developed by a commentator with a witty tongue and penetrating insight into the outer and inner complications that drive us to act, or prevent us from acting, and that can be called the dilemma of our age.”[4] His best-known works includeThe Adventures of Augie March, Henderson the Rain King, Herzog, Mr. Sammler’s Planet, Seize the Day, Humboldt’s Gift and Ravelstein. Widely regarded as one of the 20th century’s greatest authors, Bellow has had a “huge literary influence.”[5]

Bellow said that of all his characters Eugene Henderson, of Henderson the Rain King, was the one most like himself.[6] Bellow grew up as an insolent slum kid, a “thick-necked” rowdy, and an immigrant from Quebec. As Christopher Hitchens describes it, Bellow’s fiction and principal characters reflect his own yearning for transcendence, a battle “to overcome not just ghetto conditions but also ghetto psychoses.”[7][8] Bellow’s protagonists, in one shape or another, all wrestle with what Corde (Albert Corde, the dean in “The Dean’s December”) called “the big-scale insanities of the 20th century.” This transcendence of the “unutterably dismal” (a phrase from Dangling Man) is achieved, if it can be achieved at all, through a “ferocious assimilation of learning” (Hitchens) and an emphasis on nobility.

§Biography

§Early life

Saul Bellow was born Solomon Bellows[9][10] in Lachine, Quebec, two years after his parents, Lescha (née Gordin) and Abraham Bellows,[11] emigrated from Saint Petersburg, Russia. (He changed his name in 1936.)[9][10] Bellow celebrated his birthday in June, although he may have been born in July (in the Jewish community, it was customary to record the Hebrew date of birth, which does not always coincide with the Gregorian calendar).[12] Of his family’s emigration, Bellow wrote:

The retrospective was strong in me because of my parents. They were both full of the notion that they were falling, falling. They had been prosperous cosmopolitans in Saint Petersburg. My mother could never stop talking about the family dacha, her privileged life, and how all that was now gone. She was working in the kitchen. Cooking, washing, mending… There had been servants in Russia… But you could always transpose from your humiliating condition with the help of a sort of embittered irony.[13]

A period of illness from a respiratory infection at age eight both taught him self-reliance (he was a very fit man despite his sedentary occupation) and provided an opportunity to satisfy his hunger for reading: reportedly, he decided to be a writer when he first read Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

When Bellow was nine, his family moved to the Humboldt Park neighborhood on the West Side of Chicago, the city that formed the backdrop of many of his novels.[10] Bellow’s father, Abraham, was an onion importer. He also worked in a bakery, as a coal delivery man, and as a bootlegger.[10] Bellow’s mother, Liza, died when he was 17. He was left with his father and brother Maurice. His mother was deeply religious, and wanted her youngest son, Saul, to become a rabbi or a concert violinist. But he rebelled against what he later called the “suffocating orthodoxy” of his religious upbringing, and he began writing at a young age.[10] Bellow’s lifelong love for the Bible began at four when he learned Hebrew. Bellow also grew up reading William Shakespeare and the great Russian novelists of the 19th century.[10] In Chicago, he took part inanthroposophical studies. Bellow attended Tuley High School on Chicago’s west side where he befriended fellow writer Isaac Rosenfeld. In his 1959 novel Henderson the Rain King, Bellow modeled the character King Dahfu on Rosenfeld.[14]

§Education and early career

Bellow attended the University of Chicago but later transferred to Northwestern University. He originally wanted to study literature, but he felt the English department was anti-Jewish. Instead, he graduated with honors in anthropology and sociology.[15] It has been suggested Bellow’s study of anthropology had an influence on his literary style, and anthropological references pepper his works.[citation needed] Bellow later did graduate work at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Paraphrasing Bellow’s description of his close friend Allan Bloom (see Ravelstein), John Podhoretz has said that both Bellow and Bloom “inhaled books and ideas the way the rest of us breathe air.”[16]

In the 1930s, Bellow was part of the Chicago branch of the Works Progress Administration Writer’s Project, which included such future Chicago literary luminaries as Richard Wright and Nelson Algren. Many of the writers were radical: if they were not members of the Communist Party USA, they were sympathetic to the cause. Bellow was a Trotskyist, but because of the greater numbers of Stalinist-leaning writers he had to suffer their taunts.[17]

In 1941 Bellow became a naturalized US citizen.[18] In 1943, Maxim Lieber was his literary agent.

During World War II, Bellow joined the merchant marine and during his service he completed his first novel, Dangling Man (1944) about a young Chicago man waiting to be drafted for the war.

From 1946 through 1948 Bellow taught at the University of Minnesota, living on Commonwealth Avenue, in St. Paul, Minnesota.[19]

In 1948, Bellow was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship that allowed him to move to Paris, where he began writing The Adventures of Augie March (1953). Critics have remarked on the resemblance between Bellow’s picaresque novel and the great 17th Century Spanish classic Don Quixote.[citation needed] The book starts with one of American literature’s most famous opening paragraphs,[citation needed] and it follows its titular character through a series of careers and encounters, as he lives by his wits and his resolve. Written in a colloquial yet philosophical style, The Adventures of Augie March established Bellow’s reputation as a major author.

In the spring term of 1961 he taught creative writing at the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras.[20] One of his students was William Kennedy, who was encouraged by Bellow to write fiction.

§Return to Chicago and mid-career

Bellow lived in New York City for a number of years, but he returned to Chicago in 1962 as a professor at the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago. The committee’s goal was to have professors work closely with talented graduate students on a multi-disciplinary approach to learning. Bellow taught on the committee for more than 30 years, alongside his close friend, the philosopher Allan Bloom.

There were also other reasons for Bellow’s return to Chicago, where he moved into the Hyde Park neighborhood with his third wife, Susan Glassman. Bellow found Chicago vulgar but vital, and more representative of America than New York.[21] He was able to stay in contact with old high school friends and a broad cross-section of society. In a 1982 profile, Bellow’s neighborhood was described as a high-crime area in the city’s center, and Bellow maintained he had to live in such a place as a writer and “stick to his guns.”[22]

Bellow hit the bestseller list in 1964 with his novel Herzog. Bellow was surprised at the commercial success of this cerebral novel about a middle-aged and troubled college professor who writes letters to friends, scholars and the dead, but never sends them. Bellow returned to his exploration of mental instability, and its relationship to genius, in his 1975 novel Humboldt’s Gift. Bellow used his late friend and rival, the brilliant but self-destructive poet Delmore Schwartz, as his model for the novel’s title character, Von Humboldt Fleisher.[23] Bellow also used Rudolf Steiner’s spiritual science, anthroposophy, as a theme in the book, having attended a study group in Chicago. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1969.[24]

§Nobel Prize and later career

Saul Bellow (left) with Keith Botsford, around 1992

Propelled by the success of Humboldt’s Gift, Bellow won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1976. In the 70-minute address he gave to an audience in Stockholm, Sweden, Bellow called on writers to be beacons for civilization and awaken it from intellectual torpor.[23]

The following year, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Bellow for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government’s highest honor for achievement in thehumanities. Bellow’s lecture was entitled “The Writer and His Country Look Each Other Over.”[25]

Bellow traveled widely throughout his life, mainly to Europe, which he sometimes visited twice a year.[23] As a young man, Bellow went to Mexico City to meet Leon Trotsky, but the expatriate Russian revolutionary was assassinated the day before they were to meet. Bellow’s social contacts were wide and varied. He tagged along with Robert F. Kennedy for a magazine profile he never wrote, he was close friends with the author Ralph Ellison. His many friends included the journalist Sydney J. Harris and the poet John Berryman.[citation needed]

While sales of Bellow’s first few novels were modest, that turned around with Herzog. Bellow continued teaching well into his old age, enjoying its human interaction and exchange of ideas. He taught at Yale University, University of Minnesota, New York University, Princeton University, University of Puerto Rico, University of Chicago, Bard College and Boston University, where he co-taught a class with James Wood (‘modestly absenting himself’ when it was time to discuss Seize the Day). In order to take up his appointment at Boston, Bellow moved in 1993 from Chicago to Brookline, Massachusetts, where he died on 5 April 2005, at age 89. He is buried at the Jewish cemetery Shir HeHarim of Brattleboro, Vermont.

Bellow was married five times, with all but his last marriage ending in divorce. His son by his first marriage, Greg Bellow, became a psychotherapist; Greg Bellow published Saul Bellow’s Heart: A Son’s Memoir in 2013, nearly a decade after his father’s death.[26] Bellow’s son by his second marriage, Adam, published a nonfiction book In Praise of Nepotism in 2003. Bellow’s wives were Anita Goshkin, Alexandra (Sondra) Tsachacbasov, Susan Glassman, Alexandra Ionescu Tulcea and Janis Freedman. In 1999, when he was 84, Bellow had a daughter, Rosie, his fourth child, with Freedman.

While he read voluminously, Bellow also played the violin and followed sports. Work was a constant for him, but he at times toiled at a plodding pace on his novels, frustrating the publishing company.[23]

His early works earned him the reputation as a major novelist of the 20th century, and by his death he was widely regarded as one of the greatest living novelists.[27] He was the first writer to win three National Book Awards in all award categories.[2] His friend and protege Philip Roth has said of him, “The backbone of 20th-century American literature has been provided by two novelists—William Faulkner and Saul Bellow. Together they are the Melville, Hawthorne, and Twain of the 20th century.” James Wood, in a eulogy of Bellow in The New Republic, wrote:[28]

I judged all modern prose by his. Unfair, certainly, because he made even the fleet-footed—the Updikes, the DeLillos, the Roths—seem like monopodes. Yet what else could I do? I discovered Saul Bellow’s prose in my late teens, and henceforth, the relationship had the quality of a love affair about which one could not keep silent. Over the last week, much has been said about Bellow’s prose, and most of the praise—perhaps because it has been overwhelmingly by men—has tended toward the robust: We hear about Bellow’s mixing of high and low registers, his Melvillean cadences jostling the jivey Yiddish rhythms, the great teeming democracy of the big novels, the crooks and frauds and intellectuals who loudly people the brilliant sensorium of the fiction. All of this is true enough; John Cheever, in his journals, lamented that, alongside Bellow’s fiction, his stories seemed like mere suburban splinters. Ian McEwan wisely suggested last week that British writers and critics may have been attracted to Bellow precisely because he kept alive a Dickensian amplitude now lacking in the English novel. […] But nobody mentioned the beauty of this writing, its music, its high lyricism, its firm but luxurious pleasure in language itself. […] [I]n truth, I could not thank him enough when he was alive, and I cannot now.

§Themes and style

The author’s works speak to the disorienting nature of modern civilization, and the countervailing ability of humans to overcome their frailty and achieve greatness (or at least awareness). Bellow saw many flaws in modern civilization, and its ability to foster madness, materialism and misleading knowledge.[29] Principal characters in Bellow’s fiction have heroic potential, and many times they stand in contrast to the negative forces of society. Often these characters are Jewish and have a sense of alienation or otherness.

Jewish life and identity is a major theme in Bellow’s work, although he bristled at being called a “Jewish writer.” Bellow’s work also shows a great appreciation of America, and a fascination with the uniqueness and vibrancy of the American experience.

Bellow’s work abounds in references and quotes from the likes of Marcel Proust and Henry James, but he offsets these high-culture references with jokes.[10] Bellow interspersed autobiographical elements into his fiction, and many of his principal characters were said to bear a resemblance to him.

§Criticism, controversy and conservative cultural activism[edit]

Martin Amis described Bellow as “The greatest American author ever, in my view”.[30]

His sentences seem to weigh more than anyone else’s. He is like a force of nature… He breaks all the rules […] [T]he people in Bellow’s fiction are real people, yet the intensity of the gaze that he bathes them in, somehow through the particular, opens up into the universal.[31]

For Linda Grant, “What Bellow had to tell us in his fiction was that it was worth it, being alive.”

His vigour, vitality, humour and passion were always matched by the insistence on thought, not the predigested cliches of the mass media or of those on the left, which had begun to disgust him by the Sixties… It’s easy to be a ‘writer of conscience’—anyone can do it if they want to; just choose your cause. Bellow was a writer about conscience and consciousness, forever conflicted by the competing demands of the great cities, the individual’s urge to survival against all odds and his equal need for love and some kind of penetrating understanding of what there was of significance beyond all the racket and racketeering.[32]

On the other hand, Bellow’s detractors considered his work conventional and old-fashioned, as if the author was trying to revive the 19th-century European novel. In a private letter, Vladimir Nabokov once referred to Bellow as a “miserable mediocrity.”[33] Journalist and author Ron Rosenbaum described Bellow’s Ravelstein (2000) as the only book that rose above Bellow’s failings as an author. Rosenbaum wrote,

My problem with the pre-Ravelstein Bellow is that he all too often strains too hard to yoke together two somewhat contradictory aspects of his being and style. There’s the street-wise Windy City wiseguy and then—as if to show off that the wiseguy has Wisdom—there are the undigested chunks of arcane, not entirely impressive, philosophic thought and speculation. Just to make sure you know his novels have intellectual heft. That the world and the flesh in his prose are both figured and transfigured.[34]

Sam Tanenhaus wrote in New York Times Book Review in 2007:

But what, then, of the many defects—the longueurs and digressions, the lectures on anthroposophy and religion, the arcane reading lists? What of the characters who don’t change or grow but simply bristle onto the page, even the colorful lowlifes pontificating like fevered students in the seminars Bellow taught at the University of Chicago? And what of the punitively caricatured ex-wives drawn from the teeming annals of the novelist’s own marital discord?

But, Tanenhaus went on to answer his question:

Shortcomings, to be sure. But so what? Nature doesn’t owe us perfection. Novelists don’t either. Who among us would even recognize perfection if we saw it? In any event, applying critical methods, of whatever sort, seemed futile in the case of an author who, as Randall Jarrell once wrote of Walt Whitman, is a world, a waste with, here and there, systems blazing at random out of the darkness—those systems as beautifully and astonishingly organized as the rings and satellites of Saturn.[35]

V. S. Pritchett praised Bellow, finding his shorter works to be his best. Pritchett called Bellow’s novella Seize the Day a “small gray masterpiece.”[10]

As he grew older, Bellow moved decidedly away from leftist politics and became identified with cultural conservatism.[23][36][37] His opponents included feminism, campus activism[38] and postmodernism.[39] Bellow also thrust himself into the often contentious realm of Jewish and African-American relations.[40] Bellow has also been critical of multiculturalism and once said: “Who is the Tolstoy of the Zulus? The Proust of thePapuans? I’d be glad to read him.”[41]

Despite his identification with Chicago, he kept aloof from some of that city’s more conventional writers. In a 2006 interview with Stop Smiling magazine, Studs Terkel said of Bellow: “I didn’t know him too well. We disagreed on a number of things politically. In the protests in the beginning of Norman Mailer‘s Armies of the Night, when Mailer, Robert Lowell and Paul Goodman were marching to protest the Vietnam War, Bellow was invited to a sort of counter-gathering. He said, ‘Of course I’ll attend’. But he made a big thing of it. Instead of just saying OK, he was proud of it. So I wrote him a letter and he didn’t like it. He wrote me a letter back. He called me a Stalinist. But otherwise, we were friendly. He was a brilliant writer, of course. I love Seize the Day.”

§Awards and honors

§Bibliography

For a complete list of works, see Bibliography of Saul Bellow.

§Novels and novellas

§Short story collections

  • Mosby’s Memoirs (1968)
  • Him with His Foot in His Mouth (1984)
  • Something to Remember Me By: Three Tales (1991)
  • Collected Stories (2001)

§Plays

  • The Last Analysis (1965)

§Library of America editions

  • Novels 1944–1953: Dangling Man, The Victim, The Adventures of Augie March (2003)
  • Novels 1956–1964: Seize the Day, Henderson the Rain King, Herzog (2007)
  • Novels 1970–1982: Mr. Sammler’s Planet, Humboldt’s Gift, The Dean’s December (2010)
  • Novels 1984–2000: What Kind of Day Did You Have?, More Die of Heartbreak, A Theft, The Bellarosa Connection, The Actual, Ravelstein (2014)

§Translations

§Non-fiction

  • To Jerusalem and Back (1976), memoir
  • It All Adds Up (1994), essay collection
  • Saul Bellow: Letters, edited by Benjamin Taylor (2010), correspondence

§Works about Saul Bellow

  • Saul Bellow’s Heart: A Son’s Memoir, Greg Bellow, 2013 ISBN 978-1608199952
  • Saul Bellow, Tony Tanner (1965) (see also his City of Words [1971])
  • Saul Bellow, Malcolm Bradbury (1982)
  • Saul Bellow Drumlin Woodchuck,Mark Harris, University of Georgia Press. (1982)
  • Saul Bellow: Modern Critical Views, Harold Bloom (Ed.) (1986)
  • Handsome Is: Adventures with Saul Bellow, Harriet Wasserman (1997)
  • Saul Bellow and the Decline of Humanism, Michael K Glenday (1990)
  • Saul Bellow: A Biography of the Imagination, Ruth Miller, St. Martins Pr. (1991)
  • Bellow: A Biography, James Atlas (2000)
  • Saul Bellow and American Transcendentalism, M.A. Quayum (2004)
  • “Even Later” and “The American Eagle” in Martin Amis, The War Against Cliché (2001) are celebratory. The latter essay is also found in the Everyman’s Library edition of Augie March.
  • ‘Saul Bellow’s comic style’: James Wood in The Irresponsible Self: On Laughter and the Novel, 2004. ISBN 0-224-06450-9.
  • The Hero in Contemporary American Fiction: The Works of Saul Bellow and Don DeLillo , Stephanie Halldorson (2007)
  • Saul Bellow a song, written by Sufjan Stevens on The Avalanche

§See also

§References

  1. Jump up^ University of Chicago accolades — National Medal of Arts. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b “National Book Award Winners: 1950–2009”. National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  3. Jump up^ “Distinguished Contribution to American Letters”. National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  4. Jump up^ [1] Press Release: The Nobel Prize in Literature, 1976, Swedish Academy
  5. Jump up^ Obituary: Saul Bellow BBC News, Tuesday, 5 April 2005
  6. Jump up^ [2], Mel Gussow and Charles McGrath[2005] , in Saul Bellow, Who Breathed Life into American Novel, Dies at 89.”
  7. Jump up^ Arguably: Essays, Christopher Hitchens[2011], “Saul Bellow: The Great Assimilator”, Atlantic Books, 2011 ISBN 9780857892577
  8. Jump up^ “Jewish American titan from the ghetto” By Christopher Hitchens, 30 December 30, 2011
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Library of America Bellow Novels 1944–1953 Pg.1000.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Mel Gussow and Charles McGrath, Saul Bellow, Who Breathed Life Into American Novel, Dies at 89, The New York Times6 April 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  11. Jump up^ [3]
  12. Jump up^ The New York Times obituary, 6 April 2005. “…his birthdate is listed as either June or July 10, 1915, though his lawyer, Mr. Pozen, said yesterday that Mr. Bellow customarily celebrated in June. (Immigrant Jews at that time tended to be careless about the Christian calendar, and the records are inconclusive.)”
  13. Jump up^ Saul Bellow, It All Adds Up (Penguin, 2007), pp. 295–6.
  14. Jump up^ “Isaac Rosenfeld’s Dybbuk and Rethinking Literary Biography”, Zipperstein, Steven J. (2002). Partisan Review 49 (1). Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  15. Jump up^ The New York Times obituary, 6 April 2005. “He had hoped to study literature but was put off by what he saw as the tweedy anti-Semitism of the English department, and graduated in 1937 with honors in anthropology and sociology, subjects that were later to instill his novels.”
  16. Jump up^ timesonline.co.uk: Saul Bellow, a neocon’s tale
  17. Jump up^ Drew, Bettina. Nelson Algren, A Life on the Wild Side. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991
  18. Jump up^ Slater, Elinor; Robert Slater (1996). “SAUL BELLOW: Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature”. Great Jewish Men. Jonathan David Company. p. 42. ISBN 0-8246-0381-8. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
  19. Jump up^ (Life and Works). Saul Bellow Journal.[dead link]
  20. Jump up^ Bellow, Saul (2010). Saul Bellow: Letters. redactor Ben Taylor. New York: Viking. ISBN 9781101445327. Retrieved 12 July 2014. […] Puerto Rico, where he was spending the spring term of 1961.
  21. Jump up^ The New York Times Book Review, 13 December 1981
  22. Jump up^ Vogue, March 1982
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Atlas, James. Bellow: A Biography. New York: Random House, 2000.
  24. Jump up^ “Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B”. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  25. Jump up^ Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website . Retrieved 22 January 2009.
  26. Jump up^ Woods, James (22 July 2013). “Sins of the Fathers: Do great novelists make bad parents?”. The New Yorker. Retrieved30 December 2014.
  27. Jump up^ ‘He was the first true immigrant voice’ The Observer, Sunday 10 April 2005
  28. Jump up^ Wood, James, ‘Gratitude’, New Republic, 00286583, 25 April 2005, Vol. 232, Issue 15
  29. Jump up^ Malin, Irving. Saul Bellow’s Fiction. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969
  30. Jump up^ Martin Amis Author of Yellow Dog talks with Robert Birnbaum 8 December 2003, by Robert Birnbaum
  31. Jump up^ Martin Amis Author of Yellow Dog talks with Robert Birnbaum,Identity Theory, December 8, 2003, by Robert Birnbaum
  32. Jump up^ ‘He was the first true immigrant voice’ Linda grant, The Observer, Sunday 10 April 2005
  33. Jump up^ Wood, James (1 February 1990) “Private Strife.” Guardian Unlimited.
  34. Jump up^ Rosenbaum, Ron. “Saul Bellow and the Bad Fish.” Slate. 3 April 2007
  35. Jump up^ Tanenhaus, Sam (February 4, 2007) “Beyond Criticism.” New York Times Book Review.
  36. Jump up^ Review: The Joan Peters Case, Edward W. Said, Journal of Palestine Studies, 15:2 (Winter, 1986), pp. 144–150. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
  37. Jump up^ The Fate of an Honest Intellectual, Noam Chomsky (2002), inUnderstanding Power, The New Press, pp. 244–248. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
  38. Jump up^ “Campus Activism”. Campus Activism. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  39. Jump up^ “The New American McCarthyism: policing thought about the Middle East”.
  40. Jump up^ Ahmed, Azam and Ron Grossman (5 October 2007) “Bellow’s remarks on race haunt legacy in Hyde Park.” Chicago Tribune.
  41. Jump up^ John Blades (19 June 1994). “Bellow’s Latest Chapter”. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  42. Jump up^ “National Book Awards — 1954”. National Book Foundation (NBF). Retrieved 2012-03-03. (With essay by Nathaniel Rich from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.)
  43. Jump up^ “National Book Awards — 1965”. NBF. Retrieved 2012-03-03. (With acceptance speech by Bellow and essay by Salvatore Scibona from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.)
  44. Jump up^ “National Book Awards — 1971”. NBF. Retrieved 2012-03-03. (With essay by Craig Morgan Teicher from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.)
  45. Jump up^ “History”. Past winners & finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2012-03-30.

§External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saul_Bellow

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Simon Winchester — The Map That Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology — Videos

Posted on March 16, 2015. Filed under: Agriculture, Blogroll, Books, Freedom, Geology, liberty, media, Non-Fiction, Science, Talk Radio, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

map simon winchesterMap that Changed the World

map-tiles-2

william smithst-peter-s-church

William Smith’s map

Strata Smith: The Man & The Map

William Smith Interactive Map Viewer

William Smith Interactive Map Website

http://www.strata-smith.com./

Audio Book Review: The Map That Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology …

William Smith (geologist)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
William Smith
William Smith (geologist).jpg

William Smith
Born 23 March 1769
Churchill, Oxfordshire
Died 28 August 1839 (aged 70)
Nationality English
Fields Geology
Known for Geological map
Notable awards Wollaston Medal (1831)

William ‘Strata’ Smith (23 March 1769 – 28 August 1839) was an English geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide geological map. He is known as the “Father of English Geology” for collating the geological history of England and Wales into a single record, although recognition was very slow in coming. At the time his map was first published he was overlooked by the scientific community; his relatively humble education and family connections preventing him from mixing easily in learned society. Consequently his work was plagiarised; financially ruined, he spent time in debtors’ prison. It was only much later in his life that Smith received recognition for his accomplishments.

§Early life

Smith was born in the village of Churchill, Oxfordshire, the son of blacksmith John Smith, himself scion of a respectable farming family. His father died when Smith was just eight years old, and he was then raised by his uncle. In 1787, he found work as an assistant for Edward Webb of Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire, a surveyor. He was quick to learn, and soon became proficient at the trade. In 1791, he travelled to Somerset to make a valuation survey of the Sutton Court estate, and building on earlier work in the same area by John Strachey.[1] He stayed in the area for the next eight years, working first for Webb and later for the Somersetshire Coal Canal Company, living at Rugborne Farm in High Littleton.

Smith described his experiences when living in High Littleton and Bath as follows:

I resided from 1791-1795 in a part of the large old manor house belonging to Lady JONES called Rugburn in High Littleton. It was then occupied by a farmer Cornelius HARRIS, who lodged and boarded me for half a guinea a week and kept my horse for half a crown a week. I have often said that in one respect my residence was the most singular, it being nearer to three cities than any other place in Britain: it is 10 miles from Bath, 10 from Bristol and 12 from Wells. What is called the lower road from Bath to Wells goes through High Littleton but Rugburn old house is a quarter of a mile east of the village and about half way between it and Mearns coal pit. It is a large quadrangular house, I believe with a double M roof; several of the windows used to be darkened filled up. There was a square walled court in front with entrance gates between brick pillars on top of a flight of stone steps and on each side of the gates facing the south was a niche in the wall, where I used to sit and study. On the one side of the court was a row of lime trees, which screened it from the farmyard and the east wind, and on the other side was a large walled garden, and over the road of approach there was an avenue of fine elms all across a large piece of pasture. This had been the coach road when the house was occupied, as I understand, by a Major Capt. John BRITTON, who, according to the account of the old farmer, was said to have ruined himself by working the coal upon his own estate BRITTON’s half brother, William JONES of Stowey, baled [sic] him out with a loan of £1,200, in return for which BRITTON left JONES his High Littleton estates and lordship of the manor on his death in 1742. I collected much information from the old colliers respecting the coal, ancient collieries, faults re which I must herein omit; but I must be rather particular in describing the house, through it’s [sic] relation to the now extensively known science of geology; for, as some of my pupils and friends have called the vicinity of Bath the cradle of geology. I now inform them that RUGBURN WAS IT’S [sic] BIRTHPLACE.[2]

§Life’s work

Smith worked at one of the estate’s older mines, the Mearns Pit at High Littleton, part of the Somerset coalfield and the Somerset Coal Canal.[3] As he observed the rock layers (or strata) at the pit, he realised that they were arranged in a predictable pattern and that the various strata could always be found in the same relative positions. Additionally, each particular stratum could be identified by the fossils it contained, and the same succession offossil groups from older to younger rocks could be found in many parts of England. Furthermore, he noticed an easterly dip of the beds of rock—low near the surface (about three degrees), then higher after the Triassic rocks. This gave Smith a testable hypothesis, which he termed The Principle of Faunal Succession, and he began his search to determine if the relationships between the strata and their characteristics were consistent throughout the country.[4] During subsequent travels, first as a surveyor (appointed by noted engineer John Rennie) for the canal company until 1799 when he was dismissed, and later, he was continually taking samples and mapping the locations of the various strata, and displaying the vertical extent of the strata, and drawing cross-sections and tables of what he saw. This would earn him the name “Strata Smith”.[5] As a natural consequence, Smith amassed a large and valuable collection of fossils of the strata he had examined himself from exposures in canals, road and railway cuttings, quarries and escarpments across the country. He also developed methods for the identification of deposits of Fuller’s earth to the south of Bath.[6]

Engraving from William Smith’s 1815 monograph on identifying strata by fossils

He published his findings with many pictures from his fossil collection, enabling others to investigate their distribution and test his theories. His collection is especially good on Jurassicfossils he collected from the Cornbrash, Kimmeridge clay, Oxford clay, Oolitic limestone and other horizons in the sequence. They included many types of brachiopods, ammonites andmolluscs characteristic of the shallow seas in which they were deposited. Some of the names he coined (like Cornbrash) are still used today for this formation.

§Publication and disappointmen

Bust of William Smith, in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History

In 1799 Smith produced the first large scale geologic map of the area around Bath, Somerset. Previously, he only knew how to draw the vertical extent of the rocks, but not how to display themhorizontally. However, in the Somerset County Agricultural Society, he found a map showing the types of soils and vegetation around Bath and their geographical extent. Importantly, the differing types were coloured. Using this technique, Smith could draw a geological map from his observations showing the outcrops of the rocks. He took a few rock types, each with its own colour. Then he estimated the boundaries of each of the outcrops of rock, filled them in with colour and ended up with a crude geological map.

In 1801, he drew a rough sketch of what would become “The Map that Changed the World” (which inspired the book of that name). Smith travelled extensively across Britain working as amineral surveyor allowing him to meet prominent people such as Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester, and the Duke of Bedford.[7]

Smith’s famous 1815 geological map of part of Great Britain

In 1815 he published the first geological map of Britain. It covered the whole of England and Wales, and parts of Scotland. While this was not the world’s first geological map (a map of the United States by William Maclure was published six years earlier), Smith’s was the first geological map covering such a large area.[8][9][10] Conventional symbols were used to mark canals, tunnels, tramways and roads, collieries, lead, copper and tin mines, together with salt and alum works. The various geological types were indicated by different colours, applied by hand. Nevertheless, the map is remarkably similar to modern geological maps of England. He published his Delineation of the Strata of England in the same year.[11] In another of his books Strata Identified by Organized Fossils (London 1816-1819) he recognised that strata contained distinct fossil assemblages which could be used to match rocks across regions.[12]

In 1817 he drew a remarkable geological section from Snowdon to London. Unfortunately, his maps were soon plagiarised by the Geological Society of London and sold for prices lower than he was asking. He went into debt and finally became bankrupt.

On 31 August 1819 Smith was released from King’s Bench Prison in London, a debtor’s prison. He returned to his home of fourteen years at 15 Buckingham Street to find a bailiff at the door and his home and property seized. Smith then worked as an itinerant surveyor for many years until one of his employers, Sir John Johnstone, recognised him and took steps to gain for him the respect he deserved. Between 1824 and 1826 he lived and worked in Scarborough, and was responsible for the building of the Rotunda, a geological museum devoted to the Yorkshire coast. The Rotunda was re-opened as ‘Rotunda – The William Smith Museum of Geology’, on 9 May 2008 by Lord Oxburgh; however, the Prince of Wales visited the Rotunda as early as 14 September 2007 to view the progress of the refurbishment of this listed building.

§Later recognition

William Smith’s Grave

It was not until February 1831 that the Geological Society of London conferred on Smith the first Wollaston Medal in recognition of his achievement.[13] It was on this occasion that the President, Adam Sedgwick, referred to Smith as “the Father of English Geology”. Smith travelled to Dublin with the British Association in 1835, and there unexpectedly received an honorary Doctorate of Laws (LL.D.) from Trinity College. In 1838 he was appointed as one of the commissioners to select building-stone for the new Palace of Westminster. He died inNorthampton, and is buried a few feet from the west tower of St Peter’s Church, Marefair. The inscription on the grave is badly worn but the name “William Smith” can just be seen. Subsequent modern geological maps have been based on Smith’s original work, of which several copies have survived[14] including one which has been put on display at the Geological Society of London.

§Legacy

William Smith’s fossil collection that helped him produce the first geological map, on display in the British Museum.

  • The first geological map of Britain, much copied in his time, and the basis for all others.
  • Geological Surveys around the world owe a debt to his work.
  • His nephew John Phillips lived during his youth with William Smith and was his apprentice. John Phillips became a major figure in 19th century geology and paleontology—among other things he’s credited as first to specify most of the table of geologic eras that is used today (1841).
  • A crater on Mars is named after him. (see List of craters on Mars: O-Z#S)
  • The Geological Society of London presents an annual lecture in his honour.
  • In 2005, a William Smith ‘facsimile’ was created at the Natural History Museum as a notable gallery character to patrol its displays, among other luminaries such as Carl Linnaeus, Mary Anning, and Dorothea Bate.[15]
  • His work was an important foundation for the work of Charles Darwin.

§See also

§References

  1. Jump up^ “Smith’s other debt”. Geoscientist 17.7 July 2007. The Geological Society. Retrieved 13 August 2008.[dead link]
  2. Jump up^ “William SMITH”. Michael L. Browning 2005. Highlittleton Parich Council. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  3. Jump up^ “William Smith 1769 -1839 “The Father of English Geology””. Bath Royal Literary & Scientific Institution. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  4. Jump up^ “William Smith (1769-1839)”. University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  5. Jump up^ “William Smith”. Natural History Museum. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  6. Jump up^ Macmillen, Neil (2009). A history of the Fuller’s Earth mining industry around Bath. Lydney: Lightmoor Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-899889-32-7.
  7. Jump up^ Phillips, John (1844). Memoirs of William Smith (First ed.). London: John Murray. p. 54. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  8. Jump up^ “William Smith’s Geological Map of England”. Earth Observatory. NASA. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  9. Jump up^ 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
  10. Jump up^ Page 39 in Greene, J.C. and Burke, J.G. (1978) The Science of Minerals in the Age of Jefferson. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 1–113
  11. Jump up^ “William “Strata” Smith (1769-1838)”. HoG Biographies. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  12. Jump up^ Palmer, Douglas (2005). Earth Time: Exploring the Deep Past from Victorian England to the Grand Canyon. Wiley. ISBN 978-0470022214.
  13. Jump up^ “November 1826 – June 1833”. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London I: 271. 1834. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  14. Jump up^ Eyles, V.A; Eyles, Joan M. (1938). “On the different issues of the first geological map of England and Wales”. Annals of Science 3 (2): 190–212. doi:10.1080/00033793800200871. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  15. Jump up^ Review by Miles Russell of Discovering Dorothea by Karolyn Shindler at ucl.ac.uk (accessed 23 November 2007)

§Other sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Smith_%28geologist%29

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