Archive for April 12th, 2010

The Glenn Beck Plan vs. The Pronk Plan for A Peace and Prosperity Economy of The American Citizens Alliance Party–Videos

Posted on April 12, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Culture, Demographics, Economics, Education, Fiscal Policy, government, government spending, history, Immigration, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Monetary Policy, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Science, Security, Taxes, Technology, Video, War, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , |

UPDATED and REVISED July 23, 2011

“…It is a signal advantage of taxes on articles of consumption, that they contain in their own nature a security against excess. They prescribe their own limit; which cannot be exceeded without defeating the end proposed, that is, an extension of the revenue. When applied to this object, the saying is as just as it is witty, that, “in political arithmetic, two and two do not always make four.” If duties are too high, they lessen the consumption; the collection is eluded; and the product to the treasury is not so great as when they are confined within proper and moderate bounds. This forms a complete barrier against any material oppression of the citizens by taxes of this class, and is itself a natural limitation of the power of imposing them….”

~Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist No. 21, The Federalist Papers

“The income tax created more criminals than any other single act of government.”

~Barry Goldwater

http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa21.htm

President Obama’s Pledge Never to Raise Taxes on Anyone Making Less Than $250,000 a Year

President Obama Backs Away From Tax Relief Campaign Promise

Budget 2011: Past Deficits vs. Obama’s Deficits in Pictures

“… The chart above compares the President’s budget deficit projections to the Congressional Budget Office’s budget deficit projections under current law. In other words, the policy changes embodied in President Obama’s 2011 Budget puts our country $2.5 trillion deeper in debt by 2020 than it other wise would be if current law were left unchanged.

Now the President is apparently arguing that his trillions of dollars in additional deficit spending are needed to “invest in areas that will determine our economic success in this new century.”

This is statement goes to the core of the fundamental difference between leftists and conservatives in this country: liberals belief economic growth comes from wise investments by government experts; conservatives believe that economic growth stems from  millions of Americans having the freedom to make their own economic decisions everyday. …”

http://blog.heritage.org/2010/02/05/past-deficits-vs-obamas-deficits-in-pictures

The Beck Plan

Glenn Beck-04-12-10-A

Glenn Beck-04-12-10-B

Glenn Beck-04-12-10-C

Glenn Beck-04-12-10-D

Each month approximately 100,000 people enter the civilian labor force in the United States for the first time.

Thus in order for the official unemployment rate (U-3) to remain constant, at least 100,000 new jobs must be created each month.

In order to reduce the official unemployment rate (U-3) more than 100,000 new jobs need to be created each month.

Since the economy entered the recession in 2008, over 7,000,000 jobs have been lost in the United States.

In order to get the unemployment rate back to pre-recession levels of 5.0% or under,  it will take at least 24 months provided about 200,000 new jobs are created each month in addition to the 100,000 for new entrants into the labor market or a total of 300,000 new jobs each month.

While  U.S. economic growth may be positive, the economy or more precisely small and medium size businesses are still not hiring at anywhere near 300,000 per month.

The actual rate of job creation by the private sector or businesses is under 100,000 new jobs per month.

The actual rate of unemployment measured by U-6 is 16.9% and indicates how bad the job situation actually is:

Why?

Business owners and consumers lack confidence in the economic policies of President Barack Obama.

Instead of restraining entitlement programs, President Obama expanded them with the passage of his Obama Care law:

President Obama’s Health Care bill with its mandatory requirement to buy a plan or pay a tax/ fine, proposed tax increases such as the cap and trade energy tax, proposed income tax rate increases, letting the Bush tax rates expire at the end of 2010, and giving hints of a new value added tax, all discourage small businesses from expanding their operations and hiring new workers.

These tax increase are directed at the top 5% of taxpayers who are the very owners of businesses that create wealth,  new jobs and grow the economy.

 Summary of Federal Individual Income Tax Data, 2008

(Updated October 2010)

Number of Returns with Positive AGI AGI ($ millions) Income Taxes Paid ($ millions) Group’s Share of Total AGI Group’s Share of Income Taxes Income Split Point Average Tax Rate
All Taxpayers 139,960,580 8,426,625 1,031,512 100% 100% 12.24%
Top 1% 1,399,606 1,685,472 392,149 20.00% 38.02% $380,354 23.27%
1-5% 5,598,423 1,241,229 213,569 14.73% 20.70% 17.21%
Top 5% 6,998,029 2,926,701 605,718 34.73% 58.72% $159,619 20.70%
5-10% 6,998,029 929,761 115,703 11.03% 11.22% 12.44%
Top 10% 13,996,058 3,856,462 721,421 45.77% 69.94% $113,799 18.71%
10-25% 20,994,087 1,821,717 169,193 21.62% 16.40% 9.29%
Top 25% 34,990,145 5,678,179 890,614 67.38% 86.34% $67,280 15.68%
25-50% 34,990,145 1,673,932 113,025 19.86% 10.96% 6.75%
Top 50% 69,980,290 7,352,111 1,003,639 87.25% 97.30% >$33,048 13.65%
Bottom 50% 69,980,290 1,074,514 27,873 12.75% 2.70% <$33,048 2.59%
Source: Internal Revenue Service

http://www.taxfoundation.org/news/show/250.html#Data

Summary of Federal Individual Income Tax Data, 2007

(Updated July 2009)

Number of Returns with Positive AGI AGI
($ millions)
Income Taxes Paid
($ millions)
Group’s Share of Total AGI Group’s Share of Income Taxes Income Split Point Average Tax Rate
All Taxpayers 141,070,971 $8,798,500 $1,115,504 100% 100% 12.68%
Top 1% 1,410,710 $2,008,259 $450,926 22.83% 40.42% > $410,096 22.45%
Top 2-5% 5,642,839 $1,286,283 $225,367 14.62% 20.20% 17.52%
Top 5% 7,053,549 $3,294,542 $676,293 37.44% 60.63% > $160,041 20.53%
Top 6-10% 7,053,548 $933,297 $118,139 10.61% 10.59% 12.66%
Top 10% 14,107,097 $4,227,839 $794,432 48.05% 71.22% > $113,018 18.79%
Top 11-25% 21,160,646 $1,817,515 $171,443 20.66% 15.37% 9.43%
Top 25% 35,267,743 $6,045,354 $965,875 68.71% 86.59% > $66,532 15.98%
Top 26-50% 35,267,743 $1,674,859 $117,368 19.04% 10.52% 7.01%
Top 50% 70,535,486 $7,720,213 $1,083,243 87.74% 97.11% > $32,879 14.03%
Bottom 50% 70,535,485 $1,078,287 $32,261 12.26% 2.89% < $32,879 2.99%
Source: Internal Revenue Service

http://www.taxfoundation.org/news/show/250.html

The Top 10 Percent of Income Earners Paid 71 Percent of Federal Income Tax

“…Top earners are the target for new tax increases, but the U.S. tax system is already highly progressive. The top 1 percent of income earners paid 40 percent of all federal income taxes in 2007, while the bottom 50 percent paid only 3 percent. More than one-third of U.S. earners paid no federal income tax at all. …”

(View historical chart by clicking on link below)

http://www.heritage.org/budgetchartbook/top10-percent-income-earners

The government does not create jobs or wealth, the Federal government mainly redistributes wealth by taxing those who actually produce wealth and new jobs.

President Obama’s economic policies and proposed legislation are generating massive uncertainty.

Consumers and business owners do not like uncertainty.

When uncertainty increases, both consumers and businesses postpone consumer expenditures and expanding business operations.

The Obama Depression will last until 2012 with the real unemployment rate (U-6) remaining at or above 15% and the official unemployment rate (U-3) remaining at or above 9% with inflation starting to significantly increase in 2011. Both food and gasoline prices are already increasing.

Forget about the Flat Tax this would still require income tax returns and compliance cost over $300 billion.

Support the FairTax that replaces all Federal taxes including income, payroll, capital gains, gift and estate taxes with a national consumption sales tax.

The FairTax: It’s Time

What is the FairTax?

Q&A on the FAIRTAX pt.2

Tom Wright on the FairTax part 1

Tom Wright on the FairTax part 2

Tom Wright on the FairTax part 3

Tom Wright on the FairTax part 4

Tom Wright on the FairTax part 5

Tom Wright on the FairTax part 6

Tom Wright on the FairTax part 7

Tom Wright On The FairTax–Videos

Obama lied and the economy died.

President Obama is wrecking the economy, destroying jobs and killing the American dream by following a Cloward-Piven strategy that would make tens of millions of Americans dependent upon government.

The American people by a vast majority do not want to be dependent upon government nor do they want the size and scope of the Federal Government expanded.

The American people want to abolish the Federal income, payroll, estate and gift taxes and replace it with a national consumption sales tax–the FairTax.

The American people and business owners do not believe or trust Barack Obama.

The American people are giving President Obama and the progressive radical socialists in Congress and the Senate a vote of no confidence.

The result is a jobless recovery, if not a double dip recession or the Great Obama Depression.

Feldstein Says Risk of Recession Double-Dip Remains

What needs to be done?

The FairTax: It’s Time

Lugar Cosponsors the FairTax

Milton Friedman on Libertarianism (Part 4 of 4)

“If we cannot persuade the public that it is desirable to do these things, we have no right to impose them even if we had the power to do it.”

~ Milton Friedman

The Pronk Plan for A Peace and Prosperity Economy

1. Federal Tax Reform and End The Internal Revenue Service: The FairTax should  replace all Federal taxes and the Internal Revenue Service should be ended with all Internal Revenue records destroyed. A bureau of FairTax Revenues (FTR) would be established in the Department of the Treasury to both send monthly prebates to each American citizen and collect FairTax revenues from retailers and the states.

2. Government Spending: surplus budgets to pay down the National Debt by restricting fiscal year spending outlays to 80% of previous year’s  FairTax revenue collections with the remaining 20% of revenue collection to pay down the national debt.

3. Size and scope of the government: At least ten Federal Departments, many Federal agencies and hundreds of Federal programs should be closed down permanently. The number of Federal employees needs to be cut by at least 50%.

4. National Defense: Budget 5% of our nation’s gross domestic product for national defense, intelligence gathering, securing our borders and homeland security.

5. Foreign Affairs: End US involvement with the United Nations and bring all the troops home from abroad including from the countries of  Germany,  Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, Japan, South Korea,  Afghanistan,  Bahrain, Djibouti,  Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, and Qatar.

6. Social Security and Medicare: Transform them from a government controlled and operated system to an individual controlled and investment system where benefits are based upon payments into a person’s account and investment performance. All persons over the age of forty-five would have the option to remain under the existing Social Security and Medicare programs or go into the new individual controlled and owned  system. All persons under age forty-five would establish their own individual health insurance savings account, disability income and retirement savings accounts with a maximum contributions of twenty-five percent (25%) of their income per year. All persons over the age of sixty-five would continue to receive Social Security and Medicare Benefits.

7. Immigration: immigration law enforcement, illegal alien removal and deportation, and controlled and limited legal immigration. The number of legal immigrants each year would range from a minimum of 200,000 persons when the official unemployment rate exceeds eight percent (8%) to a maximum of 500,000 persons per year when the official unemployment rate is less than two percent (2%). All new citizens must speak, read and write English before becoming a United States citizen.

8. Promote competition in education: provide  all parents with  school vouchers that enable them to choose the school their children attend including home schooling and online schooling.

9. Health Care Reform: affordable, portable, individual, tax favored, and competitive health insurance plans and expanded health savings accounts.

10. End the Federal Reserve System and fiat paper money and  institute  a new gold/silver backed currency standard. Let money interest rates be determined in the market place and not controlled by a central bank.

11. End all Federal subsidies to businesses no matter what form the subsidies take.

12. Eliminate Federal Government regulations that put U.S. businesses at a competitive disadvantage.

13. Energy Independence: repeal all laws and regulations that are impeding the growth and expansion of US energy production including oil and gas exploration and refining and nuclear electrical power generation plant construction and operation.

14. Preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States of America: appoint judges and public servants that will uphold their oaths.

The above Fourteen Issue Positions  should receive the support of the vast majority of the American people including Democrats, Republicans, Independents, Libertarians and others.

However, both the Democratic and Republican Party establishment would not support these Fourteen Issue Positions in their entirety.

The Tea Party movement must transform itself into a viable political party that is fundamentally different from both the Democratic and Republican parties.

The ruling political class and elites in Washington, D.C. are responsible for the economic, political and military mess the United States of America currently finds itself.

The warfare and welfare economy of every expanding collectivist government must be transformed into a peace and prosperity economy with a limited and constrained Constitutional republic.

American Citizens Alliance Party–A CAP On Government Spending, Taxes, Debt and Regulations-The Third Party Base–Tea Party Patriots–Videos

Battle of The Budget

Keynesian Economics Is Wrong: Bigger Gov’t Is Not Stimulus

Eight Reasons Why Big Government Hurts Economic Growth

The Value Added Tax: A Hidden New Tax to Finance Much Bigger Government

What a VAT Means for the Economy

Ron Paul – THE FAIRTAX REVOLUTION

Why We Need a FAIR Tax?

“A wise and frugal government, which shall leave men free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned – this is the sum of good government. “

~Thomas Jefferson

“The government’s view of the economy could be summed up in a few short phrases:  If it moves, tax it.  If it keeps moving, regulate it.  And if it stops moving, subsidize it.”

~Ronald Reagan

Background Articles and Videos

Why You’ve Never Heard of the Great Depression of 1920

Ron Paul on Taxes

March 2010 Libertarian Perspective part 1

March 2010 Libertarian Perspective part 2

March 2010 Libertarian Perspective part 3

Who Pays Income Taxes and how much? Tax Year 2007

Percentiles Ranked by AGI AGI Threshold on Percentiles Percentage of Federal Personal Income Tax Paid
Top 1% $410,096 40.42
Top 5% $160,041 60.63
Top 10% $113,018 71.22
Top 25% $66,532 86.59
Top 50% $32,879 97.11
Bottom 50% <$32,879 2.89
Note: AGI is Adjusted Gross Income
Source: Internal Revenue Service

http://www.ntu.org/tax-basics/who-pays-income-taxes.html

Obamanomics – Pt 1 – Jeffrey Miron – Show-Me Institute

Obamanomics – Pt 2 – Jeffrey Miron – Show-Me Institute

Obamanomics – Pt 3 – Jeffrey Miron – Show-Me Institute

Obamanomics – Pt 4 – Jeffrey Miron – Show-Me Institute

Obamanomics – Pt 5 – Jeffrey Miron – Show-Me Institute

OBAMANOMICS EXPLAINED: Spreading the Wealth

Related Posts On Pronk Palisades

The American People March on Washington D.C.–August 28, 2010–At The Lincoln Memorial! Mark Your Calendar–Be There–Three Million Minimum–Join The Second American Revolution

Glenn Beck On Prosperity And The Perils of Progressivism

A Common Sense Political Agenda For A New Conservative and Libertarian Party: American Citizens Alliance Party (ACAP)–A CAP On Government Spending, Taxes, Debt and Regulations!

A New Political Party In The United States? American Citizens Alliance Party–ACAP On Government Spending, Taxes, Debt, and Regulations!

Third Party Time? Yes Provided You Have $10 Billion and 10 Years!

Cloward Piven

The Cloward-Piven Strategy Of The Progressive Radical Socialists: Wrecking The U.S. Economy By Massive Government Dependence, Spending, Deficits, Debts, Taxes And Regulations!

Cloward Piven Strategy–The Crisis Strategy Of Barack Obama

President Obama’s Cloward-Piven Strategy of Controlled Crisis Creation Crippling Capitalism–Coup D-Etat On America

Collectivism: Socialism, Communism, Progressivism and Fascism

The Battle For The World Economy–Videos

Walter Block–Videos

Thomas DiLorenzo–The Economic Model of the Fascist State–Videos

G. William Domhoff: Who Runs America–Videos

Jonah Goldberg–Liberal Fascism–Videos

Paul Edward Gottfried–Fascism, Anti-Fascism, and the Welfare State–Videos

G. Edward Griffin- On Individualism vs. Collectivism–Videos

Mark Levin–Liberty and Tyranny: A Conservative Manifesto–Videos

Gary North–Keynes and His Influence–Take The North Challenge–Videos

George Gerald Reisman–Why Nazism Was Socialism and Why Socialism Is Totalitarian–Videos

Today’s Progressives–Obama’s Radical Socialist Democratic Party

The Racist Test for Judge Sonya Sotomayor and President Obama–Racism Unmasked!

Calling and Raising The Stakes for Race Card Players–Obama and Sotomayor

George Soros: Government Interventionist and Global Socialist–Obama’s Puppeter Master–Videos

George Soros: Barack Obama’s Money Man and Agenda Puppeter

The Cloward-Piven Strategy Of The Progressive Radical Socialists: Wrecking The U.S. Economy By Massive Government Dependence, Spending, Deficits, Debts, Taxes And Regulations!

President Barack Obama’s Role Model–President Franklin D. Roosevelt–The Worse President For The U.S. and World Economies and The American People–With The Same Results–High Unemployment Rates–Over 25 Million American Citizens Seeking Full Time Jobs Today–Worse Than The Over 13 Million Seeking Jobs During The Worse of The Great Depression!

Progressives

Progressive Radical Socialist Health Care Plan Written In Prison By Convicted Felon Richard Creamer!

Obamanomics–New Deal Progressive Radical Socialist Interventionism

Eugenics, Planned Parenthood, Population Control, and Designer Babies–Videos

The Great Depression and the Current Recession–Robert Higgs–Videos

The Obama Depression: Lessons Learned–Deja Vu!

Lord Christopher Monckton–Climate Change–Treaty–Videos

Progressive Radical Socialist Canned Criticism of American People: Danger, Profits, and Wrong Thinking

The Battle For The World Economy–Videos

Broom Budget Busting Bums: Replace The Entire Congress–Tea Party Express and Patriots–United We Stand!

Obama’s Civilian National Security Force–Youth Corp Wave–Friendly Fascism Faces–Cons–Crooks–Communists–Communities–Corps!

Obama’s Hidden Agenda and Covert Cadre of Marxists, Communists, Progressives, Radicals, Socialists–Far Left Democrats Destroying Capitalism and The American Republic

Yuri Bezmenov On KGB Soviet Propaganda and Subversion–Videos

The Bloody History of Communism–Videos

Obama Youth–Civilian National Security Force–National Socialism–Hitler Youth–Brownshirts– Redux?–Collectivism!

American Progressive Liberal Fascism–The Wave of The Future Or Back To Past Mistakes?

Today’s Progressives–Obama’s Radical Socialist Democratic Party

President Obama–Killer of The American Dream and Market Capitalism–Stop The Radical Socialists Before They Kill You!

The Progressive Radical Socialist Family Tree–ACORN & AmeriCorps–Time To Chop It Down

It Is Official–America On The Obama Road To Fascism–Thomas Sowell!

President Obama and His Keynesian Spending Cult of The Fascist Democrat Radicals–FDRs

Economists

The Battle For The World Economy–Videos

Frederic Bastiat–The Law–Videos

Walter Block–Videos

Walter Block–Introduction To Libertarianism–Videos

Yaron Brook–Videos

Thomas DiLorenzo–The Economic Model of the Fascist State–Videos

Paul Edward Gottfried–Fascism, Anti-Fascism, and the Welfare State–Videos

David Gordon–Five Best Books on the Current Crisis–Video

David Gordon–The Confused Literature of Globalization–Videos

Friedrich Hayek–Videos

Henry Hazlitt–Economics In One Lesson–Videos

The Great Depression and the Current Recession–Robert Higgs–Videos

Jörg Guido Hülsmann–The Ethics of Money Production–Videos

Jörg Guido Hülsmann–The Life and Work of Ludwig von Mises–Videos

Milton Friedman–Videos

Milton Friedman on Education–Videos

Milton Friedman–Debate In Iceland–Videos

Milton Friedman–Free To Choose–On Donahue –Videos

Israel Kirzner–On Entrepreneurship–Vidoes

Liberal Fascism–Jonah Goldberg–Videos

Ludwig von Mises–Videos

Robert P. Murphy–Videos

Gary North–Keynes and His Influence–Take The North Challenge–Videos

The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and The Ideas of Ayn Rand

George Gerald Reisman–Why Nazism Was Socialism and Why Socialism Is Totalitarian–Videos

Murray Rothbard–Videos

Murray Rothbard–Libertarianism–Video

Rothbard On Keynes–Videos

Murray Rothbard– What Has Government Done to Our Money?–Videos

Peter Schiff–Videos

Schiff, Forbers and Bloomberg Nail The Financial Crisis and Recession–Mistakes Were Made–Greed, Arrogance, Stupidity–Three Chinese Curses!

Larry Sechrest–The Anticapitalists: Barbarians at the Gate–Videos

L. William Seidman on The Economic Crisis: Causes and Cures–Videos

Amity Shlaes–Videos

Julian Simon–Videos

Julian Simon–The Ultimate Resource II: People, Materials, and Environment–Videos

Thomas Sowell and Conflict of Visions–Videos

Thomas Sowell On The Housing Boom and Bust–Videos

Peter Thiel–Videos

Thomas E. Woods, Jr.–Videos

Thomas E. Woods–The Economic Crisis and The Federal Reserve–Videos

Tom Woods–Lectures On Liberty–Videos

Tom Woods On Personal Rights and Property Ownership

Tom Woods–Smashing Myths and Restoring Sound Money–Videos

Tom Woods–Who Killed The Constitution

Tom Wright On The FairTax–Videos

Banking Cartel’s Public Relations Campaign Continues:Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke On The Record

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Sparta–Videos

Posted on April 12, 2010. Filed under: Blogroll, Communications, Culture, Demographics, Economics, Education, Farming, government, Law, liberty, Life, Links, People, Philosophy, Politics, Rants, Raves, Religion, Security, Video, War, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

 
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8. Sparta

9. Sparta (cont.)

10. The Rise of Athens

11. The Rise of Athens (cont.)

12. The Persian Wars

h4 style=”text-align:center;”>Spartan Civilisation (1 of5)

Spartan Civilisation (2 of5)

Spartan Civilisation (3 of5)

Spartan Civilisation (4 of5)

Spartan Civilisation (5 of5)

Background articles and Videos

 

Sparta

Sparta (Doric Σπάρτα; Attic Σπάρτη Spartē) or Lacedaemon, was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese.[1] It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. From c. 650 BC, following the reforms of Lycurgus, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.

Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars.[2] The last stand of King Leonidas and his force of 300 Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae against a massive Persian army galvanized Greek resistance to the Persian invasion, leading to the decisive victory over the Persians by a Spartan-led coalition a year later at the Battle of Plataea. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War[3], from which it emerged victorious, though at great cost. Sparta’s defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta’s prominent role in Greece. However, it maintained its political independence until 146 BC.

Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens, who enjoyed full rights), Mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans), Perioikoi (freedmen), and Helots (state-owned serfs, enslaved non-Spartan local population). Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanxes were widely considered undefeatable in battle. Spartan women enjoyed considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world.

Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in the West following the revival of classical learning. Sparta continues to fascinate Western Culture; an admiration of Sparta is called laconophilia.[4][5]

parta was generally referred to by the ancient Greeks as Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων) or Lacedaemonia (Λακεδαιμονία); these are the names commonly used in the works of Homer and the Athenian historians Herodotus and Thucydides. Herodotus uses only the former and in some passages seems to denote by it the Mycenaean Greek citadel at Therapne, in contrast to the lower town of Sparta. The immediate area around the town of Sparta, the plateau east of the Taygetos mountains, was generally referred as Laconia (Λακωνία). This term was sometimes used to refer to all the regions under direct Spartan control, including Messenia.

In Greek mythology, Lacedaemon was a son of Zeus by the nymph Taygete. He married Sparta the daughter of Eurotas, by whom he became the father of Amyclas, Eurydice, and Asine. He was king of the country which he named after himself, naming the capital after his wife. He was believed to have built the sanctuary of the Charites, which stood between Sparta and Amyclae, and to have given to those divinities the names of Cleta and Phaenna. A shrine was erected to him in the neighborhood of Therapne.

Lacedaemon is now the name of a province in the modern Greek prefecture of Laconia.

Geography

Sparta is located in the region of Laconia, in the south-eastern Peloponnese. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Evrotas River, the main river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water. The valley of the Evrotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. Taygetus (2407 m) and to the east by Mt. Parnon (1935 m). To the north, Laconia is separated from Arcadia by hilly uplands reaching 1000 m in altitude. These natural defenses worked to Sparta’s advantage and contributed to Sparta never having been sacked. Though landlocked, Sparta had a harbor, Gytheio, on the Laconian Gulf.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparta

Helots

“…The helots (Classical Greek: Εἵλωτες / Heílôtes) were an unfree population group that formed the main population of Laconia and the whole of Messenia (areas of Sparta). Their exact status was already disputed in antiquity: according to Critias, they were “especially slaves”[1] whereas to Pollux, they occupied a status “between free men and slaves”.[2] Tied to the land, they worked in agriculture as a majority and economically supported the Spartan citizens. They were ritually mistreated, humiliated and even slaughtered: every autumn, during the crypteia, they could be killed by a Spartan citizen without fear of repercussion.[3][4][5]

Etymology

Several theories exist regarding the origin of the name “helots.” According to Hellanicus, the word relates to the village of Helos, in the south of Sparta.[6] Pausanias thus states, “Its inhabitants became the first slaves of the Lacedaemonian state, and were the first to be called helots“.[7] This explanation is however not very plausible in etymological terms.[8]

Linguists have associated the word with the root ϝελ / wel, as in ἁλίσκομαι / halískomai, “to be captured, to be made prisoner.” In fact, some ancient authors did not consider the term ethnic, but rather an indication of servitude: Antiochus of Syracuse writes: “those of the Lacedaemonians who did not take part in the expedition were adjudged slaves and were named helots“,[9] while Theopompus (fragment 122), cited by Athenaeus (VI, 416c), states, “…and the one nation called their slaves helots and the others called them penestae….[10]

“In all of these texts, the christening of the group as helots is the central and symbolic moment of their reduction to serfhood. By this name they are thus institutionally distinguished from the anonymous douloi (slaves).[11]

It is certain that one aspect of helotism was the element of conquest; thus Messenians, who were conquered in the Messenian Wars of the 8th century BC, become synonymous in Herodotus with helots.

The situation is less clear in the case of the earliest helots, who, according to Theopompus, were descended from the initial Achaeans, who had been conquered by the Dorians. But then not all Achaeans were reduced to helotism: the village of Amykles, home of the Hyacinthia festival, enjoyed special status, as did others.

Contemporary authors propose alternative theories: according to Antiochus of Syracuse, helots were the Lacedaemonians who did not participate in the Messenian Wars; for Ephorus of Cyme, they were the perioeci (“dwellers in surrounding communities”) from Helos, reduced to slavery after a failed revolt. Modern historiography favours the hypothesis of Antiochus of Syracuse.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helots

Perioeci

“…The perioeci, or perioikoi, were the members of an autonomous group of free but non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta. Concentrated in the beach and highland areas of Laconia, the name περίοικοι derives from περί / peri, “around,” and οἶκος / oikos, “dwelling, house.” They were the only people allowed to travel to other cities, which the Spartans were not, unless given permission.

Origin

Achaeans who had been invaded by the Dorians – where the Achaeans of the plains became helots, the perioeci were also Dorians; however when the Dorians settled in Laconia there were five different groups of Dorians who rose to power. The Spartans rose to become the most powerful of these five colonies and defeated the others; the others then became the Perioeci. There was another theory that they were settled from Lacedaemon, thus being analogous to the Roman colonies. However, Messenia was one exception to this theory, and it became difficult over time to believe that Sparta could found hundreds of perioecid villages.

Status

Under the rule of Sparta, the perioeci belonged to the Lacedaemonian State, subject to the suzerainty of Sparta but not Spartan citizens. If their free status was not the object of controversy, the situation was unclear concerning the precise nature of their subject status within Sparta versus the status of allied cities and the strangers. In the same way, their political and social organization was quite poor.

Their territory, the Perioikis (Περίοικις), formed part of their territory within Sparta itself. Their villages were described as poleis by Herodotus (VII, 234), Xenophon (Hellenica, VI, 5, 21) and Thucydides (V, 54, 1). It can be noted that their poleis acted as a sort of buffer around Sparta, shielding it from outside influence and to some extent to present a form wall to the helots; preventing escape and enforcing discipline out of Sparta’s area of immediate control and watch. They were permitted to have some contact with outsiders and to trade.

The perioeci had the rights to own lands, and belonged to the civic army the same title as equals: they were hoplites in the army and epibastes in the navy. They could not participate in any political decisions and could not marry Spartan men or women.

References

  • Paul Cartledge, Sparta and Lakonia. A Regional History 1300 to 362 BC, Routledge, New York, 2002 (2nd edition) ISBN 0-415-26276-3
  • Edmond Lévy, Sparte : histoire politique et sociale jusqu’à la conquête romaine (Sparta: Political and Social History until the Roman Conquest), Seuil, coll. “Points Histoire” (Points of History), Paris, 2003 ISBN 2-02-032453-9
  • Finley, M.I. Ancient History, Evidence and Models, Chatto & Windus, (London 1985).
  • Mathieu AREF, Grèce (Mycéniens=Pélasges) ou la solution d’une enigme (Greece (Mycenaeans=Pelasgians) Or A Solution To The Enigma) – Collection Mnemosyne (Mnemosyne Collection) – Paris 2004

External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perioeci

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