Archive for September 13th, 2008

Solar Energy with Photovoltaics Articles and Videos

Posted on September 13, 2008. Filed under: Blogroll, Climate, Economics, Links, Politics, Rants, Raves, Resources, Science, Taxes, Technology, Video | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 The following is some background information on solar energy with photovoltaics.

Keep in mind that both solar energy and wind generated energy combined produced less than 1% of the electricity produced in the United States.

The reason is that electricity produced by coal, nuclear, natural gas, and hyro are cheaper and therefore produce over 96% of the electricity in the United States.

 

solar energy

 

Introduction to Solar Photovoltaics

 

SOLAR — POWER OF THREE

 

The secret of Solar Energy revealed!

 

Solar Panels – How It’s Made

 

525,600+ Minutes Per Year

 

Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Power Films, The Next Generation

 

Energy expert discusses the future of solar power
 
 

 

 

How do Photovoltaics Work?

by Gil Knier

“Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of light into electricity at the atomic level. Some materials exhibit a property known as the photoelectric effect that causes them to absorb photons of light and release electrons. When these free electrons are captured, an electric current results that can be used as electricity.

The photoelectric effect was first noted by a French physicist, Edmund Bequerel, in 1839, who found that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric current when exposed to light. In 1905, Albert Einstein described the nature of light and the photoelectric effect on which photovoltaic technology is based, for which he later won a Nobel prize in physics. The first photovoltaic module was built by Bell Laboratories in 1954. It was billed as a solar battery and was mostly just a curiosity as it was too expensive to gain widespread use. In the 1960s, the space industry began to make the first serious use of the technology to provide power aboard spacecraft. Through the space programs, the technology advanced, its reliability was established, and the cost began to decline. During the energy crisis in the 1970s, photovoltaic technology gained recognition as a source of power for non-space applications. …”

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/solarcells.htm 

 

Timeline of solar cells

“The timeline of solar cells begins in the 1800s when it is observed that the presence of sunlight is capable of generating usable electrical energy. Solar cells have gone on to be used in many applications. They have historically been used in situations where electrical power from the grid is unavailable. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_solar_cells

 

 

Nanoscience at Work: Creating Energy from Sunlight

“…Paul Alivisatos, co-leader of Berkeley Lab’s Helios Project, is the Associate Director for Physical Sciences and director of the Materials Sciences Division at Berkeley Lab. In the Helios Project, Alivisatos will use nanotechnology in the efficient capture of sunlight and its conversion to electricity to drive economical fuel production processes. He is an authority on artificial nanostructure synthesis and inventor of the quantum dot technology. His talk was presented May 14, 2007. …”

 

NOVA Saved By the Sun (Solar NanoPaint)

 

Nanotechnology and photovoltaics


 

Nanotechnology for Alternative Energy Sources


 

Solar Energy Breakthrough New Technology

 

Spray-On Solar-Power Cells Are True Breakthrough

 

Best Solar Energy Commercial Ever

 

 National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL): Photovoltaic (PV) research

 http://www.nrel.gov/pv/

 

 PVJapan 2008 Expo

 

Photovoltaics

“…Photovoltaics (PV) is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells for energy by converting sunlight directly into electricity. Due to the growing need for solar energy, the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has expanded dramatically in recent years. [1] [2] [3] Photovoltaic production has been doubling every two years, increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002, making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology. At the end of 2007, according to preliminary data, cumulative global production was 12,400 megawatts. [4] Roughly 90% of this generating capacity consists of grid-tied electrical systems. Such installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) [5] or built into the roof or walls of a building, known as Building Integrated Photovoltaic or BIPV for short.[6] Financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity and net metering, have supported solar PV installations in many countries including Germany, Japan, and the United States.[7] …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaics 

 

Photovoltaic economics

“Some important terms related to photovoltaic system economics are presented herein. The most important PV economic parameters are energy payback time – EPBT, buy-back rates and the total costs of installing a PV system. Investments into renewable energies, particular into PV and wind technologies are another economics related areas.

The cost of a PV system is measured in price-per-peak-watt (€/Wp for example). “Peak Watt” is defined as the power at standard test conditions (solar insolation 1000 W/m2, AM of 1.5 and temperature 25°C). Photovoltaic system costs encompass both module and BOS costs. Module costs typically represents only 40-60% of total PV system costs. Typically the cost of installing a photovoltaic system having a power of 1 kW ranges from 4500 € to 6500 €/kWp (2003). Approximately about half of this investment would be for the PV modules, and the inverter, PV array support structures, electrical cabling, equipment and installation would account for the rest. Please note that BOS and installation costs can vary significantly. For example: when costs for site preparation, laying a foundation, system design and engineering, permitting, as well as assembly and installation labour are higher, total installation costs are higher also. The life cycle cost (LCC) of a PV system may also include costs for site preparation, system design and engineering, installation labour, permits and operation and maintenance costs. Photovoltaic systems have an anticipated 30-year lifetime. Operation and maintenance costs, ranging between 0,02 to 0,1 cents/kWh. However, these costs can vary significantly, ranging between as low as 0.01 €/kWh to 0.10 €/kWh. The higher reported costs included maintenance costs for generators in remote hybrid PV systems, as well as capital replacement costs due to environmental factors such as extreme temperatures and vandalism. The most significant replacement cost will likely be the battery. Some studies report that operation and maintenance costs are well correlated to the system size, so 2% of total hardware costs operation and maintenance costs is expected. …”

http://www.pvresources.com/en/economics.php

 

160 Years of Photovoltaic Technology

“Most people are surprised to learn that photovoltaic technology actually dates back over 160 years. The basic science was first discovered in 1839 but the pace of advancement really accelerated in three major thrusts in the 20th century. …”

http://www.sunlightelectric.com/pvhistory.php 

 

Which Solar Panels Work Well For Residential Use?

 

What Affects Solar Panel Costs

 

Will The Price Of Solar Panels Come Down Anytime Soon?

 

Payback Time for A Solar Panel System

 

Colorado Solar Panel Residential vs Commercial

 

Daniel Kammen – Renewable Energy and Economies of Scale

 

Made in Germany | Solar Technology as an Export Hit

 

Learn about Solar Energy and Solar Panel Installation…

 

PV financial incentives

“…The political purpose of PV financial incentives is to grow the photovoltaics industry even where the cost of PV is significantly above grid parity, to allow it to achieve the economies of scale necessary to reach grid parity. The policies are implemented to promote national energy independence, high-tech job creation and reduction of CO2 emissions. When smart meters are used to manage demand and peak usage coincides with hot summer days, PV power can compete more closely with fossil fuels and the need for subsidy through feed-in laws is reduced. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PV_financial_incentives

 

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