Archive for September 13th, 2010

Huge $60 Billion F-15 Fighter Sale To Saudia Arabia: 84 New F-15s +70 Upgraded F-15s +72 Black Hawk Helicopters–Videos,

Posted on September 13, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Computers, Demographics, Economics, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Language, Law, People, Philosophy, Politics, Religion, Security, Technology, Video, War | Tags: , , , |

F-15 Eagle – Undefeated Combat Fighter

Saudi Arms Deal Advances

White House to Notify Congress Soon of $60 Billion Package, Largest Ever for U.S.

“…The $60 billion in fighter jets and helicopters is the top-line amount requested by the Saudis, even though the kingdom is likely to commit initially to buying only about half that amount.

In a notification to Congress, expected to be submitted this week or next, the administration will authorize the Saudis to buy as many as 84 new F-15 fighters, upgrade 70 more, and purchase three types of helicopters—70 Apaches, 72 Black Hawks and 36 Little Birds, officials said.

The notification triggers a congressional review. Lawmakers could push for changes or seek to impose conditions, and potentially block the deal, though that is not expected.

On top of the $60 billion package of fighter jets and helicopters, U.S. officials are discussing a potential $30 billion package to upgrade Saudi Arabia’s naval forces. An official described these as “discreet, bilateral conversations” in which no agreement has yet been reached. That deal could include littoral combat ships, surface vessels intended for operations close to shore, the official said.

Talks are also underway to expand Saudi Arabia’s ballistic-missile defenses. The U.S. is encouraging the Saudis to buy systems known as THAAD—Terminal High Altitude Defense—and to upgrade its Patriot missiles to reduce the threat from Iranian rockets. U.S. officials said it was unclear how much this package would be worth. …”

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704621204575488361149625050.html

U.S., Saudis discussing biggest-ever foreign arms sale

“…The Obama administration is seeking to sell Saudi Arabia advanced aircraft worth up to $60 billion in what Pentagon officials say would be the largest-ever single foreign arms deal.

A senior Defense Department official said the administration is prepared to authorize the sale of as many as 84 F-15 fighter jets and three types of helicopters: 70 upgraded F-15s, 70 Apaches, 72 Black Hawks and 36 Little Birds to the Saudis. The deal could be done over five to 10 years, depending on production schedules and the training needed.

“This gives [the Saudis] a whole host of defense capabilities to defend the kingdom,” said the official, who spoke to reporters on condition of anonymity because the deal has not been completed. …”

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/13/AR2010091306102.html

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Poverty Rates Skyrocket Under Obama Presidency–1 In 7 Americans In Poverty–Videos

Posted on September 13, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Economics, Education, Employment, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, government, government spending, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Resources, Uncategorized, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , |

Highlights

“…The data presented here are from the Current Population Survey (CPS), 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), the source of official poverty estimates. The CPS ASEC is a sample survey of approximately 100,000 households nationwide. These data reflect conditions in calendar year 2008.

  • The official poverty rate in 2008 was 13.2 percent, up from 12.5 percent in 2007. This was the first statistically significant annual increase in the poverty rate since 2004, when poverty increased to 12.7 percent from 12.5 percent in 2003.
  • In 2008, 39.8 million people were in poverty, up from 37.3 million in 2007 — the second consecutive annual increase in the number of people in poverty.
  • In 2008, the poverty rate increased for non-Hispanic Whites (8.6 percent in 2008 — up from 8.2 percent in 2007), Asians (11.8 percent in 2008 — up from 10.2 percent in 2007) and Hispanics (23.2 percent in 2008 — up from 21.5 percent in 2007). Poverty rates in 2008 were statistically unchanged for Blacks (24.7 percent).
  • The poverty rate in 2008 (13.2 percent) was the highest poverty rate since 1997 but was 9.2 percentage points lower than in 1959, the first year for which poverty estimates are available.
  • Since 1960, the number of people below poverty has not exceeded the 2008 figure of 39.8 million people.[1]
  • The poverty rate increased for children under 18 years old (19.0 percent in 2008 — up from 18.0 percent in 2007) and people 18 to 64 years old (11.7 percent in 2008 — up from 10.9 percent in 2007), while it remained statistically unchanged for people 65 years and over (9.7 percent).[2]

Footnotes:

[1] The 2008 number is not significantly different from 1993, 1962, 1961, 1960 and 1959 estimates.

[2] Unrelated individuals under 15 are excluded from the poverty universe; therefore there are 442,000 fewer children in the poverty universe than in the total population. …”


http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/index.html

1 in 7 Americans Poor: How did this Happen?

Poverty Rate Rising In U.S.


Reids Home – Poverty In USA – Las Vegas

 

Background Articles and Videos

 

“…How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty

Following the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 14, the Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty. If a family’s total income is less than the family’s threshold, then that family and every individual in it is considered in poverty. The official poverty thresholds do not vary geographically, but they are updated for inflation using Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). The official poverty definition uses money income before taxes and does not include capital gains or noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps).

Income Used to Compute Poverty Status (Money Income)

  • Includes earnings, unemployment compensation, workers’ compensation, Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, public assistance, veterans’ payments, survivor benefits, pension or retirement income, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, income from estates, trusts, educational assistance, alimony, child support, assistance from outside the household, and other miscellaneous sources.
  • Noncash benefits (such as food stamps and housing subsidies) do not count.
  • Before taxes
  • Excludes capital gains or losses.
  • If a person lives with a family, add up the income of all family members. (Non-relatives, such as housemates, do not count.)

Measure of Need (Poverty Thresholds)
Poverty thresholds are the dollar amounts used to determine poverty status.

Each person or family is assigned one out of 48 possible poverty thresholds

Thresholds vary according to:

  • Size of the family
  • Ages of the members

The same thresholds are used throughout the United States (do not vary geographically).

Updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U).

Although the thresholds in some sense reflect families needs,

Poverty thresholds were originally derived in 1963-1964, using:

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture food budgets designed for families under economic stress.
  • Data about what portion of their income families spent on food.

Computation
If total family income is less than the threshold appropriate for that family,

  • The family is in poverty.
  • All family members have the same poverty status.
  • For individuals who do not live with family members, their own income is compared with the appropriate threshold.

If total family income equals or is greater than the threshold, the family (or unrelated individual) is not in poverty. …”

http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html

 

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Time Marches On–Glenn Beck Is Back–United States 130 Trillion Dollars In Debt–Videos

Posted on September 13, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Culture, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , |

U.S. Debt Clock

http://www.usdebtclock.org/

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Murray Rothbard–The Case Against The Fed–Videos

Posted on September 13, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Books, College, Communications, Demographics, Economics, Education, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, government, government spending, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Monetary Policy, People, Philosophy, Quotations, Raves, Resources, Tutorials, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , |

The Case Against the Fed (Introduction) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 1 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 2 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 3 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 4 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 5 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 6 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 7 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 8 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 9 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 10 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 11 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 12  of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 13 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 14  of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 15 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

 

The Case Against the Fed (Part 16  of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 17  of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 18 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 19 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 20 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 2 1 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 22 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 23 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

The Case Against the Fed (Part 24 of 24) by Murray N. Rothbard

 

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Murray Rothbard–What Has Government Done to Our Money?–Videos

Posted on September 13, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Economics, Education, Fiscal Policy, government spending, history, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Monetary Policy, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Technology, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , |

The Gold Standard Before the Civil War | Murray N. Rothbard

 

What Has Government Done to Our Money? (Preface) by Jörg Guido Hülsmann

 

What Has Government Done to Our Money? (Chapter 1) by Murray N. Rothbard

 

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Microphones–Videos

Posted on September 13, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Culture, Entertainment, Life, Links, media, Music, Technology, Video | Tags: |

VTC professional recording -Microphone Types

Microphone, Recording and MIDI 101 Tutorial – Presented by Klass-Sick Entertainment

VTC professional recording -Microphone Examples pt.1

VTC professional recording -Microphone Examples pt.2

VTC professional recording -Microphone Examples pt.3

VTC professional recording -Microphone Examples pt.4

VTC professional recording -Microphone Examples pt.5

VTC professional recording -Microphone Examples pt.6

Background Articles and Videos

Microphone

“…A microphone (colloquially called a mic or mike; both pronounced /ˈmaɪk/[1]) is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. In 1876, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, karaoke systems, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones, in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.

Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser microphone), piezoelectric generation, or light modulation to produce an electrical voltage signal from mechanical vibration.

he sensitive transducer element of a microphone is called its element or capsule. A complete microphone also includes a housing, some means of bringing the signal from the element to other equipment, and often an electronic circuit to adapt the output of the capsule to the equipment being driven. Microphones are referred to by their transducer principle, such as condenser, dynamic, etc., and by their directional characteristics. Sometimes other characteristics such as diaphragm size, intended use or orientation of the principal sound input to the principal axis (end- or side-address) of the microphone are used to describe the microphone.

Condenser microphone

The condenser microphone, invented at Bell Labs in 1916 by E. C. Wente[2] is also called a capacitor microphone or electrostatic microphone. Here, the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, and the vibrations produce changes in the distance between the plates. There are two types, depending on the method of extracting the audio signal from the transducer: DC-biased and radio frequency (RF) or high frequency (HF) condenser microphones. With a DC-biased microphone, the plates are biased with a fixed charge (Q). The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation (C = Q / V), where Q = charge in coulombs, C = capacitance in farads and V = potential difference in volts. The capacitance of the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between them for a parallel-plate capacitor. (See capacitance for details.) The assembly of fixed and movable plates is called an “element” or “capsule.”

A nearly constant charge is maintained on the capacitor. As the capacitance changes, the charge across the capacitor does change very slightly, but at audible frequencies it is sensibly constant. The capacitance of the capsule (around 5–100 pF) and the value of the bias resistor (100 megohms to tens of gigohms) form a filter that is highpass for the audio signal, and lowpass for the bias voltage. Note that the time constant of an RC circuit equals the product of the resistance and capacitance.

Within the time-frame of the capacitance change (as much as 50 ms at 20 Hz audio signal), the charge is practically constant and the voltage across the capacitor changes instantaneously to reflect the change in capacitance. The voltage across the capacitor varies above and below the bias voltage. The voltage difference between the bias and the capacitor is seen across the series resistor. The voltage across the resistor is amplified for performance or recording.

RF condenser microphones use a comparatively low RF voltage, generated by a low-noise oscillator. The oscillator may either be amplitude modulated by the capacitance changes produced by the sound waves moving the capsule diaphragm, or the capsule may be part of a resonant circuit that modulates the frequency of the oscillator signal. Demodulation yields a low-noise audio frequency signal with a very low source impedance. The absence of a high bias voltage permits the use of a diaphragm with looser tension, which may be used to achieve wider frequency response due to higher compliance. The RF biasing process results in a lower electrical impedance capsule, a useful byproduct of which is that RF condenser microphones can be operated in damp weather conditions that could create problems in DC-biased microphones with contaminated insulating surfaces. The Sennheiser “MKH” series of microphones use the RF biasing technique.

Condenser microphones span the range from telephone transmitters through inexpensive karaoke microphones to high-fidelity recording microphones. They generally produce a high-quality audio signal and are now the popular choice in laboratory and studio recording applications. The inherent suitability of this technology is due to the very small mass that must be moved by the incident sound wave, unlike other microphone types that require the sound wave to do more work. They require a power source, provided either via microphone outputs as phantom power or from a small battery. Power is necessary for establishing the capacitor plate voltage, and is also needed to power the microphone electronics (impedance conversion in the case of electret and DC-polarized microphones, demodulation or detection in the case of RF/HF microphones). Condenser microphones are also available with two diaphragms that can be electrically connected to provide a range of polar patterns (see below), such as cardioid, omnidirectional, and figure-eight. It is also possible to vary the pattern continuously with some microphones, for example the Røde NT2000 or CAD M179.

Electret condenser microphone

An electret microphone is a relatively new type of capacitor microphone invented at Bell laboratories in 1962 by Gerhard Sessler and Jim West.[3] The externally applied charge described above under condenser microphones is replaced by a permanent charge in an electret material. An electret is a ferroelectric material that has been permanently electrically charged or polarized. The name comes from electrostatic and magnet; a static charge is embedded in an electret by alignment of the static charges in the material, much the way a magnet is made by aligning the magnetic domains in a piece of iron.

Due to their good performance and ease of manufacture, hence low cost, the vast majority of microphones made today are electret microphones; a semiconductor manufacturer[4] estimates annual production at over one billion units. Nearly all cell-phone, computer, PDA and headset microphones are electret types. They are used in many applications, from high-quality recording and lavalier use to built-in microphones in small sound recording devices and telephones. Though electret microphones were once considered low quality, the best ones can now rival traditional condenser microphones in every respect and can even offer the long-term stability and ultra-flat response needed for a measurement microphone. Unlike other capacitor microphones, they require no polarizing voltage, but often contain an integrated preamplifier that does require power (often incorrectly called polarizing power or bias). This preamplifier is frequently phantom powered in sound reinforcement and studio applications. Microphones designed for personal computer (PC) use, sometimes called multimedia microphones, use a stereo 3.5 mm plug (though a mono source) with the ring receiving power via a resistor from (normally) a 5 V supply in the computer; unfortunately, a number of incompatible dynamic microphones are fitted with 3.5 mm plugs too. While few electret microphones rival the best DC-polarized units in terms of noise level, this is not due to any inherent limitation of the electret. Rather, mass production techniques needed to produce microphones cheaply don’t lend themselves to the precision needed to produce the highest quality microphones, due to the tight tolerances required in internal dimensions. These tolerances are the same for all condenser microphones, whether the DC, RF or electret technology is used.

Dynamic microphone

Dynamic microphones work via electromagnetic induction. They are robust, relatively inexpensive and resistant to moisture. This, coupled with their potentially high gain before feedback makes them ideal for on-stage use.

Moving-coil microphones use the same dynamic principle as in a loudspeaker, only reversed. A small movable induction coil, positioned in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, is attached to the diaphragm. When sound enters through the windscreen of the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm. When the diaphragm vibrates, the coil moves in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction. A single dynamic membrane does not respond linearly to all audio frequencies. Some microphones for this reason utilize multiple membranes for the different parts of the audio spectrum and then combine the resulting signals. Combining the multiple signals correctly is difficult and designs that do this are rare and tend to be expensive. There are on the other hand several designs that are more specifically aimed towards isolated parts of the audio spectrum. The AKG D 112, for example, is designed for bass response rather than treble.[5] In audio engineering several kinds of microphones are often used at the same time to get the best result.

Ribbon Microphone

Ribbon microphones use a thin, usually corrugated metal ribbon suspended in a magnetic field. The ribbon is electrically connected to the microphone’s output, and its vibration within the magnetic field generates the electrical signal. Ribbon microphones are similar to moving coil microphones in the sense that both produce sound by means of magnetic induction. Basic ribbon microphones detect sound in a bi-directional (also called figure-eight) pattern because the ribbon, which is open to sound both front and back, responds to the pressure gradient rather than the sound pressure. Though the symmetrical front and rear pickup can be a nuisance in normal stereo recording, the high side rejection can be used to advantage by positioning a ribbon microphone horizontally, for example above cymbals, so that the rear lobe picks up only sound from the cymbals. Crossed figure 8, or Blumlein pair, stereo recording is gaining in popularity, and the figure 8 response of a ribbon microphone is ideal for that application.

Other directional patterns are produced by enclosing one side of the ribbon in an acoustic trap or baffle, allowing sound to reach only one side. The classic RCA Type 77-DX microphone has several externally adjustable positions of the internal baffle, allowing the selection of several response patterns ranging from “Figure-8” to “Unidirectional”. Such older ribbon microphones, some of which still provide high quality sound reproduction, were once valued for this reason, but a good low-frequency response could only be obtained when the ribbon was suspended very loosely, which made them relatively fragile. Modern ribbon materials, including new nanomaterials[6] have now been introduced that eliminate those concerns, and even improve the effective dynamic range of ribbon microphones at low frequencies. Protective wind screens can reduce the danger of damaging a vintage ribbon, and also reduce plosive artifacts in the recording. Properly designed wind screens produce negligible treble attenuation. In common with other classes of dynamic microphone, ribbon microphones don’t require phantom power; in fact, this voltage can damage some older ribbon microphones. Some new modern ribbon microphone designs incorporate a preamplifier and, therefore, do require phantom power, and circuits of modern passive ribbon microphones, i.e., those without the aforementioned preamplifier, are specifically designed to resist damage to the ribbon and transformer by phantom power. Also there are new ribbon materials available that are immune to wind blasts and phantom power. …”

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