Chemistry

Record Low Temperatures in United States As Mother Nature Changes Weather and Climate To Global Cooling — The Coming Ice Age — Need Nuclear Power To Keep Warm and Cool — Videos

Posted on January 6, 2014. Filed under: American History, Biology, Blogroll, Books, Business, Chemistry, Climate, Communications, Computers, Culture, Economics, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, history, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Non-Fiction, People, Philosophy, Photos, Physics, Politics, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Reviews, Science, Security, Technology, Video, Water, Wealth, Weather, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts

Pronk Pops Show 187: January 7, 2014

Pronk Pops Show 186: January 6, 2014

Pronk Pops Show 185: January 3, 2014

Pronk Pops Show 184: December 19, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 183: December 17, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 182: December 16, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 181: December 13, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 180: December 12, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 179: December 11, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 178: December 5, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 177: December 2, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 176: November 27, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 175: November 26, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 174: November 25, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 173: November 22, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 172: November 21, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 171: November 20, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 170: November 19, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 169: November 18, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 168: November 15, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 167: November 14, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 166: November 13, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 165: November 12, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 164: November 11, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 163: November 8, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 162: November 7, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 161: November 4, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 160: November 1, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 159: October 31, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 158: October 30, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 157: October 28, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 156: October 25, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 155: October 24, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 154: October 23, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 153: October 21, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 152: October 18, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 151: October 17, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 150: October 16, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 149: October 14, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 148: October 11, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 147: October 10, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 146: October 9, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 145: October 8, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 144: October 7, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 143: October 4 2013

Pronk Pops Show 142: October 3, 2013

Pronk Pops Show 141: October 2, 2013

The Pronk Pops Show Podcasts Portfolio

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 184-187

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 174-183

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 165-173

Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 158-164

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Listen To Pronk Pops Podcast or Download Show 143-150

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Story 1: Record Low Temperatures in United States As Mother Nature Changes Weather and Climate To Global Cooling — The Coming Ice Age — Need Nuclear Power To Keep Warm and Cool — Videos

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North America set for record low temperatures as cold snap stretches

Arctic freeze hits US Midwest with record low temperatures

What is an Ice Age?

Climate Change in 12 Minutes – The Skeptic’s Case

The Next Ice Age and The Gulf Stream – Future Focus

In Search Of… The Coming Ice Age (1978) [Global Cooling]

Global Cooling: The Coming Ice Age

Dr Matthew J Penn suggests global cooling – new Little Ice Age

Global Cooling || UN Climate Report Reveals Rate Of Global Warming About Half Average Rate – Dobbs

Global Warming or a New Ice Age: Documentary Film

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Cap and Trade

Glenn Beck Exposes The Crime of The Century By The Progressive Radical Socialist Democratic Party–The Global Warming Investment Fraud, Political Scam and Science Scandal–Extorting and Robbing The American People–Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Case!

Jeffrey Miron–Obamaomics–Videos

William A. Sprigg, PhD., an IPCC climate scientist, On “Climategate”–Videos

Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer, and Fred Singer On The Climate and Global Warming Alarmists and Junk Science Computer Models –Videos

Global Warming Is Caused By Man: The Arrogance of Man–The Wrath Of Mother Nature–

Al Gore Global Warming Hot Head Says The Artic Ice Cap Will Disappear In 5-10-15 Years–Volcanoe Gate–Eruptions Melt Ice and Increase Carbon Dioxide!–Videos

Climategate–A Political Scam, Investment Fraud, and Science Scandal of The Century Exposed–The Progressive Radical Socialist’s Big Lie And Con That Man Is The Cause Of Global Warming Was In Fact Nothing More Than Politicians, Investment Bankers, and Government Scientists Creating Climate Crisis!–

Glenn Beck, John Bolton, and Lord Christopher Monckton On Copenhagen 2009 Treaty, Climate Change and World Government–Videos

Lord Christopher Monckton–Climate Change–Treaty–Videos

“We Can Reverse Climate Change”–President Barack Obama–Liar or Fool–Or Both–You Be The Judge!

Time To Sound The Alarm: Call Your Representative and Senators–Cap and Trade Bill to be Voted in U.S. House on Friday–Kill The Cap and Trade Energy Tax Today! UPDATED

Green Government Gestapo Goons: Global Warming Police Force Invades Your Home And Living in Your Home May Be A Crime!

White House Memo: Carbon Dioxide Is Not A Pollutant and A Cap And Trade Program (Carbon Dioxide Tax) Serious Economic Impact –The Smoking Gun Video!

Save Your Job and Life–Abolish The Environmental Protection Agency!

President Obama–Killer of The American Dream and Market Capitalism–Stop The Radical Socialists Before They Kill You!

MAJOR REDUCTIONS IN CARBON EMISSIONS ARE NOT WORTH THE MONEY DEBATE–Videos

Facing Fundamental Facts

Let Them Eat Cake Act: American Elites Killing and Starving The American People

Clinton’s Cap and Trade Tax on The American People for Consuming Electricity and Driving Cars, SUVs and Trucks!

The Heidelberg Appeal: Beware of False Gods and Prophets

Saving The World: The Importance of Getting The Priorities Right

Global Warming/Climate Change

Roy Spencer–The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World’s Top Climate Scientists –Videos

CO2 is Life: Global Warming Panel Discussion–Videos

William A. Sprigg, PhD., an IPCC climate scientist, On “Climategate”–Videos

Professor Fred Singer–On Climate Change–Videos

Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer, and Fred Singer On The Climate and Global Warming Alarmists and Junk Science Computer Models –Videos

Al Gore Global Warming Hot Head Says The Artic Ice Cap Will Disappear In 5-10-15 Years–Volcanoe Gate–Eruptions Melt Ice and Increase Carbon Dioxide!–Videos

Climategate–The Political Scam, Investment Fraud, and Science Scandal of The Century Exposed–The Progressive Radical Socialist’s Big Lie And Con That Man Is The Cause Of Global Warming Was In Fact Nothing More Than Politicians, Investment Bankers, and Government Scientists Creating Climate Crisis!–

Glenn Beck, John Bolton, and Lord Christopher Monckton On Copenhagen 2009 Treaty, Climate Change and World Government–Videos

Lord Christopher Monckton–Climate Change–Treaty–Videos

“We Can Reverse Climate Change”–President Barack Obama–Liar or Fool–Or Both–You Be The Judge!

John Holdren–Science Czar–Videos

John Holdren: Global Warming: What Do We Know and Should Do–Videos

The Obama Depression Has Arrived: 15,000,000 to 25,000,000 Unemployed Americans–Stimulus Package and Bailouts A Failure–400,000 Leave Labor Force In July!

Facing Fundamental Facts

Gore Grilled & Gingrich Gouged–American People Oppose Massive Carbon Cap and Trade Tax Increase–Videos

National Center for Policy Analysis–A Global Warming Primer

Global Warming is The Greatest Hoax, Scam and Disinformation Campaign in History

Global Warming Videos

Global Warming Books

Global Warming Sites

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Hostile Government Takeover of Health Care Sector Continues — Fight Back Do Not Enroll — Repeal Obamacare Now (ROT) — ROT NOW! — Videos

Posted on November 30, 2013. Filed under: American History, Babies, Biology, Blogroll, Catholic Church, Chemistry, College, Communications, Computers, Computers, Constitution, Crime, Culture, Demographics, Diasters, Economics, Education, Employment, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Fraud, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Inflation, Investments, IRS, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Literacy, media, Medicine, Obamacare, People, Philosophy, Photos, Politics, Press, Programming, Psychology, Radio, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Religion, Resources, Science, Security, Strategy, Systems, Talk Radio, Taxes, Technology, Unemployment, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

shop_health_insurance

Healthcare.gov finally ready for prime-time?

Obamacare Delay – Critics – THE BIG QUESTION: Is Obama A President Or A King? – The Kelly File

ObamaCare: Three Years of Broken Promises

Henry Chao: 30-40% of HealthCare.gov Still Needs To Be Built

DHS Cannot Provide Answers Regarding the Security of Healthcare.gov

Obamacare Website Healthcare.gov Crashes During Secretary Kathleen Sebelius’ Visit

Pelosi taken apart by David Gregory on false Obamacare promises

Dennis Miller-special Nancy Pelosi

11-13-13 “ObamaCare Implementation: The Rollout of HealthCare.gov” Pt. I

11-13-13 “ObamaCare Implementation: The Rollout of HealthCare.gov” Pt. 2

11-13-13 “ObamaCare Implementation: The Rollout of HealthCare.gov” Pt. 3

Megyn Kelly Outraged Obama Lied about Americans being able to keep coverage, shows proof

Megyn Kelly Interviews Charles Krauthammer on Obamacare Outrage – Kelly File – 10/30/13

More Than a Website

Health Site Is Improving But Likely to Miss Saturday Deadline

By

Louise Radnofsky and Spencer E. Ante

Despite recent progress at HealthCare.gov, a raft of problems will remain beyond the Obama administration’s Saturday deadline to make the troubled federal insurance website work.

The news isn’t all bad: Users say the site looks better, pages load faster, and more people are getting through to sign up for health plans.

But technical problems still affect HealthCare.gov’s ability to verify users’ identities and transmit accurate enrollment data to insurers, officials say. The data center that supports the site faces continuing challenges, and tools for processing payments to insurers haven’t been built.

Technical staff in Washington have been racing up to the end-of-November deadline. In their last public pronouncement on the effort, three days before the deadline, officials said they had much to do to get the site into a condition where it functions smoothly for a majority of users.

The success of the White House’s signature domestic initiative is riding on the technicians’ ability to fix the site, as well as the rest of the federal technology supporting enrollment. Across the nation, that effort is being eyed hopefully by supporters of the law, since the site is the centerpiece of the effort to overhaul American health care and extend coverage to millions of people.

Those hopes were deflated by a series of blows for the administration right up until Nov. 30, and the site continued to experience outages, both planned and unplanned, in the week leading up to the deadline.

The Wall Street Journal reported on Wednesday that the administration was planning to change its Web-hosting provider from Verizon Communications Inc. VZ -0.62% Verizon Communications Inc. U.S.: NYSE $49.62 -0.31 -0.62% Nov. 29, 2013 1:00 pm Volume (Delayed 15m) : 4.30M AFTER HOURS $49.79 +0.17 +0.34% Nov. 29, 2013 4:42 pm Volume (Delayed 15m): 611,247 P/E Ratio 65.29 Market Cap $141.91 Billion Dividend Yield 4.27% Rev. per Employee $651,745 11/27/13 H-P Will Replace Verizon for W… 11/20/13 Investors Tell AT&T, Verizon t… 11/18/13 Supreme Court Declines to Hear… More quote details and news » VZ in Your Value Your Change Short position subsidiary Terremark to Hewlett-Packard Co. in the spring, a complex transition that could introduce new challenges and take months; and the same day, the administration said it was shelving for a year any attempts to operate an online exchange for small businesses. On Wednesday, Verizon declined to comment on its clients.

Officials mixed optimism with caution. “November 30th does not represent a relaunch of HealthCare.gov,” said Julie Bataille, a spokeswoman for the government’s Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, which operates the site. “It is not a magical date. There will be times after November 30th when the site, like any website, does not perform optimally.”

Find Your State’s Health-Insurance Exchange

For the fix-it drive that began in late October, the administration tapped former White House adviser Jeff Zients and QSSI, a unit of UnitedHealth Group, to act as the new lead contractor, establishing a 24-hour “war room” operations center to coordinate contractors who previously weren’t working well together. Since then, officials have focused on fixing the kinds of wrinkles that were most obvious to users.

They have reported success in speeding up the response time of the system, lowering it from an average of eight seconds at launch to less than one second for most users. They say they have eliminated a host of glitches in the software so that pages now load incorrectly less than 1% of the time. And they say they have added “visual cues” to help users navigate the system more easily.

Technicians have been racing to add new computer server, storage and database capacity to the website, hoping to get the site ready to withstand 50,000 simultaneous users by Sunday, as was originally intended, said people familiar with the work. “I think we are close,” said one.

Some people involved with enrollment say they have seen a notable uptick in recent weeks. Maine Community Health Options, a nonprofit plan based in Lewiston, Maine, now is getting “hundreds of enrollments” a day, rather than the dozens it saw trickling in earlier this month, said Chief Executive Kevin Lewis.

But problems with the performance of the site’s databases, storage and servers and their interaction with each other continue to slow the site or make it unavailable for short periods, according to government officials and contractors working on the project.

Explore how America’s health-care overhaul will affect you on this first-person adventure. CLICK THE IMAGE to start interactive experience.

Karen Egozi, CEO of the Epilepsy Foundation of Florida, which has trained nearly 50 people to help others enroll, said the performance of the website has improved in recent weeks but suffers from unpredictable glitches. On Nov. 19, Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius visited a medical center in Miami and watched a member of Ms. Egozi’s staff help a couple fill out an application. The website failed, in front of a local TV camera crew.

On the weekend of Nov. 23 and 24, Ms. Egozi said her navigators were able to sign up a few people. But on Nov. 25, she said the site was down for a little while. “Sometimes, similar to when the secretary was here, the site does not let us through to the next section,” she said. “It was not working today, but yesterday it worked well.”

One source of early problems: The government had bought web-hosting services from Terremark subsidiary that initially gave it a highly virtualized system of servers shared by other groups within the Medicare center, rather than a dedicated group of computer servers for HealthCare.gov. Plans are in place to replace the Verizon unit with H-P this spring.

HHS also didn’t initially contract for a backup website or monitoring tools like those used by sophisticated consumer sites, according to people familiar with the matter.

The website still has no separate backup copy, but it did replace the virtual database with dedicated hardware, and bought and installed monitoring software.

Meanwhile, the site has a backlog of users who encountered problems in its first weeks of operation. Some appear to be locked out from the early stages unless they can get their account deleted. Others are stuck at the next big stage, persuading the federal government of their identity and their income so their application for tax credits can be processed. 

Yannette Castellano waits to talk to a navigator about health-care options available under the Affordable Care Act, at the North Shore Medical Center, on Nov. 19 in Miami. AP

Guy Dicharry of Los Lunas, N.M., said he had been in limbo at the identity-verification stage since Oct. 5, despite giving the site personal information several times so it can confirm his income. He hasn’t heard back about a paper application submitted Nov. 1.

“This has been botched and is not getting fixed. If it’s not fixed, I’ll be ringing in 2014 as a newly uninsured person. I suspect that is the opposite of what the ACA was supposed to achieve,” said Mr. Dicharry, who described himself as a supporter of the Affordable Care Act. Because of their age and income, Mr. Dicharry and his wife stand to gain valuable subsidies toward the cost of coverage, but only if he buys it through the website.

Ronald Gallagher of Paradise Valley, Ariz., said he had been helping his daughter shop for coverage. After 16 hours over four days starting Oct. 1, they were told her identity was verified and she could pick a plan. But when they logged in to the website, it said her application was “In Progress.”

After failing to get help from a call center, father and daughter filled out an application over the phone in early November, but they still haven’t received a letter telling what insurance plans she qualifies for. “So far, nothing the government has done has worked,” Mr. Gallagher said.

Even when people successfully enroll, insurers say they sometimes get incorrect data. Ms. Bataille, the government spokeswoman, said officials have seen “marked improvements” in the information transmitted to insurers but “we know there are still issues that remain.” An HHS official also said that there had been improvements in identity verification, but that the agency knew it wasn’t fully fixed.

Mr. Lewis of Maine Community Health Options also worried about a larger volume of applicants, especially since insurers have now been told to find ways to process applications that come in from people as late as Dec. 23 in time for their coverage to begin Jan. 1, rather than a previous Dec. 15 deadline.

If “there’s an avalanche on that last date, I don’t know if the system will be able to support all that,” he said.

http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303332904579228413800602836

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United Nations Earth Summit Agenda 21 — Sustainable Development — Videos

Posted on November 5, 2013. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Banking, Biology, Blogroll, Books, Business, Chemistry, Climate, College, Communications, Computers, Constitution, Culture, Demographics, Diasters, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Enivornment, European History, Farming, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Food, Foreign Policy, Genocide, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Homes, Illegal, Immigration, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, Legal, liberty, Life, Links, Literacy, media, Medicine, Monetary Policy, Money, Natural Gas, Nuclear Power, Oil, People, Philosophy, Photos, Physics, Politics, Press, Programming, Psychology, Quotations, Radio, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Religion, Resources, Science, Security, Strategy, Talk Radio, Tax Policy, Taxes, Technology, Unemployment, Video, War, Water, Wealth, Weather, Wisdom, Writing | Tags: , , , , , , |

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Progressive Democrats and Republicans and Neocons Want Another War in The Middle East With Syria, Iran and Russia — Heading Towards World War 3 — Videos

Posted on June 29, 2013. Filed under: American History, Ammunition, Biology, Blogroll, Bomb, Chemistry, College, Communications, Constitution, Demographics, Diasters, Dirty Bomb, Drones, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, European History, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, Genocide, government, government spending, history, History of Economic Thought, Islam, Islam, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Literacy, Macroeconomics, media, Monetary Policy, Natural Gas, Nuclear, Nuclear Power, Oil, People, Philosophy, Pistols, Politics, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Religion, Resources, Rifles, Science, Security, Shite, Strategy, Sunni, Talk Radio, Tax Policy, Technology, Terrorism, Unemployment, Video, War, Water, Wealth, Weapons, Weather, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

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The United States continues to supply weapons to rebels in the Middle East who kill, cut open, and eat organs out of their enemies dead bodies. 6/17/13

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Ray Kurzweil–How To Create A Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed–Videos

Posted on November 21, 2012. Filed under: Babies, Biology, Blogroll, Books, Business, Chemistry, College, Communications, Computers, Culture, Economics, Education, Energy, Language, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Physics, Raves, Science, Security, Strategy, Technology, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , |

Ray Kurzweil “How to Create a Mind”, Authors at Google

Exclusive Interview with Ray Kurzweil 

Ray Kurzweil:How to Create a Mind 1

Ray Kurzweil:How to Create a Mind 2

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Learning Technologies 2012 – Ray Kurzweil – The Web Within Us: When Minds and Machines Become One

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Ray Kurzweil – Exponential Learning & Entrepreneurship

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The Excellent Powder–Saving Millions of Lives With DDT–Videos

Posted on August 8, 2012. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Babies, Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, College, Communications, Diasters, Economics, Education, Energy, Federal Government, Food, government, Health Care, High School, history, Inflation, Investments, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Politics, Programming, Psychology, Quotations, Rants, Raves, Religion, Resources, Science, Strategy, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , |

John Stossel – DDT

Demonizing DDT: Challenging The Scare Campaign That Has Cost Millions of Lives

“In The Excellent Powder: DDT’s Political and Scientific History, Richard Tren and Donald Roberts argue that the infamous insecticide is the world’s greatest public-health success stories, saving millions of lives by preventing insect-borne disease. Unfortunately for those in areas still infested with mosquitoes and other flying bugs, DDT is also the world’s most-misunderstood substance, the target of a decades-long scientifically ignorant and ideologically motivated campaign that has vastly limited its use and applications.

From Rachel Carson in the 1960s to contemporary critics, DDT has been the object of what Roberts, a professor of tropical public health at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, calls “scare campaigns” that link DDT to “theoretical harms to wildlife and human life that simply don’t exist.”

Dubbed “the excellent powder” by Winston Churchill for its life-saving qualities, DDT has the potential to transform the developing world from a malarial hell into something else again. Yet as Tren, the winner of the 2009 Julian L. Simon Award, warns, under current international conventions, global DDT production is scheduled to be halted in 2017, thereby consigning much of the world to less-effective and more-expensive alternatives that will consign millions of poor people to living hell.

Reason.tv’s Nick Gillespie sat down with Tren and Roberts, who are part of Africa Fighting Malaria, to talk about how DDT got such a bad rap and what can be done to set the record straight.”

15-108 Science Matters:DDT & Modern Environmental Movement II

Malaria

“…Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. The protists first infect the liver, then act as parasites within red blood cells, causing symptoms that typically include fever and headache, in severe cases progressing to coma or death. The disease is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions in a broad band around the equator, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. Severe malaria is largely caused by P. falciparum while the disease caused by P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae is generally a milder form that is rarely fatal. The zoonotic species P. knowlesi, prevalent in Southeast Asia, causes malaria in macaques but can also cause severe infections in humans. Malaria is prevalent in tropical regions because the significant amounts of rainfall, consistently high temperatures and high humidity, along with stagnant waters in which mosquito larvae readily mature, provide them with the environment they need for continuous breeding. Disease transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by distribution of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.

The World Health Organization has estimated that in 2010, there were 216 million documented cases of malaria. Around 655,000 people died from the disease, many of whom were children under the age of five.[1] The actual number of deaths may be significantly higher, as precise statistics are unavailable in many rural areas, and many cases are undocumented. P. falciparum — responsible for the most severe form of malaria — causes the vast majority of deaths associated with the disease. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, and can indeed be a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development.

Despite a clear need, no vaccine offering a high level of protection currently exists. Efforts to develop one are ongoing. Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travelers to malaria-endemic countries (prophylaxis). A variety of antimalarial medications are available. Severe malaria is treated with intravenous or intramuscular quinine or, since the mid-2000s, the artemisinin derivative artesunate, which is superior to quinine in both children and adults and is given in combination with a second anti-malarial such as mefloquine. Resistance has developed to several antimalarial drugs, most notably chloroquine and artemisinin.

Signs and symptoms

Main symptoms of malaria[2]

Typical fever patterns of malaria

The signs and symptoms of malaria typically begin 8–25 days following infection.[3] However, symptoms may occur later in those who have taken antimalarial medications as prevention.[4] The presentation may include fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), vomiting, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, hemoglobinuria, retinal damage,[5] and convulsions. Approximately 30% of people however will no longer have a fever upon presenting to a health care facility.[4]

The classic symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting about two hours or more, occurring every two days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections, and every three days for P. malariae. P. falciparum infection can cause recurrent fever every 36–48 hours or a less pronounced and almost continuous fever.[6] For reasons that are poorly understood, but that may be related to high intracranial pressure, children with malaria frequently exhibit abnormal posturing, a sign indicating severe brain damage.[7] Cerebral malaria is associated with retinal whitening, which may be a useful clinical sign in distinguishing malaria from other causes of fever.[8]

Severe malaria is usually caused by P. falciparum, and typically arises 6–14 days after infection.[9] Non-falciparum species have however been found to be the cause of ~14% of cases of severe malaria in some groups.[4] Consequences of severe malaria include coma and death if untreated—young children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), severe headache, cerebral ischemia, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, and hemoglobinuria with renal failure may occur. Renal failure is a feature of blackwater fever, where hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells leaks into the urine.[9]

Cause

A Plasmodium sporozoite traverses the cytoplasm of a mosquito midgut epithelial cell in this false-colour electron micrograph.

Malaria parasites are from the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa). In humans, malaria is caused by P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax and P. knowlesi.[10][11] Among those infected, P. falciparum is the most common species identified (~75%) followed by P. vivax (~20%).[4] P. falciparum accounts for the majority of deaths.[12] P. vivax proportionally is more common outside of Africa.[13] There have been documented human infections with several species of Plasmodium from higher apes; however, with the exception of P. knowlesi—a zoonotic species that causes malaria in macaques[11]—these are mostly of limited public health importance.[14]

Life cycle

The definitive hosts for malaria parasites are female mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus, which act as transmission vectors to humans and other vertebrates, the secondary hosts. Young mosquitoes first ingest the malaria parasite by feeding on an infected vertebrate carrier and the infected Anopheles mosquitoes eventually carry Plasmodium sporozoites in their salivary glands. A mosquito becomes infected when it takes a blood meal from an infected vertebrate. Once ingested, the parasite gametocytes taken up in the blood will further differentiate into male or female gametes and then fuse in the mosquito’s gut. This produces an ookinete that penetrates the gut lining and produces an oocyst in the gut wall. When the oocyst ruptures, it releases sporozoites that migrate through the mosquito’s body to the salivary glands, where they are then ready to infect a new human host. The sporozoites are injected into the skin, alongside saliva, when the mosquito takes a subsequent blood meal. This type of transmission is occasionally referred to as anterior station transfer.[15]

Only female mosquitoes feed on blood; male mosquitoes feed on plant nectar, and thus do not transmit the disease. The females of the Anopheles genus of mosquito prefer to feed at night. They usually start searching for a meal at dusk, and will continue throughout the night until taking a meal.[16] Malaria parasites can also be transmitted by blood transfusions, although this is rare.[17]

Recurrent malaria

Malaria recurs after treatment for three reasons. Recrudescence occurs when parasites are not cleared by treatment, whereas reinfection indicates complete clearance with new infection established from a separate infective mosquito bite; both can occur with any malaria parasite species. Relapse is specific to P. vivax and P. ovale and involves re-emergence of blood-stage parasites from latent parasites (hypnozoites) in the liver.[4] Describing a case of malaria as cured by observing the disappearance of parasites from the bloodstream can, therefore, be deceptive. The longest incubation period reported for a P. vivax infection is 30 years.[9] Approximately one in five of P. vivax malaria cases in temperate areas involve overwintering by hypnozoites, with relapses beginning the year after the mosquito bite.[18]

Pathogenesis

The life cycle of malaria parasites. A mosquito causes infection by taking a blood meal. First, sporozoites enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the liver. They infect liver cells, where they multiply into merozoites, rupture the liver cells, and return to the bloodstream. Then, the merozoites infect red blood cells, where they develop into ring forms, trophozoites and schizonts that in turn produce further merozoites. Sexual forms are also produced, which, if taken up by a mosquito, will infect the insect and continue the life cycle.

Malaria infection develops via two phases: one that involves the liver or hepatic system (exoerythrocytic), and one which involves red blood cells, or erythrocytes (erythrocytic). When an infected mosquito pierces a person’s skin to take a blood meal, sporozoites in the mosquito’s saliva enter the bloodstream and migrate to the liver where they infect hepatocytes, multiplying asexually and asymptomatically for a period of 8–30 days.[19] After a potential dormant period in the liver, these organisms differentiate to yield thousands of merozoites, which, following rupture of their host cells, escape into the blood and infect red blood cells to begin the erythrocytic stage of the life cycle.[19] The parasite escapes from the liver undetected by wrapping itself in the cell membrane of the infected host liver cell.[20]

Within the red blood cells, the parasites multiply further, again asexually, periodically breaking out of their hosts to invade fresh red blood cells. Several such amplification cycles occur. Thus, classical descriptions of waves of fever arise from simultaneous waves of merozoites escaping and infecting red blood cells.[19]

Some P. vivax sporozoites do not immediately develop into exoerythrocytic-phase merozoites, but instead produce hypnozoites that remain dormant for periods ranging from several months (6–12 months is typical) to as long as three years. After a period of dormancy, they reactivate and produce merozoites. Hypnozoites are responsible for long incubation and late relapses in P. vivax infections, although their existence in P. ovale is uncertain.[21]

The parasite is relatively protected from attack by the body’s immune system because for most of its human life cycle it resides within the liver and blood cells and is relatively invisible to immune surveillance. However, circulating infected blood cells are destroyed in the spleen. To avoid this fate, the P. falciparum parasite displays adhesive proteins on the surface of the infected blood cells, causing the blood cells to stick to the walls of small blood vessels, thereby sequestering the parasite from passage through the general circulation and the spleen.[22] The blockage of the microvasculature causes symptoms such as in placental and cerebral malaria. In cerebral malaria the sequestrated red blood cells can breach the blood–brain barrier possibly leading to coma.[23]

Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites

Although the red blood cell surface adhesive proteins (called PfEMP1, for P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) are exposed to the immune system, they do not serve as good immune targets, because of their extreme diversity; there are at least 60 variations of the protein within a single parasite and even more variants within whole parasite populations.[22] The parasite switches between a broad repertoire of PfEMP1 surface proteins, thus staying one step ahead of the pursuing immune system.[24]

Some merozoites turn into male and female gametocytes. If a mosquito pierces the skin of an infected person, it potentially picks up gametocytes within the blood. Fertilization and sexual recombination of the parasite occurs in the mosquito’s gut. New sporozoites develop and travel to the mosquito’s salivary gland, completing the cycle. Pregnant women are especially attractive to the mosquitoes, and malaria in pregnant women is an important cause of stillbirths, infant mortality and low birth weight,[25] particularly in P. falciparum infection, but also in other species infection, such as P. vivax.[26]

Genetic resistance

Main article: Genetic resistance to malaria

Due to the high levels of mortality and morbidity caused by malaria—especially the P. falciparum species—it is thought to have placed the greatest selective pressure on the human genome in recent history. Several diseases may provide some resistance to it including sickle cell disease, thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency as well as the presence of Duffy antigens on the subject’s red blood cells.[27][28]

The impact of sickle cell anemia on malaria immunity is of particular interest. Sickle cell anemia causes a defect to the hemoglobin molecule in the blood. Instead of retaining the biconcave shape of a normal red blood cell, the modified hemoglobin S molecule causes the cell to sickle or distort into a curved shape. Due to the sickle shape, the molecule is not as effective in taking or releasing oxygen, and therefore malaria parasites cannot complete their life cycle in the cell. Individuals who are homozygous for sickle cell anemia seldom survive this defect, while those who are heterozygous experience immunity to the disease. Although the potential risk of death for those with the homozygous condition seems to be unfavorable to population survival, the trait is preserved because of the benefits provided by the heterozygous form.[29]

Malarial hepatopathy

Hepatic dysfunction as a result of malaria is rare and is usually a result of a coexisting liver condition such as viral hepatitis and chronic liver disease.[30] Hepatitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the liver, is not actually present in what is called malarial hepatitis; the term as used here invokes the reduced liver function associated with severe malaria.[30] While traditionally considered a rare occurrence, malarial hepatopathy has seen an increase in malaria endemic areas, particularly in Southeast Asia and India.[30] Liver compromise in people with malaria correlates with a greater likelihood of complications and death.[30]

Diagnosis

Main article: Diagnosis of malaria

Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films or using antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests.[31][32] Rapid diagnostic tests that detect P. vivax are not as effective as those targeting P. falciparum.[33] They also are unable to tell how many parasites are present.[4] Areas that cannot afford laboratory diagnostic tests often use only a history of subjective fever as the indication to treat for malaria.[34] Polymerase chain reaction based tests have been developed, though these are not widely implemented in malaria-endemic regions as of 2012, due to their complexity.[4]

Classification

Malaria is divided into severe and uncomplicated by the World Health Organization (WHO).[4] Severe malaria is diagnosed when any of the following criteria are present, otherwise it is considered uncomplicated.[35]

  • Decreased consciousness
  • Significant weakness such that the person is unable to walk
  • Inability to feed
  • Two or more convulsions
  • Low blood pressure (less than 70 mmHg in adults or 50 mmHg in children)
  • Breathing problems
  • Circulatory shock
  • Kidney failure or hemoglobin in the urine
  • Bleeding problems, or hemoglobin less than 5 g/dl
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Low blood glucose (less than 2.2 mmol/l / 40 mg/dl)
  • Acidosis or lactate levels of greater than 5 mmol/l
  • A parasite level in the blood of greater than 2%

Prevention

Anopheles albimanus mosquito feeding on a human arm. This mosquito is a vector of malaria and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing the incidence of malaria.

Methods used to prevent malaria include medications, mosquito eradication and the prevention of bites. The presence of malaria in an area requires a combination of high human population density, high mosquito population density and high rates of transmission from humans to mosquitoes and from mosquitoes to humans. If any of these is lowered sufficiently, the parasite will eventually disappear from that area, as happened in North America, Europe and much of the Middle East. However, unless the parasite is eliminated from the whole world, it could become re-established if conditions revert to a combination that favours the parasite’s reproduction.[36] Many countries are seeing an increasing number of imported malaria cases owing to extensive travel and migration.

Many researchers argue that prevention of malaria may be more cost-effective than treatment of the disease in the long run, but the capital costs required are out of reach of many of the world’s poorest people. There is a wide disparity in the costs of control (i.e. maintenance of low endemicity) and elimination programs between countries. For example, in China—whose government in 2010 announced a strategy to pursue malaria elimination in the Chinese provinces—the required investment is a small proportion of public expenditure on health. In contrast, a similar program in Tanzania would cost an estimated one-fifth of the public health budget.[37]

Vector control

Further information: Mosquito control

Man spraying kerosene oil to protect against mosquitoes carrying malaria, Panama Canal Zone 1912

Efforts to eradicate malaria by eliminating mosquitoes have been successful in some areas. Malaria was once common in the United States and southern Europe, but vector control programs, in conjunction with the monitoring and treatment of infected humans, eliminated it from those regions. In some areas, the draining of wetland breeding grounds and better sanitation were adequate. Malaria was eliminated from most parts of the USA in the early 20th century by such methods, and the use of the pesticide DDT and other means eliminated it from the remaining pockets in the South by 1951.[38] (see National Malaria Eradication Program)

Before DDT, malaria was successfully eradicated or controlled in tropical areas like Brazil and Egypt by removing or poisoning the breeding grounds of the mosquitoes or the aquatic habitats of the larva stages, for example by applying the highly toxic arsenic compound Paris Green to places with standing water. This method has seen little application in Africa for more than half a century.[39]

A more targeted and ecologically friendly vector control strategy involves genetic manipulation of malaria mosquitoes. Advances in genetic engineering technologies make it possible to introduce foreign DNA into the mosquito genome and either decrease the lifespan of the mosquito, or make it more resistant to the malaria parasite.[40] Sterile insect technique is a genetic control method whereby large numbers of sterile males mosquitoes are reared and released. Mating with wild females reduces the wild population in the subsequent generation; repeated releases eventually eradicate the target population. Progress towards transgenic, or genetically modified, insects suggests that wild mosquito populations could be made malaria resistant. Successful replacement of current populations with a new genetically modified population relies upon a drive mechanism, such as transposable elements to allow for non-Mendelian inheritance of the gene of interest. Although this approach has been used successfully to eradicate some parasitic diseases of veterinary importance, technological problems have hindered its effective deployment with malaria vector species.[40]

Indoor residual spraying

Further information: Indoor residual spraying and DDT and malaria

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the practice of spraying insecticides on the interior walls of homes in malaria-affected areas. After feeding, many mosquito species rest on a nearby surface while digesting the bloodmeal, so if the walls of dwellings have been coated with insecticides, the resting mosquitoes will be killed before they can bite another victim and transfer the malaria parasite.[41]

The first pesticide used for IRS was DDT.[38] Although it was initially used exclusively to combat malaria, its use quickly spread to agriculture. In time, pest control, rather than disease control, came to dominate DDT use, and this large-scale agricultural use led to the evolution of resistant mosquitoes in many regions. The DDT resistance shown by Anopheles mosquitoes can be compared to antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria. The overuse of antibacterial soaps and antibiotics led to antibiotic resistance in bacteria, similar to how overspraying of DDT on crops led to DDT resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes. During the 1960s, awareness of the negative consequences of its indiscriminate use increased, ultimately leading to bans on agricultural applications of DDT in many countries in the 1970s.[42]

The World Health Organization currently advises the use of 12 insecticides in IRS operations, including DDT as well as alternative insecticides (such as the pyrethroids permethrin and deltamethrin).[43] This public health use of small amounts of DDT is permitted under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which prohibits the agricultural use of DDT.[42] However, because of its legacy, many developed countries previously discouraged DDT use even in small quantities.[44]

One problem with all forms of IRS is insecticide resistance via evolution. Mosquitoes that are affected by IRS tend to rest and live indoors, and due to the irritation caused by spraying, their descendants tend to rest and live outdoors, meaning that they are not as affected—if affected at all—by the IRS, which greatly reduces its effectiveness as a defense mechanism.[45]

Mosquito nets

Main article: Mosquito net

Mosquito nets create a protective barrier against malaria-carrying mosquitoes that bite at night.

Mosquito nets help keep mosquitoes away from people and significantly reduce infection rates and transmission of malaria. The nets are not a perfect barrier and they are often treated with an insecticide designed to kill the mosquito before it has time to search for a way past the net. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are estimated to be twice as effective as untreated nets and offer greater than 70% protection compared with no net.[40] Although ITNs are proven to be very effective against malaria, only about 13% of households in sub-Saharan countries own them.[46] Since the Anopheles mosquitoes feed at night, the preferred method is to hang a large “bed net” above the center of a bed to drape over it completely.[47]

Other methods

Community participation and health education strategies promoting awareness of malaria and the importance of control measures have been successfully used to reduce the incidence of malaria in some areas of the developing world.[48] Recognizing the disease in the early stages can stop the disease from becoming fatal. Education can also inform people to cover over areas of stagnant, still water, such as water tanks that are ideal breeding grounds for the parasite and mosquito, thus cutting down the risk of the transmission between people. This is generally used in urban areas where there are large centers of population in a confined space and transmission would be most likely in these areas.[49]

Other interventions for the control of malaria include mass drug administrations[33] and intermittent preventive therapy.[50]

Medications

Main article: Malaria prophylaxis

Several drugs, most of which are used for treatment of malaria, can be taken to prevent contracting the disease during travel to endemic areas. Chloroquine may be used where the parasite is still sensitive.[51] However, due to resistance one of three medications—mefloquine (Lariam), doxycycline (available generically), or the combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone)—is frequently needed.[51] Doxycycline and the atovaquone and proguanil combination are the best tolerated; mefloquine is associated with higher rates of neurological and psychiatric symptoms.[51]

The prophylactic effect does not begin immediately upon starting the drugs, so people temporarily visiting malaria-endemic areas usually begin taking the drugs one to two weeks before arriving and should continue taking them for four weeks after leaving (with the exception of atovaquone proguanil that only needs to be started two days prior and continued for seven days afterwards). Generally, these drugs are taken daily or weekly, at a lower dose than is used for treatment of a person who contracts the disease. Use of prophylactic drugs is seldom practical for full-time residents of malaria-endemic areas, and their use is usually restricted to short-term visitors and travelers to malarial regions. This is due to the cost of purchasing the drugs, negative adverse effects from long-term use, and because some effective anti-malarial drugs are difficult to obtain outside of wealthy nations.[52] The use of prophylactic drugs where malaria-bearing mosquitoes are present may encourage the development of partial immunity.[53]

Treatment

Further information: Antimalarial medication

The treatment of malaria depends on the severity of the disease; whether people can take oral drugs or must be admitted depends on the assessment and the experience of the clinician.

Uncomplicated malaria

Uncomplicated malaria may be treated with oral medications. The most effective strategy for P. falciparum infection is the use of artemisinins in combination with other antimalarials (known as artemisinin-combination therapy).[54] This is done to reduce the risk of resistance against artemisinin.[54] These additional antimalarials include amodiaquine, lumefantrine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.[35] Another recommended combination is dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine.[35] In the 2000s (decade), malaria with partial resistance to artemisins emerged in Southeast Asia.[55][56]

Severe malaria

Severe malaria requires the parenteral administration of antimalarial drugs. Until the mid-2000s the most used treatment for severe malaria was quinine, but artesunate has been shown to be superior to quinine in both children[57] and adults.[58][59] Treatment of severe malaria also involves supportive measures that are optimally performed in a critical care unit, including management of high fevers (hyperpyrexia) and the subsequent seizures that may result from it, and monitoring for respiratory depression, hypoglycemia, and hypokalemia.[60] Infection with P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae is usually treated on an outpatient basis (while a person is at home). Treatment of P. vivax requires both treatment of blood stages (with chloroquine or ACT) as well as clearance of liver forms with primaquine.[61]

Prognosis

Disability-adjusted life yearfor malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.

   no data
   <10
   10–100
   100–500
   500–1000
   1000–1500
   1500–2000
   2000–2500
   2500–2750
   2750–3000
   3000–3250
   3250–3500
   ≥3500

Severe malaria can progress extremely rapidly and cause death within hours or days.[9] In the most severe cases of the disease, fatality rates can reach 20%, even with intensive care and treatment.[4] Over the longer term, developmental impairments have been documented in children who have suffered episodes of severe malaria.[62] It causes widespread anemia during a period of rapid brain development and also direct brain damage. This neurologic damage results from cerebral malaria to which children are more vulnerable.[62] When properly treated, people with malaria can usually expect a complete recovery.[63]

Epidemiology

Map showing the distribution of malaria in the world.[64]  :  Elevated occurrence of chloroquine- or multi-resistant malaria :  Occurrence of chloroquine-resistant malaria :  No plasmodium falciparum or chloroquine-resistance :  No malaria

Based on documented cases, the WHO estimates that there were 216 million cases of malaria in 2010 resulting in 655,000 deaths.[1] An estimate in The Lancet, based on a systematic analysis of all available mortality data combined with empirical methods for estimating causes of death, places the number of deaths in 2010 at 1.24 million.[65][66] The majority of cases occur in children under five years old;[67] pregnant women are also especially vulnerable. Despite efforts to reduce transmission and increase treatment, there has been little change in which areas are at risk of this disease since 1992.[68] Indeed, if the prevalence of malaria stays on its present upwards course, the death rate could double in the next twenty years.[69] Precise statistics are unknown because many cases occur in rural areas where people do not have access to hospitals or the means to afford health care. As a consequence, the majority of cases are undocumented.[69]

Although coinfection with HIV and malaria does increase mortality, this is less of a problem than with HIV/tuberculosis coinfection, due to the two diseases usually attacking different age ranges, with malaria being most common in the young and active tuberculosis most common in the old.[70] Although HIV/malaria coinfection produces less severe symptoms than the interaction between HIV and TB, HIV and malaria do contribute to each other’s spread. This effect comes from malaria increasing viral load and HIV infection increasing a person’s susceptibility to malaria infection.[71]

Malaria is presently endemic in a broad band around the equator, in areas of the Americas, many parts of Asia, and much of Africa; however, it is in sub-Saharan Africa where 85–90% of malaria fatalities occur.[72] The geographic distribution of malaria within large regions is complex, and malaria-afflicted and malaria-free areas are often found close to each other.[73] Malaria is prevalent in tropical regions because of the significant amounts of rainfall, consistent high temperatures and high humidity, along with stagnant waters in which mosquito larvae readily mature, providing them with the environment they need for continuous breeding.[74] In drier areas, outbreaks of malaria have been predicted with reasonable accuracy by mapping rainfall.[75] Malaria is more common in rural areas than in cities; this is in contrast to dengue fever where urban areas present the greater risk.[76] For example, several cities in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia are essentially malaria-free, but the disease is present in many rural regions.[77] By contrast, malaria in Africa is present in both rural and urban areas, though the risk is lower in the larger cities.[78] The Wellcome Trust, UK, has funded the Malaria Atlas Project to map global endemic levels of malaria, providing a more contemporary and robust means with which to assess current and future malaria disease burden.[79] This effort led to the publication of a map of P. falciparum endemicity in 2010.[80] As of 2010, countries with the highest death rate per 100,000 population are Cote d’Ivoire with (86.15), Angola (56.93) and Burkina Faso (50.66) – all in Africa.[81]

History

Main article: History of malaria

Malaria has infected humans for over 50,000 years, and Plasmodium may have been a human pathogen for the entire history of the species.[82] Close relatives of the human malaria parasites remain common in chimpanzees. Some new evidence suggests that the most virulent strain of human malaria may have originated in gorillas.[83]

References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout recorded history, beginning in 2700 BC in China.[84] Malaria may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire,[85] and was so pervasive in Rome that it was known as the “Roman fever”.[86] Several regions in ancient Rome were considered at-risk for the disease because of the favorable conditions present for malaria vectors. This included areas such as southern Italy, the island of Sardinia, the Pontine Marshes, the lower regions of coastal Etruria and the city of Rome along the Tiber River. The presence of stagnant water in these places was preferred by mosquitoes for breeding grounds. Irrigated gardens, swamp-like grounds, runoff from agriculture, and drainage problems from road construction led to the increase of standing water.[87]

The term malaria originates from Medieval Italian: mala aria — “bad air”; the disease was formerly called ague or marsh fever due to its association with swamps and marshland.[88] Malaria was once common in most of Europe and North America,[89] where it is no longer endemic,[90] though imported cases do occur.[91]

British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.

Malaria was the most important health hazard encountered by U.S. troops in the South Pacific during World War II, where about 500,000 men were infected.[92] According to Joseph Patrick Byrne, “Sixty thousand American soldiers died of malaria during the African and South Pacific campaigns.”[93] Scientific studies on malaria made their first significant advance in 1880, when a French army doctor working in the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed parasites for the first time, inside the red blood cells of people suffering from malaria. He therefore proposed that malaria is caused by this organism, the first time a protist was identified as causing disease.[94] For this and later discoveries, he was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. The malarial parasite was called Plasmodium by the Italian scientists Ettore Marchiafava and Angelo Celli.[95] A year later, Carlos Finlay, a Cuban doctor treating people with yellow fever in Havana, provided strong evidence that mosquitoes were transmitting disease to and from humans.[96] This work followed earlier suggestions by Josiah C. Nott,[97] and work by Sir Patrick Manson, the “father of tropical medicine”, on the transmission of filariasis.[98]

In April 1894, a Scottish physician Sir Ronald Ross visited Sir Patrick Manson at his house on Queen Anne Street, London. This visit was the start of four years of collaboration and fervent research that culminated in 1898 when Ross, who was working in the Presidency General Hospital in Calcutta, proved the complete life-cycle of the malaria parasite in mosquitoes. He thus proved that the mosquito was the vector for malaria in humans by showing that certain mosquito species transmit malaria to birds. He isolated malaria parasites from the salivary glands of mosquitoes that had fed on infected birds.[99] For this work, Ross received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Medicine. After resigning from the Indian Medical Service, Ross worked at the newly established Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and directed malaria-control efforts in Egypt, Panama, Greece and Mauritius.[100] The findings of Finlay and Ross were later confirmed by a medical board headed by Walter Reed in 1900. Its recommendations were implemented by William C. Gorgas in the health measures undertaken during construction of the Panama Canal. This public-health work saved the lives of thousands of workers and helped develop the methods used in future public-health campaigns against the disease.[101]

The first effective treatment for malaria came from the bark of cinchona tree, which contains quinine. This tree grows on the slopes of the Andes, mainly in Peru. The indigenous peoples of Peru made a tincture of cinchona to control malaria. The Jesuits noted the efficacy of the practice and introduced the treatment to Europe during the 1640s, where it was rapidly accepted.[102] It was not until 1820 that the active ingredient, quinine, was extracted from the bark, isolated and named by the French chemists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou.[103][104] Quinine become the predominant malarial medication until the 1920s, when other medications began to be developed. In the 1940s, chloroquine replaced quinine as the treatment of both uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria until resistance supervened, first in Southeast Asia and South America in the 1950s and then globally in the 1980s.[59] Artemisinins, discovered by Chinese scientists in the 1970s, are now the recommended treatment for falciparum malaria, administered in combination with other antimalarials as well as in severe disease.[105]

Society and culture

Malaria is not just a disease commonly associated with poverty but also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development.[106] Tropical regions are affected most; however, malaria’s furthest extent reaches into some temperate zones with extreme seasonal changes. The disease has been associated with major negative economic effects on regions where it is widespread. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was a major factor in the slow economic development of the American southern states.[107] A comparison of average per capita GDP in 1995, adjusted for parity of purchasing power, between countries with malaria and countries without malaria gives a fivefold difference ($1,526 USD versus $8,268 USD). In countries where malaria is common, average per capita GDP has risen (between 1965 and 1990) only 0.4% per year, compared to 2.4% per year in other countries.[108]

Poverty is both a cause and effect of malaria, since the poor do not have the financial capacities to prevent or treat the disease. In its entirety, the economic impact of malaria has been estimated to cost Africa $12 billion USD every year. The economic impact includes costs of health care, working days lost due to sickness, days lost in education, decreased productivity due to brain damage from cerebral malaria, and loss of investment and tourism.[67] In some countries with a heavy malaria burden, the disease may account for as much as 40% of public health expenditure, 30–50% of admissions to hospital, and up to 50% of outpatient visits.[109] The slow demographic transition in Africa may be partly attributed to malaria. Total fertility rates were best explained by child mortality, as measured indirectly by infant mortality, in a 2007 study.[110]

A study on the effect of malaria on IQ in a sample of Mexicans found that exposure during the birth year to malaria eradication was associated with increases in IQ. It also increased the probability of employment in a skilled occupation. The author suggests that this may be one explanation for the Flynn effect and that this may be an important explanation for the link between national malaria burden and economic development.[111] The cognitive abilities and school performance are impaired in sub-groups of people (with either cerebral malaria or uncomplicated malaria) when compared with healthy controls. Studies comparing cognitive functions before and after treatment for acute malarial illness continued to show significantly impaired school performance and cognitive abilities even after recovery. Malaria prophylaxis was shown to improve cognitive function and school performance in clinical trials when compared to placebo groups.[62] April 25 is World Malaria Day.[81]

Counterfeit and substandard drugs

Sophisticated counterfeits have been found in several Asian countries such as Cambodia,[112] China,[113] Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, and are an important cause of avoidable death in those countries.[114] The WHO said that studies indicate that up to 40% of artesunate based malaria medications are counterfeit, especially in the Greater Mekong region and have established a rapid alert system to enable information about counterfeit drugs to be rapidly reported to the relevant authorities in participating countries.[115] There is no reliable way for doctors or lay people to detect counterfeit drugs without help from a laboratory. Companies are attempting to combat the persistence of counterfeit drugs by using new technology to provide security from source to distribution.[116]

Another clinical and public health concern is the proliferation of substandard antimalarial medicines resulting from inappropriate concentration of ingredients, contamination with other drugs or toxic impurities, poor quality ingredients, poor stability and inadequate packaging.[117] A 2012 study demonstrated that roughly one-third of antimalarial medications in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa failed chemical analysis, packaging analysis, or were falsified.[118]

War

Throughout history, the contraction of malaria (via natural outbreaks as well as via infliction of the disease as a biological warfare agent) has played a prominent role in the fortunes of government rulers, nation-states, military personnel, and military actions. “Malaria Site: History of Malaria During Wars” addresses the devastating impact of malaria in numerous well-known conflicts, beginning in June 323 B.C. That site’s authors note: “Many great warriors succumbed to malaria after returning from the warfront and advance of armies into continents was prevented by malaria. In many conflicts, more troops were killed by malaria than in combat.”[119] The Centers for Disease Control (“CDC”) traces the history of malaria and its impacts farther back, to 2700 BCE.[120]

In 1910, Nobel Prize in Medicine-winner Ronald Ross (himself a malaria survivor), published a book titled The Prevention of Malaria that included a chapter titled “The Prevention of Malaria in War.” The chapter’s author, Colonel C. H. Melville, Professor of Hygiene at Royal Army Medical College in London, addressed the prominent role that malaria has historically played during wars and advised: “A specially selected medical officer should be placed in charge of these operations with executive and disciplinary powers [...].”

Significant financial investments have been made to procure existing and create new anti-malarial agents. During World War I and World War II, the supplies of the natural anti-malaria drugs, cinchona bark and quinine, proved to be inadequate to supply military personnel and substantial funding was funneled into research and development of other drugs and vaccines. American military organizations conducting such research initiatives include the Navy Medical Research Center, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases of the US Armed Forces.[119]

Additionally, initiatives have been founded such as Malaria Control in War Areas (MCWA), established in 1942, and its successor, the Communicable Disease Center (now known as the Centers for Disease Control) established in 1946. According to the CDC, MCWA “was established to control malaria around military training bases in the southern United States and its territories, where malaria was still problematic” and, during these activities, to “train state and local health department officials in malaria control techniques and strategies.” The CDC’s Malaria Division continued that mission, successfully reducing malaria in the United States, after which the organization expanded its focus to include “prevention, surveillance, and technical support both domestically and internationally.”[120]

Eradication efforts

Several notable attempts are being made to eliminate the parasite from sections of the world, or to eradicate it worldwide. In 2006, the organization Malaria No More set a public goal of eliminating malaria from Africa by 2015, and the organization plans to dissolve if that goal is accomplished.[121] Several malaria vaccines are in clinical trials, which are intended to provide protection for children in endemic areas and reduce the speed of transmission of the disease. As of 2012, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has distributed 230 million insecticide-treated nets intended to stop mosquito-born transmission of malaria.[122] According to director Inder Singh, the U.S.-based Clinton Foundation has significantly reduced the cost of drugs to treat malaria, and is working to further reduce the spread of the disease.[123] Other efforts, such as the Malaria Atlas Project focus on analyzing climate and weather information required to accurately predict the spread of malaria based on the availability of habitat of malaria-carrying parasites.[79]

Malaria has been successfully eradicated in certain areas. The Republic of Mauritius, a tropical island located in the western Indian Ocean, considered ecological connections to malaria transmission when constructing their current plan for malaria control. To prevent mosquitoes from breeding in aquatic areas, DDT is used in moderate amounts. Additionally, larvae-eating fish are placed in water sources to remove the malaria vectors before they become a threat to the human population. Obstructions are also removed from these sources to maintain water flow and reduce stagnant water. Similarly, marsh or swamp-like environments are drained and filled to diminish mosquito breeding grounds. These actions have produced positive results. The program has cut infection and death rates tremendously, and is cost effective, only requiring $1USD per head each year. This success is a clear indication that responses to adverse environmental conditions can decrease rates of disease.[124]

Research

With the onset of drug-resistant Plasmodium parasites, new strategies are required to combat the widespread disease. One such approach lies in the introduction of synthetic pyridoxal-amino acid adducts, which are channeled into the parasite. Thus, trapped upon phosphorylation by plasmodial PdxK (pyridoxine/pyridoxal kinase), the proliferation of Plasmodium parasites is effectively hindered by a novel compound, PT3, a cyclic pyridoxyl-tryptophan methyl ester, without harming human cells.[125]

Malaria parasites contain apicoplasts, an organelle usually found in plants, complete with their own functioning genomes. These apicoplasts are thought to have originated through the endosymbiosis of algae and play a crucial role in various aspects of parasite metabolism, for example in fatty acid biosynthesis.[126] As of 2003, 466 proteins have been found to be produced by apicoplasts[127] and these are now being investigated as possible targets for novel anti-malarial drugs.[126]

Malaria vaccines have been an elusive goal of research. The first promising studies demonstrating the potential for a malaria vaccine were performed in 1967 by immunizing mice with live, radiation-attenuated sporozoites, which provided significant protection to the mice upon subsequent injection with normal, viable sporozoites.[128] Since the 1970s, there has been a considerable effort to develop similar vaccination strategies within humans. It was determined that an individual can be protected from a P. falciparum infection if they receive over 1,000 bites from infected yet irradiated mosquitoes.[129]

Immunization

Main article: Malaria vaccine

Immunity (or, more accurately, tolerance) does occur naturally, but only in response to repeated infection with multiple strains of malaria.[130] A completely effective vaccine is not yet available for malaria, although several vaccines are under development.[131] SPf66 was tested extensively in endemic areas in the 1990s, but clinical trials showed it to be insufficiently effective.[132] Other vaccine candidates, targeting the blood-stage of the parasite’s life cycle, have also been insufficient on their own.[133] Several potential vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage are being developed, with RTS,S showing the most promising results so far.[129]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria

DDT

‘…DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is an organochlorine insecticide which is a white, crystalline solid, tasteless, and almost odorless. Technical DDT has been formulated in almost every conceivable form including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, granules, aerosols, smoke candles, and charges for vaporisers and lotions.[2]

First synthesized in 1874, DDT’s insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 “for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods.”[3] After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed.[4]

In 1962, Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. The book catalogued the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on ecology or human health. The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Its publication was one of the signature events in the birth of the environmental movement, and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned in the US in 1972.[5] DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial.[6][7]

Along with the passage of the Endangered Species Act, the US ban on DDT is cited by scientists as a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle, the national bird of the United States, from near-extinction in the contiguous US.[8]

Properties and chemistry

DDT is similar in structure to the insecticide methoxychlor and the acaricide dicofol. It is a highly hydrophobic, nearly insoluble in water but has a good solubility in most organic solvents, fats, and oils. DDT does not occur naturally, but is produced by the reaction of chloral (CCl3CHO) with chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) in the presence of sulfuric acid, which acts as a catalyst. Trade names that DDT has been marketed under include Anofex (Geigy Chemical Corp.), Cezarex, Chlorophenothane, Clofenotane, Dicophane, Dinocide, Gesarol (Syngenta Crop.), Guesapon, Guesarol, Gyron (Ciba-Geigy Corp. – now Novartis), Ixodex, Neocid (Reckitt & Colman, Ltd), Neocidol (Ciba-Geigy Corp. – now Novartis), and Zerdane.[4]

Isomers and related compounds

o,p’ -DDT, a minor component in commercial DDT.

Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds. The major component (77%) is the p,p’ isomer which is pictured at the top of this article. The o,p’ isomer (pictured to the right) is also present in significant amounts (15%). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) make up the balance. DDE and DDD are also the major metabolites and breakdown products in the environment.[4] The term “total DDT” is often used to refer to the sum of all DDT related compounds (p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDT, DDE, and DDD) in a sample.

Production and use statistics

From 1950 to 1980, DDT was extensively used in agriculture—more than 40,000 tonnes were used each year worldwide[9]—and it has been estimated that a total of 1.8 million tonnes have been produced globally since the 1940s.[1] In the U.S., where it was manufactured by Ciba,[10] Montrose Chemical Company, Pennwalt[11] and Velsicol Chemical Corporation,[12] production peaked in 1963 at 82,000 tonnes per year.[4] More than 600,000 tonnes (1.35 billion lbs) were applied in the U.S. before the 1972 ban. Usage peaked in 1959 at about 36,000 tonnes.[13]

In 2009, 3314 tonnes were produced for the control of malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. India is the only country still manufacturing DDT, with China having ceased production in 2007.[14] India is the largest consumer.[15]

Mechanism of insecticide action

In insects it opens sodium ion channels in neurons, causing them to fire spontaneously, which leads to spasms and eventual death. Insects with certain mutations in their sodium channel gene are resistant to DDT and other similar insecticides. DDT resistance is also conferred by up-regulation of genes expressing cytochrome P450 in some insect species.[16]

In humans, however, it may affect health through genotoxicity or endocrine disruption. See Effects on human health.

History

Commercial product containing 5% DDT

Commercial product (Powder box, 50 g) containing 10% DDT ; Néocide. CibaGeigy DDT ; “Destroys parasites such as fleas, lice, ants, bedbugs, cockroaches, flies, etc.. Néocide Sprinkle caches of vermin and the places where there are insects and their places of passage. Leave the powder in place as long as possible. ” “Destroy the parasites of man and his dwelling”. “Death is not instantaneous, it follows inevitably sooner or later. ” “French manufacturing” ; “harmless to humans and warm-blooded animals” “sure and lasting effect. Odorless.

First synthesized in 1874 by Othmar Zeidler,[4] DDT’s insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939 by the Swiss scientist Paul Hermann Müller, who was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his efforts.[3]

Use in the 1940s and 1950s

DDT is the best-known of several chlorine-containing pesticides used in the 1940s and 1950s. With pyrethrum in short supply, DDT was used extensively during World War II by the Allies to control the insect vectors of typhus — nearly eliminating the disease in many parts of Europe. In the South Pacific, it was sprayed aerially for malaria and dengue fever control with spectacular effects. While DDT’s chemical and insecticidal properties were important factors in these victories, advances in application equipment coupled with a high degree of organization and sufficient manpower were also crucial to the success of these programs.[17] In 1945, it was made available to farmers as an agricultural insecticide,[4] and it played a minor role in the final elimination of malaria in Europe and North America.[6] By the time DDT was introduced in the U.S., the disease had already been brought under control by a variety of other means.[18] One CDC physician involved in the United States’ DDT spraying campaign said of the effort that “we kicked a dying dog.”[19]

In 1955, the World Health Organization commenced a program to eradicate malaria worldwide, relying largely on DDT. The program was initially highly successful, eliminating the disease in “Taiwan, much of the Caribbean, the Balkans, parts of northern Africa, the northern region of Australia, and a large swath of the South Pacific”[20] and dramatically reducing mortality in Sri Lanka and India.[21] However widespread agricultural use led to resistant insect populations. In many areas, early victories partially or completely reversed, and in some cases rates of transmission even increased.[22] The program was successful in eliminating malaria only in areas with “high socio-economic status, well-organized healthcare systems, and relatively less intensive or seasonal malaria transmission”.[23]

DDT was less effective in tropical regions due to the continuous life cycle of mosquitoes and poor infrastructure. It was not applied at all in sub-Saharan Africa due to these perceived difficulties. Mortality rates in that area never declined to the same dramatic extent, and now constitute the bulk of malarial deaths worldwide, especially following the disease’s resurgence as a result of resistance to drug treatments and the spread of the deadly malarial variant caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The goal of eradication was abandoned in 1969, and attention was focused on controlling and treating the disease. Spraying programs (especially using DDT) were curtailed due to concerns over safety and environmental effects, as well as problems in administrative, managerial and financial implementation, but mostly because mosquitoes were developing resistance to DDT.[22] Efforts shifted from spraying to the use of bednets impregnated with insecticides and other interventions.[23][24]

Silent Spring and the U.S. ban

As early as the 1940s, scientists in the U.S. had begun expressing concern over possible hazards associated with DDT, and in the 1950s the government began tightening some of the regulations governing its use.[13] However, these early events received little attention, and it was not until 1957, when the New York Times reported an unsuccessful struggle to restrict DDT use in Nassau County, New York, that the issue came to the attention of the popular naturalist-author, Rachel Carson. William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker, urged her to write a piece on the subject, which developed into her famous book Silent Spring, published in 1962. The book argued that pesticides, including DDT, were poisoning both wildlife and the environment and were also endangering human health.[5]

Silent Spring was a best seller, and public reaction to it launched the modern environmental movement in the United States. The year after it appeared, President Kennedy ordered his Science Advisory Committee to investigate Carson’s claims. The report the committee issued “add[ed] up to a fairly thorough-going vindication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring thesis,” in the words of the journal Science,[25] and recommended a phaseout of “persistent toxic pesticides”.[26] DDT became a prime target of the growing anti-chemical and anti-pesticide movements, and in 1967 a group of scientists and lawyers founded the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) with the specific goal of winning a ban on DDT. Victor Yannacone, Charles Wurster, Art Cooley and others associated with inception of EDF had all witnessed bird kills or declines in bird populations and suspected that DDT was the cause. In their campaign against the chemical, EDF petitioned the government for a ban and filed a series of lawsuits.[27] Around this time, toxicologist David Peakall was measuring DDE levels in the eggs of peregrine falcons and California condors and finding that increased levels corresponded with thinner shells.

In response to an EDF suit, the U.S. District Court of Appeals in 1971 ordered the EPA to begin the de-registration procedure for DDT. After an initial six-month review process, William Ruckelshaus, the Agency’s first Administrator rejected an immediate suspension of DDT’s registration, citing studies from the EPA’s internal staff stating that DDT was not an imminent danger to human health and wildlife.[13] However, the findings of these staff members were criticized, as they were performed mostly by economic entomologists inherited from the United States Department of Agriculture, whom many environmentalists felt were biased towards agribusiness and tended to minimize concerns about human health and wildlife. The decision not to ban thus created public controversy.[17]

The EPA then held seven months of hearings in 1971–1972, with scientists giving evidence both for and against the use of DDT. In the summer of 1972, Ruckelshaus announced the cancellation of most uses of DDT—an exemption allowed for public health uses under some conditions.[13] Immediately after the cancellation was announced, both EDF and the DDT manufacturers filed suit against the EPA, with the industry seeking to overturn the ban, and EDF seeking a comprehensive ban. The cases were consolidated, and in 1973 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that the EPA had acted properly in banning DDT.[13]

The U.S. DDT ban took place amidst a growing public mistrust of industry, with the Surgeon General issuing a report on smoking in 1964, the Cuyahoga River catching fire in 1969, the fiasco surrounding the use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), and the well-publicized decline in the bald eagle population.[26]

Some uses of DDT continued under the public health exemption. For example, in June 1979, the California Department of Health Services was permitted to use DDT to suppress flea vectors of bubonic plague.[28] DDT also continued to be produced in the US for foreign markets until as late as 1985, when over 300 tons were exported.[1]

Restrictions on usage

In the 1970s and 1980s, agricultural use was banned in most developed countries, beginning with Hungary in 1968[29] then in Norway and Sweden in 1970, Germany and the United States in 1972, but not in the United Kingdom until 1984. Vector control use has not been banned, but it has been largely replaced by less persistent alternative insecticides.

The Stockholm Convention, which took effect in 2004, outlawed several persistent organic pollutants, and restricted DDT use to vector control. The Convention has been ratified by more than 170 countries and is endorsed by most environmental groups. Recognizing that total elimination in many malaria-prone countries is currently unfeasible because there are few affordable or effective alternatives, public health use is exempt from the ban pending acceptable alternatives. Malaria Foundation International states, “The outcome of the treaty is arguably better than the status quo going into the negotiations…For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before.”[30]

Despite the worldwide ban, agricultural use continues in India[31] North Korea, and possibly elsewhere.[15]

Today, about 3-4,000 tonnes each year are produced for vector control.[14] DDT is applied to the inside walls of homes to kill or repel mosquitoes. This intervention, called indoor residual spraying (IRS), greatly reduces environmental damage. It also reduces the incidence of DDT resistance.[32] For comparison, treating 40 hectares (99 acres) of cotton during a typical U.S. growing season requires the same amount of chemical as roughly 1,700 homes.[33]

Environmental impact

Degradation of DDT to form DDE (by elimination of HCl, left) and DDD (by reductive dechlorination, right)

DDT is a persistent organic pollutant that is readily adsorbed to soils and sediments, which can act both as sinks and as long-term sources of exposure contributing to terrestrial organisms [2]. Depending on conditions, its soil half life can range from 22 days to 30 years. Routes of loss and degradation include runoff, volatilization, photolysis and aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation. Due to hydrophobic properties, in aquatic ecosystems DDT and its metabolites are absorbed by aquatic organisms and adsorbed on suspended particles, leaving little DDT dissolved in the water itself. Its breakdown products and metabolites, DDE and DDD, are also highly persistent and have similar chemical and physical properties.[1] DDT and its breakdown products are transported from warmer regions of the world to the Arctic by the phenomenon of global distillation, where they then accumulate in the region’s food web.[34]

Because of its lipophilic properties, DDT has a high potential to bioaccumulate, especially in predatory birds.[35] DDT, DDE, and DDD magnify through the food chain, with apex predators such as raptor birds concentrating more chemicals than other animals in the same environment. They are very lipophilic and are stored mainly in body fat. DDT and DDE are very resistant to metabolism; in humans, their half-lives are 6 and up to 10 years, respectively. In the United States, these chemicals were detected in almost all human blood samples tested by the Centers for Disease Control in 2005, though their levels have sharply declined since most uses were banned in the US.[36] Estimated dietary intake has also declined,[36] although FDA food tests commonly detect it.[37]

Marine macroalgae (seaweed) help reduce soil toxicity by up to 80% within six weeks.[38]

Effects on wildlife and eggshell thinning

DDT is toxic to a wide range of living organisms, including marine animals such as crayfish, daphnids, sea shrimp and many species of fish. It is less toxic to mammals, but may be moderately toxic to some amphibian species, especially in the larval stage. DDT, through its metabolite DDE, caused eggshell thinning and resulted in severe population declines in multiple North American and European bird of prey species.[39] Eggshell thinning lowers the reproductive rate of certain bird species by causing egg breakage and embryo deaths. DDE related eggshell thinning is considered a major reason for the decline of the bald eagle,[8] brown pelican,[40] peregrine falcon, and osprey.[1] However, different groups of birds vary greatly in their sensitivity to these chemicals. [2] Birds of prey, waterfowl, and song birds are more susceptible to eggshell thinning than chickens and related species, and DDE appears to be more potent than DDT.[1] Even in 2010, more than forty years after the U.S. ban, California condors which feed on sea lions at Big Sur which in turn feed in the Palos Verdes Shelf area of the Montrose Chemical Superfund site seemed to be having continued thin-shell problems. Scientists with the Ventana Wildlife Society and others are intensifying studies and remediations of the condors’ problems.[41]

The biological thinning mechanism is not entirely known, but there is strong evidence that p,p’-DDE inhibits calcium ATPase in the membrane of the shell gland and reduces the transport of calcium carbonate from blood into the eggshell gland. This results in a dose-dependent thickness reduction.[1][42][43][44] There is also evidence that o,p’-DDT disrupts female reproductive tract development, impairing eggshell quality later.[45] Multiple mechanisms may be at work, or different mechanisms may operate in different species.[1] Some studies show that although DDE levels have fallen dramatically, eggshell thickness remains 10–12 percent thinner than before DDT was first used.[46]

Effects on human health

Potential mechanisms of action on humans are genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. DDT may be directly genotoxic,[47] but may also induce enzymes to produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts.[47] It is an endocrine disruptor; The DDT metabolite DDE acts as an antiandrogen (but not as an estrogen). p,p’-DDT, DDT’s main component, has little or no androgenic or estrogenic activity.[47] Minor component o,p’-DDT has weak estrogenic activity.

Acute toxicity

DDT is classified as “moderately toxic” by the United States National Toxicology Program (NTP)[48] and “moderately hazardous” by the World Health Organization (WHO), based on the rat oral LD50 of 113 mg/kg.[49] DDT has on rare occasions been administered orally as a treatment for barbiturate poisoning.[50]

Chronic toxicity

Diabetes

DDT and DDE have been linked to diabetes. A number of studies from the US, Canada, and Sweden have found that the prevalence of the disease in a population increases with serum DDT or DDE levels.[51][52][53][54][55][56]

Developmental toxicity

DDT and DDE, like other organochlorines, have been shown to have xenoestrogenic activity, meaning they are chemically similar enough to estrogens to trigger hormonal responses in animals. This endocrine disrupting activity has been observed in mice and rat toxicological studies, and available epidemiological evidence indicates that these effects may be occurring in humans as a result of DDT exposure. The US Environmental Protection Agency states that DDT exposure damages the reproductive system and reduces reproductive success. These effects may cause developmental and reproductive toxicity:

  • A review article in The Lancet states, “research has shown that exposure to DDT at amounts that would be needed in malaria control might cause preterm birth and early weaning … toxicological evidence shows endocrine-disrupting properties; human data also indicate possible disruption in semen quality, menstruation, gestational length, and duration of lactation.”[24]
  • Human epidemiological studies suggest that exposure is a risk factor for premature birth and low birth weight, and may harm a mother’s ability to breast feed.[57] Some 21st-century researchers argue that these effects may increase infant deaths, offsetting any anti-malarial benefits.[58] A 2008 study, however, failed to confirm the association between exposure and difficulty breastfeeding.[59]
  • Several recent studies demonstrate a link between in utero exposure to DDT or DDE and developmental neurotoxicity in humans. For example, a 2006 University of California, Berkeley study suggests that children exposed while in the womb have a greater chance of development problems,[60] and other studies have found that even low levels of DDT or DDE in umbilical cord serum at birth are associated with decreased attention at infancy[61] and decreased cognitive skills at 4 years of age.[62] Similarly, Mexican researchers have linked first trimester DDE exposure to retarded psychomotor development.[63]
  • Other studies document decreases in semen quality among men with high exposures (generally from IRS).[64][65][66]
  • Studies generally find that high blood DDT or DDE levels do not increase time to pregnancy (TTP.)[67] There is some evidence that the daughters of highly exposed women may have more difficulty getting pregnant (i.e. increased TTP).[68]
  • DDT is associated with early pregnancy loss, a type of miscarriage. A prospective cohort study of Chinese textile workers found “a positive, monotonic, exposure-response association between preconception serum total DDT and the risk of subsequent early pregnancy losses.”[69] The median serum DDE level of study group was lower than that typically observed in women living in homes sprayed with DDT.[70]
  • A Japanese study of congenital hypothyroidism concluded that in utero DDT exposure may affect thyroid hormone levels and “play an important role in the incidence and/or causation of cretinism.”[71] Other studies have also found the DDT or DDE interfere with proper thyroid function.[72][73]

Other

Occupational exposure in agriculture and malaria control has been linked to neurological problems (i.e. Parkinsons)[74] and asthma.[75]

Carcinogenicity

DDT is suspected to cause cancer. The NTP classifies it as “reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen,” the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies it as a “possible” human carcinogen, and the EPA classifies DDT, DDE, and DDD as class B2 “probable” carcinogens. These evaluations are based mainly on the results of animal studies.[1][24]

There is evidence from epidemiological studies (i.e. studies in human populations) that indicates that DDT causes cancers of the liver,[24][36] pancreas[24][36] and breast.[36] There is mixed evidence that it contributes to leukemia,[36] lymphoma[36][76] and testicular cancer.[24][36][77] Other epidemiological studies suggest that DDT/DDE does not cause multiple myeloma,[24] or cancers of the prostate,[24] endometrium,[24][36] rectum,[24][36] lung,[36] bladder,[36] or stomach.[36]

Breast cancer

The question of whether DDT or DDE are risk factors of breast cancer has been repeatedly studied. While individual studies conflict, the most recent reviews of all the evidence conclude that pre-puberty exposure increases the risk of subsequent breast cancer.[36][78] Until recently, almost all studies measured DDT or DDE blood levels at the time of breast cancer diagnosis or after. This study design has been criticized, since the levels at diagnosis do not necessarily correspond to levels when the cancer started.[79] Taken as a whole such studies “do not support the hypothesis that exposure to DDT is an important risk factor for breast cancer.”[47] The studies of this design have been extensively reviewed.[24][80][81]

In contrast, a study published in 2007 strongly associated early exposure (the p,p’- isomer) and breast cancer later in life. Unlike previous studies, this prospective cohort study collected blood samples from young mothers in the 1960s while DDT was still in use, and their breast cancer status was then monitored over the years. In addition to suggesting that the p,p’- isomer is the more significant risk factor, the study also suggests that the timing of exposure is critical. For the subset of women born more than 14 years before agricultural use, there was no association between DDT and breast cancer. However, for younger women—exposed earlier in life—the third who were exposed most to p,p’-DDT had a fivefold increase in breast cancer incidence over the least exposed third, after correcting for the protective effect of o,p’-DDT.[47][82][83] These results are supported by animal studies.[36]

Use against malaria

Malaria remains a major public health challenge in many countries. 2008 WHO estimates were 243 million cases, and 863,000 deaths. About 89% of these deaths occur in Africa, and mostly to children under the age of 5.[84] DDT is one of many tools that public health officials use to fight the disease. Its use in this context has been called everything from a “miracle weapon [that is] like Kryptonite to the mosquitoes,”[85] to “toxic colonialism.”[86]

Before DDT, eliminating mosquito breeding grounds by drainage or poisoning with Paris green or pyrethrum was sometimes successful in fighting malaria. In parts of the world with rising living standards, the elimination of malaria was often a collateral benefit of the introduction of window screens and improved sanitation.[20] Today, a variety of usually simultaneous interventions is the norm. These include antimalarial drugs to prevent or treat infection; improvements in public health infrastructure to quickly diagnose, sequester, and treat infected individuals; bednets and other methods intended to keep mosquitoes from biting humans; and vector control strategies[84] such as larvaciding with insecticides, ecological controls such as draining mosquito breeding grounds or introducing fish to eat larvae, and indoor residual spraying with insecticides, possibly including DDT. IRS involves the treatment of all interior walls and ceilings with insecticides, and is particularly effective against mosquitoes, since many species rest on an indoor wall before or after feeding. DDT is one of 12 WHO–approved IRS insecticides. How much of a role DDT should play in this mix of strategies is still controversial.[87]

WHO’s anti-malaria campaign of the 1950s and 1960s relied heavily on DDT and the results were promising, though temporary. Experts tie the resurgence of malaria to multiple factors, including poor leadership, management and funding of malaria control programs; poverty; civil unrest; and increased irrigation. The evolution of resistance to first-generation drugs (e.g. chloroquine) and to insecticides exacerbated the situation.[15][88] Resistance was largely fueled by often unrestricted agricultural use. Resistance and the harm both to humans and the environment led many governments to restrict or curtail the use of DDT in vector control as well as agriculture.[22]

Once the mainstay of anti-malaria campaigns, as of 2008 only 12 countries used DDT, including India and some southern African states,[84] though the number is expected to rise.[15]

Effectiveness of DDT against malaria

When it was first introduced in World War II, DDT was very effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality.[17] The WHO’s anti-malaria campaign, which consisted mostly of spraying DDT, was initially very successful as well. For example, in Sri Lanka, the program reduced cases from about 3 million per year before spraying to just 18 in 1963[89][90] and 29 in 1964. Thereafter the program was halted to save money and malaria rebounded to 600,000 cases in 1968 and the first quarter of 1969. The country resumed DDT vector control but the mosquitoes had acquired resistance in the interim, presumably because of continued agricultural use. The program switched to malathion, which though more expensive proved effective.[21]

Today, DDT remains on the WHO’s list of insecticides recommended for IRS. Since the appointment of Arata Kochi as head of its anti-malaria division, WHO’s policy has shifted from recommending IRS only in areas of seasonal or episodic transmission of malaria, to also advocating it in areas of continuous, intense transmission.[91] The WHO has reaffirmed its commitment to eventually phasing out DDT, aiming “to achieve a 30% cut in the application of DDT world-wide by 2014 and its total phase-out by the early 2020s if not sooner” while simultaneously combating malaria. The WHO plans to implement alternatives to DDT to achieve this goal.[92]

South Africa is one country that continues to use DDT under WHO guidelines. In 1996, the country switched to alternative insecticides and malaria incidence increased dramatically. Returning to DDT and introducing new drugs brought malaria back under control.[93] According to DDT advocate Donald Roberts, malaria cases increased in South America after countries in that continent stopped using DDT. Research data shows a significantly strong negative relationship between DDT residual house sprayings and malaria rates. In a research from 1993 to 1995, Ecuador increased its use of DDT and resulted in a 61% reduction in malaria rates, while each of the other countries that gradually decreased its DDT use had large increase in malaria rates.[33]

Mosquito resistance

Resistance has greatly reduced DDT’s effectiveness. WHO guidelines require that absence of resistance must be confirmed before using the chemical.[94] Resistance is largely due to agricultural use, in much greater quantities than required for disease prevention. According to one study that attempted to quantify the lives saved by banning agricultural use and thereby slowing the spread of resistance, “it can be estimated that at current rates each kilo of insecticide added to the environment will generate 105 new cases of malaria.”[22]

Resistance was noted early in spray campaigns. Paul Russell, a former head of the Allied Anti-Malaria campaign, observed in 1956 that “resistance has appeared after six or seven years.”[20] DDT has lost much of its effectiveness in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Turkey and Central America, and it has largely been replaced by organophosphate or carbamate insecticides, e.g. malathion or bendiocarb.[95]

In many parts of India, DDT has also largely lost its effectiveness.[96] Agricultural uses were banned in 1989, and its anti-malarial use has been declining. Urban use has halted completely.[97] Nevertheless, DDT is still manufactured and used,[98] and one study had concluded that “DDT is still a viable insecticide in indoor residual spraying owing to its effectivity in well supervised spray operation and high excito-repellency factor.”[99]

Studies of malaria-vector mosquitoes in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa found susceptibility to 4% DDT (the WHO susceptibility standard), in 63% of the samples, compared to the average of 86.5% in the same species caught in the open. The authors concluded that “Finding DDT resistance in the vector An. arabiensis, close to the area where we previously reported pyrethroid-resistance in the vector An. funestus Giles, indicates an urgent need to develop a strategy of insecticide resistance management for the malaria control programmes of southern Africa.”[100]

DDT can still be effective against resistant mosquitoes,[101] and the avoidance of DDT-sprayed walls by mosquitoes is an additional benefit of the chemical.[99] For example, a 2007 study reported that resistant mosquitoes avoided treated huts. The researchers argued that DDT was the best pesticide for use in IRS (even though it did not afford the most protection from mosquitoes out of the three test chemicals) because the others pesticides worked primarily by killing or irritating mosquitoes—encouraging the development of resistance to these agents.[101] Others argue that the avoidance behavior slows the eradication of the disease.[102] Unlike other insecticides such as pyrethroids, DDT requires long exposure to accumulate a lethal dose; however its irritant property shortens contact periods. “For these reasons, when comparisons have been made, better malaria control has generally been achieved with pyrethroids than with DDT.”[95] In India, with its outdoor sleeping habits and frequent night duties, “the excito-repellent effect of DDT, often reported useful in other countries, actually promotes outdoor transmission.”[103]

Residents’ concerns

Main article: Indoor residual spraying#Residents’s opposition to IRS

For IRS to be effective, at least 80% of homes and barns in an area must be sprayed.[94] Lower coverage rates can jeopardize program effectiveness. Many residents resist DDT spraying, objecting to the lingering smell, stains on walls, and may exacerbate problems with other insect pests.[95][102][104] Pyrethroid insecticides (e.g. deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) can overcome some of these issues, increasing participation.[95]

Human exposure

People living in areas where DDT is used for IRS have high levels of the chemical and its breakdown products in their bodies. Compared to contemporaries living where DDT is not used, South Africans living in sprayed homes have levels that are several orders of magnitude greater.[36] Breast milk in regions where DDT is used against malaria greatly exceeds the allowable standards for breast-feeding infants.[105][106][107] These levels are associated with neurological abnormalities in babies.[95][105][106]

Most studies of DDT’s human health effects have been conducted in developed countries where DDT is not used and exposure is relatively low. Many experts urge that alternatives be used instead of IRS.[24][36] Epidemiologist Brenda Eskenazi argues, “We know DDT can save lives by repelling and killing disease-spreading mosquitoes. But evidence suggests that people living in areas where DDT is used are exposed to very high levels of the pesticide. The only published studies on health effects conducted in these populations have shown profound effects on male fertility. Clearly, more research is needed on the health of populations where indoor residual spraying is occurring, but in the meantime, DDT should really be the last resort against malaria rather than the first line of defense.”[108]

Illegal diversion to agriculture is also a concern, as it is almost impossible to prevent, and its subsequent use on crops is uncontrolled. For example, DDT use is widespread in Indian agriculture,[109] particularly mango production,[110] and is reportedly used by librarians to protect books.[111] Other examples include Ethiopia, where DDT intended for malaria control is reportedly being used in coffee production,[112] and Ghana where it is used for fishing.”[113][114] The residues in crops at levels unacceptable for export have been an important factor in recent bans in several tropical countries.[95] Adding to this problem is a lack of skilled personnel and supervision.[102]

Criticism of restrictions on DDT use

Critics claim that restricting DDT in vector control have caused unnecessary deaths due to malaria. Estimates range from hundreds of thousands,[115] to millions. Robert Gwadz of the National Institutes of Health said in 2007, “The ban on DDT may have killed 20 million children.”[116] These arguments have been dismissed as “outrageous” by former WHO scientist Socrates Litsios. May Berenbaum, University of Illinois entomologist, says, “to blame environmentalists who oppose DDT for more deaths than Hitler is worse than irresponsible.”[85] Investigative journalist Adam Sarvana and others characterize this notion as a “myth” promoted principally by Roger Bate of the pro-DDT advocacy group Africa Fighting Malaria (AFM).[117][118]

Criticisms of a DDT “ban” often specifically reference the 1972 US ban (with the erroneous implication that this constituted a worldwide ban and prohibited use of DDT in vector control). Reference is often made to Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring even though she never pushed for a ban on DDT. John Quiggin and Tim Lambert wrote, “the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted.”[119] Carson actually devoted a page of her book to considering the relationship between DDT and malaria, warning of the evolution of DDT resistance in mosquitoes and concluding:

It is more sensible in some cases to take a small amount of damage in preference to having none for a time but paying for it in the long run by losing the very means of fighting [is the advice given in Holland by Dr Briejer in his capacity as director of the Plant Protection Service]. Practical advice should be “Spray as little as you possibly can” rather than “Spray to the limit of your capacity.”

It has also been alleged that donor governments and agencies have refused to fund DDT spraying, or made aid contingent upon not using DDT. According to a report in the British Medical Journal, use of DDT in Mozambique “was stopped several decades ago, because 80% of the country’s health budget came from donor funds, and donors refused to allow the use of DDT.”[120] Roger Bate asserts, “many countries have been coming under pressure from international health and environment agencies to give up DDT or face losing aid grants: Belize and Bolivia are on record admitting they gave in to pressure on this issue from [USAID].”[121]

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has been the focus of much criticism. While the agency is currently funding the use of DDT in some African countries,[122] in the past it did not. When John Stossel accused USAID of not funding DDT because it wasn’t “politically correct,” Anne Peterson, the agency’s assistant administrator for global health, replied that “I believe that the strategies we are using are as effective as spraying with DDT … So, politically correct or not, I am very confident that what we are doing is the right strategy.”[123] USAID’s Kent R. Hill states that the agency has been misrepresented: “USAID strongly supports spraying as a preventative measure for malaria and will support the use of DDT when it is scientifically sound and warranted.”[124] The Agency’s website states that “USAID has never had a ‘policy’ as such either ‘for’ or ‘against’ DDT for IRS. The real change in the past two years [2006/07] has been a new interest and emphasis on the use of IRS in general—with DDT or any other insecticide—as an effective malaria prevention strategy in tropical Africa.”[122] The website further explains that in many cases alternative malaria control measures were judged to be more cost-effective that DDT spraying, and so were funded instead.[125]

Alternatives

Other insecticides

Main article: Indoor residual spraying

Advocates of increased use of DDT in IRS claim that alternative insecticides are more expensive, more toxic, or not as effective. As discussed above, susceptibility of mosquitoes to DDT varies geographically. The same is true for alternative insecticides, so its relative effectiveness varies. Toxicity and cost-effectiveness comparisons lack data. Relative insecticide costs vary by location and ease of access, the habits of the local mosquitoes, the degrees of resistance exhibited by the mosquitoes, and the habits and compliance of the population, among other factors. The choice of insecticide has little impact on the total cost of a round of spraying, since product costs are only a fraction of campaign costs. IRS coverage needs to be maintained throughout the malaria season, making DDT’s relatively long life an important cost savings.

Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, e.g. malathion and bendiocarb, respectively, are more expensive than DDT per kilogram and are applied at roughly the same dosage. Pyrethroids such as deltamethrin are also more expensive than DDT, but are applied more sparingly (0.02-0.3 g/m2 vs 1-2 g/m2), so the net cost per house is about the same over 6 months.[23]

Non-chemical vector control

Before DDT, malaria was successfully eradicated or curtailed in several tropical areas by removing or poisoning mosquito breeding grounds and larva habitats, for example by filling or applying oil to standing water. These methods have seen little application in Africa for more than half a century.[126]

The relative effectiveness of IRS (with DDT or alternative insecticides) versus other malaria control techniques (e.g. bednets or prompt access to anti-malarial drugs) varies greatly and is highly dependent on local conditions.[23]

A WHO study released in January 2008 found that mass distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and artemisinin–based drugs cut malaria deaths in half in Rwanda and Ethiopia, countries with high malaria burdens. IRS with DDT did not play an important role in mortality reduction in these countries.[127][128]

Vietnam has enjoyed declining malaria cases and a 97% mortaility reduction after switching in 1991 from a poorly funded DDT-based campaign to a program based on prompt treatment, bednets, and pyrethroid group insecticides.[129]

In Mexico, effective and affordable chemical and non-chemical strategies against malaria have been so successful that the Mexican DDT manufacturing plant ceased production due to lack of demand.[130]

While the increased numbers of malaria victims since DDT usage collapsed document its value, many other factors contributed to the rise in cases.

A review of fourteen studies on the subject in sub-Saharan Africa, covering insecticide-treated nets, residual spraying, chemoprophylaxis for children, chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment for pregnant women, a hypothetical vaccine, and changing front–line drug treatment, found decision making limited by the gross lack of information on the costs and effects of many interventions, the very small number of cost-effectiveness analyses available, the lack of evidence on the costs and effects of packages of measures, and the problems in generalizing or comparing studies that relate to specific settings and use different methodologies and outcome measures. The two cost-effectiveness estimates of DDT residual spraying examined were not found to provide an accurate estimate of the cost-effectiveness of DDT spraying; furthermore, the resulting estimates may not be good predictors of cost-effectiveness in current programs.[131]

However, a study in Thailand found the cost per malaria case prevented of DDT spraying ($1.87 US) to be 21% greater than the cost per case prevented of lambda-cyhalothrin–treated nets ($1.54 US),[132] at very least casting some doubt on the unexamined assumption that DDT was the most cost-effective measure to use in all cases. The director of Mexico’s malaria control program finds similar results, declaring that it is 25% cheaper for Mexico to spray a house with synthetic pyrethroids than with DDT.[130] However, another study in South Africa found generally lower costs for DDT spraying than for impregnated nets.[133]

A more comprehensive approach to measuring cost-effectiveness or efficacy of malarial control would not only measure the cost in dollars of the project, as well as the number of people saved, but would also consider ecological damage and negative aspects of insecticide use on human health. One preliminary study regarding the effect of DDT found that it is likely the detriment to human health approaches or exceeds the beneficial reductions in malarial cases, except perhaps in malarial epidemic situations. It is similar to the earlier mentioned study regarding estimated theoretical infant mortality caused by DDT and subject to the criticism also mentioned earlier.[134]

A study in the Solomon Islands found that “although impregnated bed nets cannot entirely replace DDT spraying without substantial increase in incidence, their use permits reduced DDT spraying.”[135]

A comparison of four successful programs against malaria in Brazil, India, Eritrea, and Vietnam does not endorse any single strategy but instead states, “Common success factors included conducive country conditions, a targeted technical approach using a package of effective tools, data-driven decision-making, active leadership at all levels of government, involvement of communities, decentralized implementation and control of finances, skilled technical and managerial capacity at national and sub-national levels, hands-on technical and programmatic support from partner agencies, and sufficient and flexible financing.”[136]

DDT resistant mosquitoes have generally proved susceptible to pyrethroids. Thus far, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles has not been a major problem.[95] …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT

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Population Reduction–Videos

Posted on March 31, 2012. Filed under: American History, Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, College, Communications, Demographics, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government spending, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, People, Philosophy, Politics, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Science, Security, Talk Radio, Unemployment, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , |

Population Reduction 2012 part 1 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 2 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 3 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 4 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 5 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 6 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 7 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 8 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 9 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 10 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 11 of 12

Population Reduction 2012 part 12 of 12

George Carlin – Saving the Planet

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Bisphenol A (BPA) Contaminating Our Food–Covert Neo-Eugenics?–Videos

Posted on February 9, 2012. Filed under: Biology, Blogroll, Chemistry, Communications, Economics, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, history, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Politics, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Science, Technology, Unemployment, Video | Tags: , , , , , , |

What is Bisphenol A

Bisphenol A is a potentially harmful chemical found in common plastic items. Find out what you can do to limit your family’s exposure to Bisphenol A with these parenting tips.

Bisphenol A has formally been declared a toxic substance by Canadian authorities

Meet the Authors of the BPA in Food Packaging Study 

Plastic Bottle & BPA Chemical

A just-published study is offering some good news and bad news about a controversial chemical found in some of the food and beverage containers you may have in your home. The study reveals a new way the chemical might be harmful to developing fetuses and young children. They also found that some dietary supplements can reverse its effects.

Uncovering Bisphenol A – Covert Depopulation

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical building block that is used primarily to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Use in some food and drink packaging, e.g., water and infant bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Epoxy resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, beer cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes.
A known endocrine disrupter which in large quantities interferes with the release of hormones, also known to cause Infertility and Cancer.
Bisphenol A (BPA) now linked to Male Infertility:

Is Cancer-Causing BPA in your Child’s Food? 

BPA – Bisphenol A 

Bisphenol A (BPA) Contaminating Our Food

Bisphenol A is found in most plastic food containers today.  Not only is it found in plastic containers, but also in the lining of most cans.  BPA is essentially a synthetic estrogen that enters the body when one consumes food or beverages out of plastic or plastic-lined containers.  This is not only harmful to the male reproductive system, but has been found to also stimulate breast cancer growth in women.  Knowing this, it should be of no surprise that the sperm count of the average Western male is on a steady decline as many males are becoming more and more feminine.  What most people don’t know is that Bisphenol A was actually considered as the form of estrogen to be used in estrogen pills going back to the 1930s.

Alan Watt: BPA, Sterilization, Vaccines & Neo-Eugenics 

Bisphenol A, Food Containers, Effects on Humans, Gov’t Regs

ABC News Report on the Dangers of Bisphenol A

Food – The Ultimate Secret Exposed full version

BPA – Death by Plastic 

Alex Covers The Full Spectrum Biological/Eugenics Program Against Humanity 1/2

Alex Covers The Full Spectrum Biological/Eugenics Program Against Humanity 2/2 

Memorandum to Bernard Berelson (President, Population Council) found in “Activities Relevant to the Study of Population Policy for the U.S.” 3/11/69 by Frederick S. Jaffe (Vice president of Planned Parenthood – World Population).

TABLE 1. Examples of Proposed Measures to Reduce U.S. Fertility, by Universality or Selectivity of Impact
Universal Impact Social Constraints Selective Impact
Depending on Socio-Economic Status Economic Deterrents Measures Predicated on Existing Motivation to Prevent Unwanted Pregnancies
Social Controls
Restructure family:
a) Postpone or avoid marriage b) Alter image of ideal family size
Compulsory education of children Encourage increased homosexuality Educate for family limitation Fertility control agents in water supply Encourage women to work
Modify tax policies:
a) Substantial marriage tax b) Child Tax c) Tax married more than single d) Remove parents tax exemption d) Additional taxes on parents with more than I or 2 children in school
Reduce/eliminate paid maternity leave or benefits Reduce/eliminate children’s or family allowances Bonuses for delayed marriage and greater child-spacing Pensions for women of 45 with less than N children Eliminate Welfare payments after first 2 children
Compulsory abortion of out-of-wedlock pregnancies
Compulsory sterilization of all who have two children except for a few who would be allowed three
Source: “A Family Planning Perspectives Special Supplement” published by Planned Parenthood-World Population, NYC, NY, 1970.

None Dare Call It Genocide – Dr. Stanley Monteith

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Catholics In Open Revolt Over Obama’s Anti-Catholic Mandate Of Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion–Population Control a.k.a. Eugenics and Genocide–Violates Religious Beliefs and Freedom of Religion–Catholics Will Vote As Block To Defeat Obama and Planned Parenthood!–Videos

Posted on February 7, 2012. Filed under: American History, Biology, Blogroll, Chemistry, Communications, Demographics, Economics, Employment, Federal Government, Federal Government Budget, Fiscal Policy, government spending, Health Care, history, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Politics, Programming, Radio, Raves, Religion, Science, Talk Radio, Taxes, Uncategorized, Unemployment, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

 

“First they came for the Communists, but I was not a Communist so I did not speak out. Then they came for the Socialists and the Trade Unionists, but I was neither, so I did not speak out. Then they came for the Jews, but I was not a Jew so I did not speak out. And when they came for me, there was no one left to speak out for me.”

~ Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Pronk Pops Show 61:February 8, 2011

Cardinal-designate on contraception controversy

Battle over birth control

GOP turns up heat on Obama contraceptive law

Religious Freedom and the Obama Administration | THE PLAIN TRUTH by Judge Napolitano 2/07/12

Ron Paul Exposes Obamacare on Freedom Watch

Ron Paul, Obama hires of IRS agents to enforce new Obamacare regulations

Ronald Reagan Warning of Socialized medicine Pt1

Ronald Reagan Warning of Socialized medicine Pt2

State of the Union: Is Obama losing the Catholic vote?

Trends in Party Identification of Religious Groups

http://www.pewforum.org/Politics-and-Elections/Trends-in-Party-Identification-of-Religious-Groups.aspx?src=prc-headline

http://www.people-press.org/2011/07/22/gop-makes-big-gains-among-white-voters/

Newt: Obama Has Declared War on Religious Freedom in America

Obama Administration, Catholic Leaders Clash Over Contraception Mandate

Catholic League Poised To Go To War With Obama

The Health Care Betrayal

Obama Birth Control Mandate Debate Heats Up

Citizenlink Report: HHS Draws Line in Sand

Becket Fund on Stossel discussing HHS mandate

Our President Who Art in DC

Obama’s Anti-Catholic HHS Mandate

Obama Promises Abortion in Public Plan

Abortion doctor: ‘Am I killing? Yes, I am’

Glenn Beck & Bill Donohue Discuss Obama Admin vs. Catholic Church Contraception Debate – Part 1

Glenn Beck & Bill Donohue Discuss Obama Admin vs. Catholic Church Contraception Debate – Part II 

Fr. David interviewed about HHS mandate and the Church

Ave Maria University Will Fight HHS Mandate

Obama Admin: Birth Control Mandate is Final; Bishops Vow to Fight

We Will Not Comply': Catholic Leaders Distribute Letter Slamming Obama Admin Contraceptive Mandate

Obama The Betrayer of The Constitution and The American People

Obamacare: Abortion’s Trojan Horse

For The Record : Obama’s Abortion Bailout

Barack’s Big Abortion Bailout

Planned Parenthood’s Roots

Planned Parenthood’s Victims

Abortion and Black Genocide (Barack Obama and the Negro Project)

“…Planned Parenthood is the largest abortion provider in America. 78% of their clinics are in minority communities. Blacks make up 12% of the population, but 35% of the abortions in America. Are we being targeted? Isn’t that genocide? We are the only minority in America that is on the decline in population. If the current trend continues, by 2038 the black vote will be insignificant. Did you know that the founder of Planned Parenthood, Margaret Sanger, was a devout racist who created the Negro Project designed to sterilize unknowing black women and others she deemed as undesirables of society? The founder of Planned Parenthood said, “Colored people are like human weeds and are to be exterminated.” Is her vision being fulfilled today? …”

http://blackgenocide.org/planned.html

Obama SUPPORTS Black Genocide. The Cover-Up!

Bill Gates on Overpopulation and Global Poverty

Alex Jones – The Real Story Behind Bill Gates And his Death Panels!

Maafa 21

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 1/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 2/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 3/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 4/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 5/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 6/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 7/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 8/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 9/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 10/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 11/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 12/13)

Abortion: Black Genocide in 21st Century America (Part 13/13)

Repealing Obamacare and Restoring a Free Market in Healthcare 

The Elite’s Plan for Global Extermination(Depopulation Eugenics) Exposed by Webster Tarpley 1 of 4

The Elite’s Plan for Global Extermination(Depopulation Eugenics) Exposed by Webster Tarpley 2 of 4

The Elite’s Plan for Global Extermination(Depopulation Eugenics) Exposed by Webster Tarpley 3 of 4

The Elite’s Plan for Global Extermination(Depopulation Eugenics) Exposed by Webster Tarpley 4 of 4

GlennBeck Eugenics part1 Short History

GlennBeck Eugenics part2 Healthcare Czars

Glenn Beck Eugenics part3 Healthcare Tree

Obama’s Eugenics Hoax Exposed

Repeal ObamaCare 

Ron Paul Exposes Obamacare on Freedom Watch

“Ron Paul slammed Obama’s unconstitutional healthcare package on Judge Andrew Napolitano’s Freedom Watch. The Congressman announced that he will introduce legislation to stop the government from forcing people to buy health insurance.
Ron Paul is America’s leading voice for limited constitutional government, low taxes, free markets, and a return to sound monetary policies.”

Ron Paul – Life is Precious

New Ron Paul Ad (Pro-Life): Staying on the Right Path

Ron Paul or Rick Santorum: Whom Should Catholics Choose?

Obama doesn’t believe in Natural law

Ron Paul and Lew Rockwell on Obamacare, Swine Flu and Big Government 8.18.09 

President Obama will lose the Catholic vote and any chance he had to be re-elected President.

The Catholics are organizing to defeat Obama.

People of all religious faiths should wake up to this state threat to religious freedom.

Vote Obama and his radical progressive socialists out of office.

Repeal Obamacare by supporting and voting for only candidates for public office who want the repeal of Obamacare.

Ron Paul is defender of the Constitution and for liberty.

Both young voters and independents are the biggest supporters of Ron Paul.

Catholics and grandparents are now seeing the wisdom of voting for a defender of freedom of religion and the Constitution.

Death panels to kill the old and birth control, sterilization and abortion to kill the young.

The radical progressive socialists are dangerous to your health and life.

Wake up. The life you save may be your own.

I am voting for Paul for President.

Pronk Pops Show 61:February 8, 2011

Obama birth-control rule stokes election-year fight

“…But Obama, at a meeting with Senate Democrats, reaffirmed his decision and was “not equivocating,” Senator Frank Lautenberg, who attended the closed-door session, told Reuters.

Republicans have seized upon the issue, seeing a chance to paint Obama as anti-religion and put him on the defensive at a time when signs of economic improvement appear to have energized his re-election bid.

The White House, caught off-guard by the fury of the response and now trying to calm objections, accused the Republicans of trying to make “political hay” out of the issue. It said it had begun outside discussions but gave no immediate sign of what, if any, concessions it might make.

“This attack … on religious freedom in our country cannot stand and will not stand,” Boehner vowed in a speech on the floor of his chamber.

The escalating fight centers on a provision in the 2010 healthcare law that requires health insurance to cover basic birth control services for women – even at Catholic charities, hospitals and universities.

Catholic bishops contend the policy infringes on religious liberty because the church does not condone the use of birth control pills or other contraceptives.

Boehner said if the president refuses to rescind the measure, Congress will do so legislatively.

But such a bill would have little chance of getting through a divided Congress. While Boehner may secure backing in the Republican-dominated House, he faces problems in the Senate, which is controlled by Obama’s fellow Democrats.

No matter how Congress responds, Obama is in a political bind. A retreat would anger his liberal base, while refusal to budge could alienate some Catholic voters. …”

http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/08/us-usa-congress-contraceptives-boehner-idUSTRE8171N220120208

Obamacare vs. the Catholics

The administration’s breach of faith.

By JONATHAN V. LAST

“…As soon as Sebelius released this decision, the Catholic church panicked. The Conference of Catholic Bishops reached out to the administration to explain the position in which it had put them. But the tone of their concern was largely friendly: Most Catholic leaders were convinced that the entire thing was a misunderstanding and that the policy​—​which was labeled an “interim” measure​—​would eventually be amended.

The reason for this optimism was that more than a few important Catholics had previously climbed out on a high branch for Obama politically, and for his health care reform as a matter of policy. Despite what you may read in the New York Times, most lay Catholics are nominally at home in the Democratic party. (Remember that a majority of Catholics voted for Obama in 2008.) And what is true of the laity goes double for those in religious life. In 2009, Notre Dame president Father John Jenkins welcomed President Obama as the school’s commencement speaker in the face of a heated student protest. The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops mostly kept its powder dry during the fight over Obamacare, and very few members of the church hierarchy actively, or even tacitly, opposed the bill. Others, such as Sister Carol Keehan, the president of the Catholic Health Association, actually lobbied in favor of it, early and often. So most Catholics took the president at his word when he met with Archbishop Timothy Dolan last fall and assured him that when the final version of the policy was eventually released, any fears would be allayed.

That was their mistake. Obama telephoned Dolan on the morning of January 20 to inform him that the only concession he intended to offer in the final policy was to extend the deadline for conformity to August 2013. Every other aspect of the policy enunciated by Sebelius would remain rigidly in place.

It’s unclear whether Obama anticipated the blowback which resulted from this announcement, or perhaps even welcomed the fight. The liberal Catholic establishment nearly exploded. Sister Keehan was so horrified she threw her lot in with the more conservative Dolan in full-throated opposition to Obama. Cardinal Roger Mahony, the spectacularly liberal archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles, wrote, “I cannot imagine a more direct and frontal attack on freedom of conscience.  .  .  . This decision must be fought against with all the energies the Catholic community can muster.” Michael Sean Winters, the National Catholic Reporter’s leftist lion, penned a 1,800-word cri de coeur titled “J’accuse!” in which he declared that, as God was his witness, he would never again vote for Obama. The editors of the Jesuit magazine America denounced a “wrong decision,” while the Washington Post columnist E. J. Dionne called the policy “unconscionable.” When you’ve lost even E.J. and the Jesuits, you’ve lost the church.

The reason liberal Catholics were so wounded is twofold. First, this isn’t a religio-cultural fight over Latin in the Mass or Gregorian chant. The subjects of contraception, abortion, and sterilization are not ornamental aspects of the Catholic faith; they flow from the Church’s central teachings about the dignity of the human person. Second, Obama has left Catholic organizations a very narrow set of options. (1) They may truckle to the government’s mandate, in violation of their beliefs. (2) They may cease providing health insurance to their employees altogether, though this would incur significant financial penalties under Obamacare. (The church seems unlikely to obtain any of Nancy Pelosi’s golden waivers.) Or (3) they may simply shut down. There is precedent for this final option. In 2006, Boston’s Catholic Charities closed its adoption service​—​one of the most successful in the nation​—​after Massachusetts law required that the organization must place children in same-sex households.

Which means that what is actually on the block are precisely the kind of social-justice services​—​education, health care, and aid to the needy​—​that liberal Catholics believe to be the most vital works of the church. For conservative Catholics, Obama merely confirmed their darkest suspicions; for liberals, it was a betrayal in full.

As a matter of law, this decision by Obama’s health care bureaucrats seems unlikely to survive. Last month, the Supreme Court struck down another attempt by the administration to bully religious believers in the Hosanna-Tabor case. In that instance, Obama’s Equal Employment Opportunity Commission argued that a religious organization does not have the right to control its hiring and firing according to its religious belief. The Court struck down this argument 9-0 in a rebuke so embarrassing that Justice Elena Kagan came close to openly mocking her successor as Obama’s solicitor general during oral arguments. It was the kind of sweeping decision that should have deterred the Obama administration from forcing Catholics into complying with the health insurance mandate, because it suggested that the Court will very likely side against the administration once this matter comes before it. Presidents typically dislike being overturned unanimously by the High Court …”

“…While Catholics were blindsided by the January decision, the left had been paying close attention to the subject for months. In November, several leftist and feminist blogs began beating the war drums, warning Obama not to “cave” (their word) to the bishops. They were joined by the Nation, Salon, the Huffington Post, and the usual suspects. (Sample headline: “The Men Behind the War on Women.”) At the same time, Planned Parenthood and NARAL launched grassroots lobbying efforts and delivered petitions with 100,000 and 135,000 signatures respectively to the White House urging Obama to uphold the policy and not compromise.

In that sense, Obama’s decision might be thought of as akin to his decision halting the Keystone oil pipeline: a conscious attempt to energize his base at the expense of swing voters, who he concluded were already lost.

The other possibility, of course, is that Obama sees the dismantling of Catholic institutions as part of a larger ideological mission, worth losing votes over. As Yuval Levin noted in National Review Online last week, institutions such as the Catholic church represent a mediating layer between the individual and the state. This layer, known as civil society, is one of the principal differences between Western liberal order and the socialist view. …”

http://www.weeklystandard.com/articles/obamacare-vs-catholics_620946.html?nopager=1

Catholic League Poised To Go To War With Obama Over Mandatory Birth Control Payments

Donohue Says 70 Million Of His Voters Ready To Alter Presidential Election

“…Catholic leaders are furious and determined to harness the voting power of the nation’s 70 million Catholic voters to stop a provision of President Barack Obama’s new heath car reform bill that will force Catholic schools, hospitals and charities to buy birth control pills, abortion-producing drugs and sterilization coverage for their employees.

“Never before, unprecedented in American history, for the federal government to line up against the Roman Catholic Church,” said Catholic League head Bill Donohue.

Already Archbishop Timothy Dolan has spoken out against the law and priests around the country have mobilized, reading letters  from the pulpit. Donohue said Catholic officials will stop at nothing to put a stop to it.

“This is going to be fought out with lawsuits, with court decisions, and, dare I say it, maybe even in the streets,” Donohue said. …”

http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2012/02/06/catholic-league-poised-to-go-to-war-with-obama-over-mandatory-birth-control-payments/

Planned Parenthood’s Hostages

The abortion provider uses a vast media and political network to maintain its subsidies from government and private charities.

“…Planned Parenthood has spent millions fighting even those legislative initiatives that command extremely wide public support, such as laws requiring parental notification and informed consent for abortions, and those banning late-term abortions when the child developing in the womb is fully viable. Planned Parenthood even opposes a bill recently introduced in Congress to ban abortions for the purpose of sex selection.

It is easy to see why Komen might not wish to be associated with Planned Parenthood. Fighting breast cancer is something all Americans can and do agree on; promoting and performing abortions is something that divides us bitterly.

While Planned Parenthood’s target in the Komen case was new, its tactics are not. In the past two years, we have seen the abortion giant (and the politicians it funds) hold for ransom a diverse array of hostages.

In 2010, President Obama and the Democrats in Congress risked and narrowly averted the rejection of their signature health-care law in order to block the inclusion of provisions (such as the 1970s Hyde Amendment) that prevent federal abortion funding. At the 11th hour, a handful of “pro-life” Democrats capitulated, giving Mr. Obama and Planned Parenthood their victory.

Last year, in April, Mr. Obama risked a government shutdown over language in a resolution that would have defunded Planned Parenthood at the federal level. At the last moment, congressional Republicans gave way and allowed the federal money to keep flowing.

Also in 2011, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services threatened to withhold billions of dollars in Medicaid funds from those states such as Indiana that prohibit state funding of Planned Parenthood and other entities that provide elective abortions. Planned Parenthood strongly opposed Indiana’s attempt to cut off its funding and celebrated the federal government’s intervention. Indiana is currently litigating the matter in federal court.

Most recently, after intense lobbying, the Department of Health and Human Services did the bidding of Planned Parenthood by imposing a mandate on virtually all employers to provide insurance coverage (without cost-sharing) for abortion-inducing drugs, sterilizations and contraceptives. This threatens to force many religiously affiliated charitable institutions out of the business of providing education, health care and social services to the poor. …”

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204369404577206692451108960.html

Archbishop to U.S. Troops: Obamacare Reg ‘Is a Blow to a Freedom…for Which You Have Seen Your Buddies Fall in Battle’

By Terence P.  Jeffrey

“…The regulation the archbishop spoke about was finalized by Health and Human Services  Secretary Kathleen Sebelius on Jan. 20. It mandates that all  health-care plans in the United States cover sterilizations and all  FDA-approved contraceptives, including those that cause abortions. A  “religious” employer exemption included in the regulation only applies to  organizations that primarily focus on inculcating the tenets of the  church in question, primarily employ members of the church, primarily  serve members of the church, and is organized under the section of the  Internal Revenue Code used by actual parishes.

Catholic hospitals, universities and charitable institutions would  not be exempt from the regulation, nor would Catholic individuals, business owners, or insurers.

Because the Catholic Church teaches that sterilization, artificial  contraception, and abortion are morally wrong and that Catholics cannot  be involved in them, and because the Obamacare law requires that all  individual purchase health insurance and that larger employers provide health insurance to their workers or face a penalty, the  regulation would force Catholics to act against the teachings of their  faith and against their consciences.

Archbishop Broglio’s letter opposing the regulation and describing it  as a violation of the constitutional rights of Catholics was read  verbatim at Masses served by Navy and Air Force chaplains around the  world.

However, the Army’s Office of the Chief of Chaplains attempted  to silence Catholic Army chaplains from reading it at their Masses—an  effort rejected and resisted by Archbishop  Broglio.

“On Thursday, January 26, Archbishop Broglio emailed a pastoral  letter to Catholic military chaplains with instructions that it be read  from the pulpit at Sunday Masses the following weekend in all military  chapels,” the Catholic Archdiocese for the Military said in a statement.

“The letter calls on Catholics to resist the policy initiative,  recently affirmed by the United States Department of Health and Human  Services, for federally mandated health insurance covering  sterilization, abortifacients and contraception, because it represents a  violation of the freedom of religion recognized by the U.S.  Constitution,” said the statement by the archdiocese.

“The Army’s Office of the Chief of Chaplains subsequently sent an  email to senior chaplains advising them that the Archbishop’s letter was  not coordinated with that office and asked that it not be read from the  pulpit,” said the archdiocese’s statement. “The Chief’s office  directed that the letter was to be mentioned in the Mass announcements  and distributed in printed form in the back of the chapel.”

On Saturday, Jan. 28, after the Army’s Office of the Chief of  Chaplains issued this directive, Archbishop Broglio spoke with Secretary  of the Army John McHugh, a political appointee of President Barack  Obama.

Archbishop Broglio’s position was that, in trying to stop Catholic  Army chaplains from reading his pastoral letter, the Army was violating his First Amendment rights to  free speech and the free exercise of religion and the First Amendment  rights of Catholic chaplains and Catholic service members. …”

http://cnsnews.com/news/article/archbishop-us-troops-obamacare-reg-blow-freedomfor-which-you-have-seen-your-buddies

Obama administration struggles to contain uproar over birth-control rule

By Amie Parnes and Sam Baker -

“…The White House struggled Wednesday to contain the growing uproar over its birth-control mandate, with Democrats peeling off one by one in what has become an increasingly divisive election-year controversy.

Pressure to roll back the new contraception policy mounted quickly as the day wore on, driven by divisions among Democrats, mixed messages from President Obama’s advisers and a constant drumbeat from the GOP.

“It’s becoming a thorny problem for the White House and it appears to only be getting worse,” said one Democratic strategist. “The politically astute move would be to modify this thing, and quick.”

Asked if the administration should shift course, a former senior administration official said, “I don’t see how they couldn’t. It’s pretty bad.”

With the consternation rising to a fever pitch, Republicans announced a plan to move a bill soon that would repeal the mandate. And prominent Democrats are breaking with the administration over the policy, which requires some religious organizations to cover contraception in their employees’ healthcare plans.

Sen. Bob Casey Jr. (D-Pa.) and Rep. John Larson (D-Conn.) urged the White House last week to broaden the exception for religious employers. Several of their Democratic colleagues have piled on since.

Rep. Gerry Connolly (D-Va.) said Wednesday that the Health and Human Services Department “misstepped” in adopting the new policy.

“I just don’t think this is a fight that should have been picked and I think it needs to be fixed,” Connolly said. “I have every confidence that the administration will do so.”

Tim Kaine, a former Democratic National Committee chairman running for Senate in Virginia this year, also said the White House should revisit the rule’s exemptions for religious organizations. The current policy does not apply to churches, but institutions such as Catholic hospitals and universities have to comply.

“I think the White House made a good decision in including a mandate for contraception coverage in the Affordable Care Act insurance policy, but I think they made a bad decision in not allowing a broad enough religious-employer exemption,” Kaine said in a radio interview, according to a transcript provided by his campaign. …”

Southern Baptist leader: If Obama mandate isn’t changed, Christians will go to jail

by Ben Johnson

“…One of the most influential evangelical leaders in the United States says Christians should go to jail rather than comply with the Obama administration’s mandate to provide all contraception, including abortion-inducing drugs, in their health care plans.

Dr. Richard Land, president of the Southern Baptist Convention’s Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission (ERLC), told LifeSiteNews.com “we will not comply” with the Dept. of Health and Human Services’ mandate requiring religious institutions to cover abortifacient products such as Plan B, Ella, and the IUD.

“We want the law changed, or else we’re going to write our letters from the Nashville jail, just like Dr. King wrote his from the Birmingham jail,” Dr. Land said.

Dr. Land wrote an op-ed on Tuesday with Barrett Duke, vice president for public policy and research at ERLC, calling his fellow Southern Baptists and evangelical Christians throughout America to oppose any infringement on the First Amendment. …”

http://www.lifesitenews.com/southern-baptist-leader-we-will-not-comply-with-hhs-mandate.html

Reverse rule for contraception coverage

“…I thank Vice President Joe Biden for visiting Ohio today.

The Sisters of Charity Health System is a Cleveland-based Catholic health-care organization which, in collaboration with other Catholic health ministries, actively promoted the passage of the Affordable Care Act. We are dedicated to increased health-care coverage and access and are supportive of the law’s efforts to improve quality of care and patient outcomes.

I ask the vice president to help Catholic and other faith-based employers with a recent federal action. We are very disappointed with the Health and Human Services rule on women’s preventive services that requires the inclusion of contraceptive coverage and sterilization in employer-based employee-benefits plans. The regulation denies adequate conscience protections for religious employers like us.

Our faith motivates us; we carry out the healing mission because of God’s call. And we are blessed to be joined in our ministry by a diverse and inclusive work force.

We urge President Barack Obama to be consistent with existing provider conscience-protection laws and allow us to exercise our First Amendment rights to conscience protection as faith-based employers. Please fix this discriminatory rule.

SISTER JUDITH ANN KARAM

President and chief executive officer

Sisters of Charity Health System …”

http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/editorials/2012/02/09/reverse-rule-for-contraception-coverage.html


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The Matrix Phlosophy–Videos

Posted on November 11, 2011. Filed under: American History, Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, Communications, Cult, Culture, Demographics, Diasters, Economics, Employment, Entertainment, European History, government, government spending, history, Immigration, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, Life, Links, media, Movies, Narcissism, People, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Programming, Psychology, Rants, Raves, Religion, Science, Security, Sports, Strategy, Talk Radio, Technology, Video, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

Philosophy and the Matrix: Return to the Source [FULL DOCUMENTARY]

 

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Roy W. Spencer: Why The Global Warming Agenda Is Wrong–Video

Posted on November 6, 2011. Filed under: American History, Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, Climate, Communications, Economics, Employment, Energy, government, government spending, history, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Natural Gas, Nuclear Power, Oil, People, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Science, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , |

Why The Global Warming Agenda Is Wrong

Dr Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 1 of 6

Dr Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 2 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 3 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 4 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 5 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 6 of 6

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James Burke : “After The Warming”–Videos

Posted on November 5, 2011. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Babies, Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, Climate, College, Communications, Cult, Culture, Demographics, Diasters, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Enivornment, European History, Farming, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Homes, Immigration, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Music, Natural Gas, Nuclear Power, Oil, People, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Private Sector, Programming, Psychology, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Religion, Resources, Science, Security, Strategy, Talk Radio, Technology, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Weapons | Tags: , , , , , |

Warning: Burke’s video is propaganda and should be viewed with caution

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 1/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 2/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 3/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 4/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 5/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 6/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 7/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 8/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 9/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 10/11

James Burke : “After The Warming”, 11/11

Please watch the following videos to see why Burke is wrong.

Why The Global Warming Agenda Is Wrong

Dr Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 1 of 6

Dr Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 2 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 3 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 4 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 5 of 6

Dr  Roy Spencer on Global Warming Part 6 of 6

Background Articles and Videos

1 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

2 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

3 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

4 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

5 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

6 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

7 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

8 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

9 of 9 Richard Lindzen The Peculiar Issue of Global Warming Fermilab Colloquium

The Great Global Warming Swindle (Full Movie)

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James Burke: Connections and Re-Connections–Videos

Posted on November 5, 2011. Filed under: Agriculture, American History, Art, Biology, Blogroll, Books, Business, Chemistry, Climate, Communications, Computers, Culture, Demographics, Diasters, Dirty Bomb, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Enivornment, European History, Farming, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Homes, Immigration, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Music, Nuclear, People, Philosophy, Physics, Pistols, Politics, Private Sector, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Rifles, Science, Security, Taxes, Technology, Unemployment, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , |

James Burke : Connections, Episode 1, “The Trigger Effect”, 1 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 1, “The Trigger Effect”, 2 of 5 (CC)

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James Burke : Connections, Episode 2, “Death In The Morning”, 1 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 2, “Death In The Morning”, 2 of 5 (CC)

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James Burke : Connections, Episode 2, “Death In The Morning”, 4 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 2, “Death In The Morning”, 5 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 3, “Distant Voices”, 1 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 3, “Distant Voices”, 2 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 3, “Distant Voices”, 3 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 3, “Distant Voices”, 4 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 3, “Distant Voices”, 5 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 4, “Faith In Numbers”, 1 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 4, “Faith In Numbers”, 2 of 5 (CC)

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James Burke : Connections, Episode 4, “Faith In Numbers”, 4 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 4, “Faith In Numbers”, 5 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 5, “Wheel Of Fortune”, 1 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 5, “Wheel Of Fortune”,  2 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 5, “Wheel Of Fortune”,  3 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 5, “Wheel Of Fortune”, 4 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 5, “Wheel Of Fortune”, 5 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 6, “Thunder in the Skies”, 1 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 6, “Thunder in the Skies”, 2 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 6, “Thunder in the Skies”, 3 of 5 (CC)

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James Burke : Connections, Episode 7, “The Long Chain”, 1 of 5 (CC)

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James Burke : Connections, Episode 7, “The Long Chain”, 5 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 8, “Eat, Drink and be Merry”, 1 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 8, “Eat, Drink and be Merry”, 2 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 8, “Eat, Drink and be Merry”, 3 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 8, “Eat, Drink and be Merry”, 4 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections, Episode 8, “Eat, Drink and be Merry”, 5 of 5 (CC)

James Burke : Connections³, Episode 9 : “Hit The Water” (HQ), 1 of 5

James Burke : Connections³, Episode 9 : “Hit The Water” (HQ),2 of 5

James Burke : Connections³, Episode 9 : “Hit The Water” (HQ), 3 of 5

James Burke : Connections³, Episode 9 : “Hit The Water” (HQ), 4 of 5

James Burke : Connections³, Episode 9 : “Hit The Water” (HQ), 5 of 5

James Burke : Connections³, Episode 10 : “In Touch” (HQ), 1 of 5

James Burke : Connections³, Episode 10 : “In Touch” (HQ), 2 of 5

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James Burke : Connections³, Episode 10 : “In Touch” (HQ), 5 of 5

James Burke : “Re-Connections”, 1 of 7

James Burke : “Re-Connections”, 2 of 7

James Burke : “Re-Connections”, 3 of 7

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James Burke : “Re-Connections”, 7 of 7

Background Articles and Videos

James Burke

“…James Burke (born 22 December 1936) is a British broadcaster, science historian, author and television producer known amongst other things for his documentary television series Connections (1978) and its more philosophical oriented companion production, The Day the Universe Changed (1985), focusing on the history of science and technology leavened with a sense of humour. The Washington Post has called him “one of the most intriguing minds in the Western world”.[1]

Burke was born in Derry, Northern Ireland. He was educated at Maidstone Grammar School and at Jesus College, Oxford, where he gained an M.A. in Middle English.

Later, Burke moved to Italy, where he lectured at universities in Bologna and Urbino as well as at English schools in that country. While in Italy, he was engaged in the creation of an English–Italian dictionary and the publication of an art encyclopedia. In 1966, after a period of broadcasting work, Burke moved to London to join the BBC’s Science and Features Department, where he hosted and co-hosted a number of programmes. He also worked for a while as a teacher of English as a Foreign Language at the Regency Language School in Ramsgate.

Burke first made his name as a reporter on the BBC science series Tomorrow’s World. He was BBC television’s science anchor and chief reporter on the Project Apollo missions, being the main presenter on the BBC’s coverage of the first moon landings in 1969.

Burke co-produced (with Mick Jackson) an acclaimed 10-part documentary series Connections (1978) that was first aired on the BBC and subsequently on PBS channels in the United States. The series traced paths of invention and discovery through their interrelationships in history, with each episode chronicling a particular path, usually in chronological order, and was a great success for Burke, being the most watched PBS series up to that time. It was followed by the 20-part Connections2 (1994, Exec. Prod. Tim Cowling) and then the 10-part Connections3 (1997, Exec. Prod. Michael Latham) series. Later, it was shown in more than 50 countries and appeared in about 350 university and college curricula. Additionally, the book that followed the series was also a best seller on both sides of the Atlantic.

In 1985, Burke co-produced (with Richard Reisz and John Lynch) a 10-part series The Day The Universe Changed (revised in 1995). This series focuses more on the philosophical aspects of scientific change on Western culture. Burke has also been a regular contributor for Scientific American and Time magazines and served as a consultant to the SETI project. He has received the Royal Television Society’s silver and gold medals. In 1998 he was made an honorary fellow of the Society for Technical Communication.[2]

In contrast with the end of Connections, in which Burke worried that computing and communications would increasingly be in the hands of an expert elite, in the closing scenes of The Day the Universe Changed he instead suggested that a forthcoming revolution in communication and computer technology would allow people all over the world to exchange ideas and opinions instantaneously. Popular access to the internet suggests he was correct. …”

KnowledgeWeb

James Burke is the leading figure of the KnowledgeWeb Project. This is the digital incarnation of his books and television programmes, which allows the user to fly through history and create their own connective paths. According to the site, it will eventually have immersive, inhabited virtual reality recreations of historical people and places.

Major television credits

Television series and major single documentaries made by James Burke:

  • The Burke Special (1972–1976)
  • The End of the Beginning (1972), marking the end of Project Apollo
  • Scenario: The Oil Game (1976), crisis game examining OPEC
  • Scenario: The Peace Game (1977), crisis game examining NATO
  • Connections (1978)
  • The Men who Walked on the Moon (1979), 10th anniversary of Apollo 11
  • The Other Side of the Moon (1979), a more critical look at Apollo
  • The Real Thing, on various aspects of perception (1980)
  • The Neuron Suite on the human brain (1982)
  • MacGillivray Freeman’s Speed (IMAX) (1984), Narrator
  • The Day the Universe Changed (1985, revised in 1995)
  • After the Warming (1989), on the greenhouse effect
  • Masters of Illusion (1993), on Renaissance painting
  • Connections 2 (1994) (sometimes written Connections²)
  • Connections 3 (1997) (or Connections³)
  • Stump the Scientist, in which an audience of children were invited to put questions to a resident panel of scientists in the hope of “stumping” them[citation needed]
  • ReConnections (2004) ReConnections from KCSM on archive.org

 Books

  • Tomorrow’s World I, (with Raymond Baxter) (BBC 1970) ISBN 978-0-563-10162-8
  • Tomorrow’s World II, (with Raymond Baxter) (BBC 1973) ISBN 978-0-563-12362-0
  • Connections: Alternative History of Technology (Time Warner International/Macmillan 1978) ISBN 978-0-333-24827-0
  • The Day the Universe Changed (BBC 1985) ISBN 0-563-20192-4
  • Chances (Virgin Books 1991) ISBN 978-1-85227-393-4
  • The Axemaker’s Gift, (with Robert Ornstein), illustrated by Ted Dewan (Jeremy P Tarcher 1995) ISBN 978-0-87477-856-4
  • The Pinball Effect — How Renaissance Water Gardens Made the Carburettor Possible and Other Journeys Through Knowledge (Little, Brown & Company 1996) ISBN 978-0-316-11610-7
  • Circles — Fifty Round Trips Through History Technology Science Culture (Simon & Schuster 2000) ISBN 978-0-7432-4976-8
  • The Knowledge Web (Simon & Schuster 2001) ISBN 978-0-684-85935-4
  • Twin Tracks (Simon & Schuster 2003) ISBN 978-0-7432-2619-6

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Burke_%28science_historian%29

 

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James Burke : “After The Warming”–Videos

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Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed–Videos

Posted on October 30, 2011. Filed under: American History, Biology, Blogroll, Chemistry, College, Communications, Economics, Education, government spending, history, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Science, Unemployment, Unions, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 1 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 2 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 3 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 4 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 5 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 6 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 7 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 8 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 9 of 10)

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (Part 10 of 10)

Background Articles and Videos

Mind Control Hate Propaganda, Hate Speech & Crime, Black PR

Mind Control, Psychology of Brainwashing, Sex & Hypnosis

Mind Control in a Can, Soft Drinks Aren’t Sexy, Coke, Pop

Music, Emotion & Mind Control, Psychology

MK-Ultra, CIA Mind Control & Brain Washing to Make Assassins

Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report Part 1

Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report 2

Fit vs. UnFit, Eugenics, Planned Parenthood & Psychology, Mind Control Report

Sex Control Police State, Eugenics, Galton, Kantsaywhere, Mind Control

Sex Addiction, Restless Legs Syndrome, PMS & Drug, Mind Control Report

 END GAME: Official Movie Eugenics pt1

 END GAME: Official Movie Eugenics pt2

 END GAME: Official Movie Eugenics pt3

 END GAME: Official Movie Eugenics pt4

 END GAME: Official Movie Eugenics pt5

EndGame HQ full length version

Collapse of Darwinism : Theory of Evolution [full video]

Anyone who seeks an answer to the question of how living things, including himself, came into existence, will encounter two distinct explanations. The first is “creation,” the idea that all living things came into existence as a consequence of an intelligent design. The second explanation is the theory of “evolution,” which asserts that living things are not the products of an intelligent design, but of coincidental causes and natural processes.As a matter of fact, however, scientific findings do not support the theory of evolution. Findings from the last two decades in particular openly contradict the basic assumptions of this theory.

From Darwin to Hitler

From Darwing to Hitler

Richard  Wikary

http://www.csustan.edu/history/faculty/weikart/fromdarwintohitler.htm

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Ron Paul’s Economic Plan for Restoring America to Peace and Prosperity–Videos

Posted on October 18, 2011. Filed under: American History, Babies, Banking, Biology, Blogroll, Books, Business, Chemistry, College, Communications, Computers, Demographics, Dirty Bomb, Economics, Education, Employment, Farming, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Homes, Immigration, Inflation, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Macroeconomics, media, Medicine, Microeconomics, Monetary Policy, Money, Nuclear, People, Philosophy, Pistols, Politics, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Religion, Resources, Reviews, Rifles, Science, Security, Strategy, Talk Radio, Taxes, Technology, Unemployment, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Weapons, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , |

Pronk Pops Show 50:October 19, 2011

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Pronk Pops Show 47:September 28, 2011

Pronk Pops Show 46:September 21, 2011

Pronk Pops Show 45:September 14, 2011

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Black THIS Out – Ron Paul 2012!

Dr. Ron Paul: Protect Life, Protect Liberty

Ron Paul Explains Plan to Restore America on Meet the Press

Ron Paul Ad – Plan

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My choice for president is Ron Paul. Why? The American people are asking three important questions of all the candidates.  Can I trust this candidate? Was the candidate right on the economic issues in the past? Does the candidate know what needs to be done to get America growing and working again? For Paul the American people find the answers to these questions to be yes.

I greatly respect the character, honesty and integrity of Paul. As an economist and former financial advisor, I am equally impressed that Paul not only predicted the recent financial crisis, he understood its’ causes. In an article entitled Predictions, dated April 26, 2002, Paul said, “In the next decade the American people will become poorer and less free, while they become more dependent on the government for economic security.” He knows what needs to be done to lead the U.S. economy back to high rates of economic growth and employment–reduce the size and scope of the federal government.

Source: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2011, Historical Table 1.2

In just three years, President Barack Obama and the Democratic Party-controlled House and Senate ran up massive budgetary deficits and debt totaling more than $4 trillion. The United States is broke. The American people are searching for a fiscally responsible president that will balance the government’s budget and establish the necessary economic conditions for the creation of more than 30 million full-time jobs.

Federal government spending outlays are largely for warfare and welfare entitlements. This spending encourages businesses and individuals to become dependent upon the government for contracts and handouts. From less than 3 percent of the Gross Domestic Product prior to 1930, federal government spending outlays have increased in percentage terms by more than eight-fold to more than 24 percent of GDP.

On Oct.17 in Las Vegas, the day before the Republican debates, presidential candidate Ron Paul unveiled his economic “Plan to Restore America to peace and prosperity by limiting the size and scope of the federal government. Paul would stop foreign wars and bring the troops home from Afghanistan and Iraq, eliminate all foreign aid,  reduce the federal government’s budget by $1 trillion in the first year, abolish all corporate subsidies, reduce the federal labor force by 10 percent and permanently close the Departments of Commerce, Education, Energy, Interior, and Housing and Urban Development. For most of the remaining departments, their budget outlays would be frozen.  The federal budget would be balanced in three years in fiscal year 2015.

Paul would also shut down the Transportation Security Agency (TSA), currently part of the Department of Homeland Security, both of which were created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The airlines would have the responsibility for security and screening passengers that are boarding their aircraft.

In the tax policy area, Paul would extend the Bush tax rate cuts, eliminate estate taxes, allow U.S.companies operating abroad to repatriate their capital without additional taxation and reduce the highest corporate tax rate in the world from 35 percent to a more competitive 15 percent. Paul wants to reform the existing income tax code by going to a much simpler and fairer tax system. He would eliminate the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

In the past, Paul has indicated his support for the FairTax. This tax reform proposal would eliminate the IRS and replace all federal income taxes including the corporate, personal, payroll (Social Security and Medicare), capital gains, alternative minimum, gift and estate taxes with one broad-based national retail sales consumption tax on the sale of all new goods and services. The FairTax has a progressive tax refund feature called a prebate. Every month, each American citizen including children would receive from the federal government a prebate to pay for the upcoming month’s sales tax on life’s necessities such as food and clothing.

If the personal income tax is eliminated, how does Paul’s plan pay for the federal government? A 15 percent corporate income tax and payroll taxes would simply not bring in enough revenues to pay for an even down-sized federal government.

Recently, Paul indicated that he is against Herman Cain’s 9-9-9 tax reform plan, particularly the proposed new national sales tax. Under Cain’s plan, the existing income and payroll taxes would be eliminated and replaced with a flat 9 percent business income tax, a flat 9 percent personal income tax, and a 9 percent national sales tax. Cain argues that his proposal is a bridge to the eventual passage of the FairTax.

Is Paul still in favor of the FairTax? If the answer is no, then how would Paul’s plan pay for government spending or outlays exceeding corporate income and payroll tax revenue or receipts? Paul’s plan does not answer this question. I hope Paul again reiterates his support of the FairTax. Paul could come out with a modified FairTax proposal, call it FairTax Less, where the actual FairTax tax rate declines each year as government becomes smaller and the budget is balanced.

Those already receiving Social Security, Medicare and veteran entitlements or approaching qualification for these programs will not be affected.The plan honors the promises the federal government has made to seniors and veterans. However, Paul provides those younger than 25 with the option to leave these programs. This is a very popular option with the young, as well as many Americans that would also like this option.

Paul calls for a full audit of the Federal Reserve System, the U.S. central bank. However, his proposal does not call for ending the Fed. The proposal does support legislation that would permit competing currencies to stabilize inflation and strengthen the purchasing power of the dollar.

Like most of the other Republican candidates for president, Paul would immediately repeal both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, better known as Obama Care, and the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which would add several more regulatory agencies and hundreds of regulatory rules.

Small and medium-size businesses and community banks have pointed to these two new laws as creating massive business uncertainty and higher business costs that will be paid for by the consumer. Businesses are not growing and creating enough jobs each month to reduce the unemployment rate below 9 percent. Today, more than 25 million Americans are searching for a full-time job.

Paul would also repeal the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which was passed in 2002. The law is considered by many as a very costly intrusion into corporate management. Sarbanes-Oxley has not prevented fraud but has dramatically reduced the number of new public companies created and putU.S.companies at a competitive cost disadvantage with foreign companies.

The Plan to Restore America does differentiate Paul from the other Republican presidential candidates for having a very specific plan to cut government spending and balance the budget. The Republican Party establishment candidates, Mitt Romney and Rick Perry, will be hard pressed to come up with a comparable plan.

Instead, they and their cheerleaders in the party establishment and media will first ignore the economic plan, and then attack it. Yet, the fiscal year 2012 Republican House Budget has an estimated deficit of about $1 trillion and will not balance until the late 2030s. Both the Republican Party and Obama’s Democratic Party proposed budgets for fiscal year 2012 which are fiscally irresponsible, with estimated deficits of $1 trillion to $1.2 trillion.

The Tea Party will cheer Paul’s plan and most likely vote for him. Many Democrats, Republicans and independents who are searching for a job and a fiscally responsible president will vote for him. Paul now needs to break into the national polls with the same impressive numbers he has received in many straw polls he has won across the nation. Once this happens, he will be the front-runner.

Paul has money, organization, message, momentum, and ambition or MOMMA. The only open question is, does he have enough of each to win the nomination. I think he does. By mid-March the only candidates in serious contention for the presidential nomination will be the Republican establishment candidate, Mitt Romney and the Republican constitutional candidate, Ron Paul.

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Alex Jones Launches Nightly News–Videos

Posted on September 23, 2011. Filed under: American History, Babies, Banking, Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, College, Communications, Economics, Education, Employment, Enivornment, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, history, Inflation, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Macroeconomics, media, Microeconomics, Monetary Policy, Money, People, Philosophy, Politics, Private Sector, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Science, Strategy, Talk Radio, Taxes, Technology, Unemployment, Unions, Vacations, Video, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , |

20110922_Thu_NightlyNews ALEX JONES Part 1 of 6

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Drugs: Alcohol–The Most Used And Abused; Necotine–Most Addictive; Heroin and Cocaine–Most Dangerous;–Money and Power–Most Deadly–Videos

Posted on September 22, 2011. Filed under: Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, College, Communications, Crime, Drug Cartels, Economics, Education, Federal Government, government, government spending, Health Care, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Politics, Raves, Science, Technology, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , |

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Herman Cain–The Tea Party Movement Candidate–Running On Cutting Spending, Opposing Higher Debt Ceiling, Enforcing Immigration Laws, Defunding Planned Parenthood, Nominating Pro Life Judges, And Passing The FairTax–Common Sense Solutions!–Videos

Posted on May 23, 2011. Filed under: American History, Banking, Biology, Blogroll, Business, Chemistry, Communications, Culture, Demographics, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, European History, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Immigration, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, Microeconomics, Monetary Policy, Money, People, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Private Sector, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Science, Strategy, Talk Radio, Taxes, Technology, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Pronk Pops Show 29:May 26, 2011  

 

Who is Herman Cain ?

Herman Cain : We the People

 

Cain

 

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Herman Cain on Jack Kemp

 

Herman Cain on ABC This Week panel June 5, 2011

 

Herman Cain 2012 Event! 1 of 3

 

 

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Herman Cain: “Priorities”

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All Ron Paul 2012 Presidential debate answers full HQ

 

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Herman Cain on Second Amendment and Abortion

 

 

Herman Cain Talks Social Issues

 

Herman Cain says if he runs for President he would defund Planned Parenthood

 

America Loves Herman Cain!

 

Herman Cain – We need to return to Gold Standard and Eliminate the Debt

 

 

Herman Cain : We the People

 

Is America Ready for Common Sense Solutions?

Herman Cain to Obama at CPAC: “U.S. Will Not Become U.S. of Europe on our Watch”

 

My favorites candidates for the office of President of The United States are Ron Paul, Michele Bachmann and Herman Cain.

The one thing all three have in common is character and integrity.

The one thing all three do not have is the support of the Republican Party establishment in Washington, D.C.

All three are pro life and would defund Planned Parenthood, all three want Federal Government spending cut with no increase in the National debt ceiling, and all three favor lower taxation and comprehensive income tax reform such as the FairTax

All three would make an outstanding President of the United States.

While my dream ticket is Ron Paul as the  candidate for President and Michele Bachmann as the candidate for Vice-President on the Republican Party ticket, Herman Cain would make an excellent Secretary of the Treasury Department or Chairman of the Republican Party.

Let the American people decide for themselves who is the best candidate.

 

Background Articles and Videos

Rush Limbaugh – Herman Cain Is Serious Snerdley

 

Herman Cain versus Bill Clinton

 

Herman Cain – Bill Bennett – May 11, 2011

 

Glenn Beck Loves Herman Cain

 

 

Mark Levin Interviews Herman Cain

 

Herman Cain – Laura Ingraham

 

Herman Cain – Thomas Jefferson Comes to Dinner Part 1

 

Herman Cain – Thomas Jefferson Comes to Dinner Part 2

 

Herman Cain

“…Herman Cain (born December 13, 1945) is an American businessman, political activist, columnist, and radio host from Georgia. He is best known as the former chairman and CEO of Godfather’s Pizza. He is a former deputy chairman (1992–94) and chairman (1995–96) of the civilian board of directors to the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Before his business and economics career he worked as a mathematician in ballistics for the United States Navy.[2] Cain’s newspaper column is distributed by North Star Writers Group. He lives in the Atlanta suburbs.

In January 2011, Cain announced he had formed an exploratory committee for a potential presidential campaign for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012, and on May 21, 2011, Cain officially announced his candidacy.[3]

Background

Cain was born in Memphis, Tennessee on December 13, 1945, the son of Lenora (née Davis) and Luther Cain, Jr.[4][5] His mother was a cleaner and his father was a chauffeur.[2] He was raised in Georgia.[6] He graduated from Morehouse College in 1967 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics and received a Master of Science degree in computer science from Purdue University in 1971,[7] while he was also working full-time in ballistics for the U.S. Department of the Navy. Cain has authored four books: Leadership is Common Sense (1997), Speak as a Leader (1999), CEO of SELF (October 2001), and They Think You’re Stupid (May 2005).

Business career

After completing his master’s degree from Purdue, Cain left the Department of the Navy and began working for The Coca-Cola Company as a business analyst. In 1977, he joined Pillsbury where he rose to the position of vice president by the early 1980s. He left his executive post to work for Burger King – a Pillsbury subsidiary at the time – managing 400 stores in the Philadelphia area. Under Cain’s leadership, his region went from the least profitable for Burger King to the most profitable in three years. This prompted Pillsbury to appoint him president and CEO of Godfather’s Pizza, another of their then-subsidiaries. Within 14 months, Cain had returned Godfather’s to profitability. In 1988, Cain and a group of investors bought Godfather’s from Pillsbury. Cain continued as CEO until 1996, when he resigned to become CEO of the National Restaurant Association – a trade group and lobby organization for the restaurant industry – where he had previously been chairman concurrently with his role at Godfather’s.[8]

Cain became a member of the board of directors to the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City in 1992 and served as its chairman from January 1995 to August 1996, when he resigned to become active in national politics.[9] Cain was a 1996 recipient of the Horatio Alger Award.[10]

Media work

Cain hosted The Herman Cain Show on Atlanta talk radio station News Talk 750 WSB, a Cox Radio affiliate until February 2011 and serves as a commentator for Fox Business and a syndicated columnist distributed by the North Star Writers Group. In 2009, Cain founded “Hermanator’s Intelligent Thinkers Movement” (HITM), aimed at organizing 100,000 activists in every congressional district in the United States in support of a strong national defense, the FairTax, tax cuts, energy independence, capping government spending, and Restructuring Social Security.[11]

Political activities

 Role in the defeat of the Clinton health care plan

Cain publicly opposed the 1993/1994 health care plan of President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton. While president-elect of the National Restaurant Association he challenged Bill Clinton on the costs of the employer mandate contained within the bill, criticizing its effect on small businesses. Cain has been described as one of the primary “saboteurs” of the plan:

The Clintons would later blame “Harry and Louise,” the fictional couple in the ads aired by the insurance industry, for undermining health reform. But the real saboteurs are named Herman and John. Herman Cain is the president of Godfather’s Pizza and president-elect of the National Restaurant Association. An articulate black entrepreneur, Cain transformed the debate when he challenged Clinton at a town meeting in Kansas City, Mo., last April. Cain asked the president what he was supposed to say to the workers he would have to lay off because of the cost of the “employer mandate.” Clinton responded that there would be plenty of subsidies for small businessmen, but Cain persisted. “Quite honestly, your calculation is inaccurate,” he told the president. “In the competitive marketplace it simply doesn’t work that way.”[12]

Joshua Green of The Atlantic has called Cain’s exchange with Clinton his “auspicious debut on the national political stage.”[13]

1996 Senior Adviser of Dole/Kemp Campaign

Cain was a senior economic adviser to the Dole/ Kemp presidential campaign in 1996.[14]

2004 U.S. Senate candidacy

Main article: United States Senate election in Georgia, 2004

In 2004, Cain ran for the U.S. Senate in Georgia, pursuing the seat that came open with the retirement of Democrat Zell Miller. Cain sought the Republican nomination, facing congressmen Johnny Isakson and Mac Collins in the primary. Cain and Collins both hoped to deny Isakson a majority on primary day in order to force him into a runoff.[citation needed] Collins tried to paint Cain as a moderate,[15] citing Cain’s support for affirmative action programs, while Cain argued that he was a conservative, noting that he opposed the legality of abortion even in cases of rape and incest.[16] Cain finished second in the primary with 26.2% of the vote, ahead of Collins, who won 20.6%, but because Isakson won 53.2% of the vote, Isakson was able to avoid a runoff.[17]

 2012 presidential candidacy

Main article: Herman Cain presidential campaign, 2012

In 2010, “Cain addressed more than 40 Tea Party rallies, hit all the early presidential states, and became a YouTube sensation.”[6] In April, he teased the audience at the Southern Republican Leadership Conference about his being a possible 2012 presidential candidate by saying that there may be a “dark horse candidate.”[18][19] On September 24, 2010, Cain announced that he was considering a run for president in 2012 on the Republican Party ticket.[20] “In December, he was the surprise choice for 2012 GOP nominee in a reader poll on the conservative Web site RedState.com, narrowly edging out Palin.”[6]

Cain announced the formation of a presidential exploratory committee on January 12, 2011 on the Fox News Channel program Your World with Neil Cavuto.[21] [22]

Cain supports a non-federally subsidized efficient economic stimulus, saying: “We could grow this economy faster if we had bolder, more direct stimulus policies,” criticizing President Barack Obama’s stimulus plan as simply a “spending bill” instead of meaningful stimulus through permanent tax cuts.[23]

In December 2010, Jonah Goldberg of the National Review wrote of Cain: “it’s hard to imagine him amounting to more than an exciting also-ran.”[24]

In February 2011, Cain addressed the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC).[25] Ed Morrisey of the conservative website Hot Air said he “stole the show” and that some attendees were moved to tears by the speech.[26] In contrast, liberal website AlterNet accused Cain of pandering to white conservatives and referred to him and other black conservatives as “garbage pail kids”. Cain called the news website’s attacks racist and condemned its “shameful behavior”.[27]

Following a number of comments made by Cain regarding his attitudes toward Muslim people, he was asked in March 2011 if he would feel comfortable appointing a Muslim to his administration or as a Judge. Cain said “No, I will not … There’s this creeping attempt, there’s this attempt, to gradually ease Shariah Law, and the Muslim faith into our government. It does not belong in our government”[28][29] and he went on to cite court cases in Oklahoma[30] and New Jersey as evidence.[31] This led to criticisms of “bigotry” and “muslim bashing” from CAIR, whose spokesperson stated “It would be laughable if it weren’t having such a negative impact on the lives of Muslim Americans”.[32][33]

On May 5, 2011 Fox News presented a presidential campaign debate. Cain was one of five potential candidates who participated. (The others were Tim Pawlenty, Ron Paul, Gary E. Johnson and Rick Santorum as the higher-profile candidates declined Fox’s invitation.) Cain was declared the winner by pollster Frank Luntz after a show of hands among 29 debate witnesses who were chosen by Fox to act as a post-performance focus group.[34][35] …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Cain

 

 

Herman Cain to Obama at CPAC: “U.S. Will Not Become U.S. of Europe on our Watch”

 

 

Herman Cain: Liberals ‘Don’t Want People to Know the Truth’

 

 

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ZEITGEIST: MOVING FORWARD | OFFICIAL RELEASE | 2011–Video

Posted on May 21, 2011. Filed under: Biology, Blogroll, Chemistry, Communications, Demographics, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Federal Government, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Health Care, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, People, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Religion, Resources, Science, Taxes, Technology, Video, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , |

 

ZEITGEIST: MOVING FORWARD | OFFICIAL RELEASE | 2011

Entertaining and interesting nonsense.

 

Background Articles and Videos

 

“Who is Peter Joseph?” Full Version – A Mini-Doc by Charles Robinson

 

Peter Joseph

“…Peter Joseph is an American independent filmmaker. He has written, directed, narrated, scored and produced three non-commercial, self-produced and freely-distributed documentary films called Zeitgeist: The Movie, Zeitgeist: Addendum and Zeitgeist: Moving Forward. These films comprise what is called the “Zeitgeist Film Series”. He is also the founder of the Zeitgeist Movement. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Joseph

Zeitgeist: Moving Forward

“…Zeitgeist: Moving Forward is the third installment in Peter Joseph‘s Zeitgeist film series. The movie was independently released in over 60 countries and in over 30 languages starting on January 15, 2011 with over 340 screenings worldwide.[1]The film was launched for free on the Internet starting January 26, 2011, receiving over 300,000 views on YouTube in the first 24 hours[2] and over 4.5 million views in the first two months of its release.[2]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeitgeist:_Moving_Forward

The Zeitgeist Movement

“…The Zeitgeist Movement (TZM) is a grassroots movement and online community.[3] It describes itself as a sustainability advocacy organization. The Zeitgeist Movement was inspired by the social response from Peter Joseph’s film Zeitgeist: Addendum, sequel to Zeitgeist: The Movie. It was Zeitgeist: Addendum which first introduced the Venus Project. A third film was released in theaters globally on January 15, 2011 and on the internet on the 25th called Zeitgeist: Moving Forward, which focuses on human behavior, technology, and rationality.[4] As of 2011, the Zeitgeist Movement and The Venus Project have split ways and are no longer functioning as a partnership.[5]

 

Concepts advocated by the Zeitgeist Movement

The core idea advocated by TZM is the replacement of current civilization with a money-free and cybernated “resource-based economy”.[6] The Zeitgeist Movement and the Venus Project promote replacing human labour with automation, government will be through collective participation of the public, aided by advanced cybernation.[6][7][8] According to the movement, there will be no decision-making process regarding greater social issues by human beings, those decisions are arrived at by using the scientific method, based on the carrying capacity of the Earth, rather than human opinions.[9] The replacement of human decision making by artificial intelligence is termed ‘Social Cybernation’.[10] Private property will not be abolished, but it will become obsolete as culture grows, being replaced by “a system of universal access”.[11]

 Activities and publications

Zeitgeist Day (Z-Day)

The Zeitgeist Movement holds an annual “Z-Day” in March. The first Z-Day was on March 15, 2009 and the second on March 13, 2010. On this day, the Zeitgeist Movement has local gatherings to learn and share information with all interested individuals. In 2009 there were more than 450 events held in 70 countries around the world.[12] In 2009, among other events, Peter Joseph and Jacque Fresco spoke to a sold-out crowd of around 900 at the Borough of Manhattan Community College for over two hours.[13] The third Z-Day was on March 13, 2011. Peter Joseph and others spoke to a sold-out audience of 1100 at “Friends House” in Euston, London.

Michelle Rodriguez of Avatar attended Z Day 2011 in Los Angeles on March 12, 2011 at Los Angeles Convention Center.[14] She said she is intrigued by the idea of the Venus Project.

Brandon Boyd of Incubus also attended Z Day in Los Angeles with his girlfriend Baelyn Neff.[15] He said Zeitgeist Moving Forward is his favorite Zeitgeist film so far. He also said he is very familiar with Jacque Fresco and watched a documentary film about Jacque Fresco’s work called Future by Design.

Media Project

According to a press release circulated to members on May 12, 2010, the Zeitgeist Media Project (ZMP) Beta was released. According to the press release the Media Project is an extension of the Communications Team.[16]

Chapters

The Zeitgeist Movement members are organized into country/regional, state and city “sub”-chapters.[17] Each chapter/sub-chapter is hosted and maintained independently on its own domain, or in sub-domains from the Zeitgeist Movement’s main site. The chapters are coordinated by individuals or groups of individuals who are well-versed in the movement’s tenets and direction and have chosen to donate their time to help further its current goals. According to the Zeitgeist Movement July 2010 Newsletter, the Zeitgeist Movement has 46 official country chapters over 200 regional sub-chapters internationally.[18] This includes all 50 official U.S. state chapters.[19]

Radio address

Peter Joseph, the founder of the Zeitgeist Movement and other Zeitgeist Movement members deliver a weekly radio address which is broadcast every Wednesday on BlogTalkRadio. These broadcasts discuss the progress of the Zeitgeist Movement, hold interviews with various relevant personalities, provide information for the Zeitgeist Movement’s chapters, and answer questions sent in by listeners/members. There are two other BlogTalkRadio shows that discuss the Zeitgeist Movement, a resource-based economy and the Venus Project. One is Z Radio, a weekly broadcast co-hosted by Thunder and Franklee, and produced by Shawn Hodgins. The other, known as V-Radio,[20] is hosted by Neil Kiernan Stephenson (aka Liz, aka Brittany Smith, aka Leveer Silverleaf, aka VTV). …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Zeitgeist_Movement

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Government Schools And Colleges Indoctrinating Students To Become Collectivist and Radical Progressive Socialists Favoring Government Interventionism–Videos

Posted on May 14, 2011. Filed under: American History, Banking, Biology, Blogroll, Books, Business, Chemistry, College, Communications, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, history, Immigration, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, media, Medicine, Monetary Policy, Music, People, Philosophy, Physics, Public Sector, Rants, Raves, Regulations, Resources, Reviews, Science, Security, Talk Radio, Technology, Unions, Video, War, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

If the Government Does X, It Is Called Y

 

Glenn Beck-05/13/11-A

 

Glenn Beck-05/13/11-B

 

Glenn Beck-05/13/11-C

 

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (1 of 8)

 

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (2 of 8)

 

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (3 of 8)

 

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (4 of 8)

 

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (5 of 8)

 

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (6 of 8)

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (7 of 8)

How Radical Professors Indoctrinate Students – David Horowitz (8 of 8)

 

The Federal Reserve and Indoctrination Nation

 

MICHAEL SAVAGE MOCKS STUPID LIBERALS AND EXAMINES HISTORY – (FUNNY AND TRUE)

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Obama’s Anti-American, Anti-Capitalist, Anti-Growth, Anti-Jobs, and Anti-Security Energy Policy–Videos

Posted on April 2, 2011. Filed under: American History, Biology, Blogroll, Chemistry, Communications, Diasters, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, European History, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, Health Care, history, Law, Life, Links, media, Nuclear Power, People, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Rants, Raves, Resources, Science, Security, Technology, Transportation, Video, Wealth, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

 

 

“Now, legal plunder can be committed in an infinite number of ways. Thus we have an infinite number of plans for organizing it: tariffs, protection, benefits, subsidies, encouragements, progressive taxation, public schools, guaranteed jobs, guaranteed profits, minimum wages, a right to relief, a right to the tools of labor, free credit, and so on, and so on. All these plans as a whole—with their common aim of legal plunder—constitute socialism.”

“We have tried so many things; when shall we try the simplest of all: freedom.”

~Frederic Bastiat

 

Give it a listen!

Pronk Pops Show 22 (Part 2)

April 08, 2011 11:16 AM PDT

Pronk Pops Show 22, April 7, 2011

Segment 1: 3,500,000 Million Americans Unemployed in March 2011 Still Exceeds Great Depression High of 13,000,000 In March 1933–The Obama Depressions Continues–Bureau of Labor Statistics: 8.8% Official Unemployment Rate (U-3) vs. Gallup Unemployment Rate of 10.0%–Nonfarm Payroll Increased By 216,000–The Government Makes The Depression Worse!–Videos

Segment 2: Obama’s Anti-American, Anti-Capitalist, Anti-Growth, Anti-Jobs, and Anti-Security Energy Policy–Videos

Segment 3: Republican Establishment Will Propose A Ten Year $6,200 Billion Cut In Spending Over Ten Years–The Problem Is It Does Not Balance The Budget For Another Five Years At The Earliest–Tea Party Movement Demands Balanced Budgets Starting In 2012 For The Next Ten Years!–A Jet Plane To Prosperity Not A Path To Prosperity–Videos

Segment 4: Just One More Thing Congressman Ryan: When Does The Republican’s Path To Prosperity Balance The Budget?–The Twelth of Never!–Videos

For additional information and videos on the above segments:

http://pronkpops.wordpress.com/2011/04/04/pronk-pops-show-22-april-5-2011-segment-113500000-million-americans-unemployed-in-march-2011-still-exceeds-great-depression-high-of-13000000-in-march-1933%E2%80%93the-obama-depressions-contin/

Pres. Obama Unveils Energy Plan: Full Speech

 

Media “On Board” With Skyrocketing Energy Prices Under Obama


 

http://www.wtrg.com/prices.htm

 

Crude Oil, Gasoline and Natural Gas Futures Price

NYMEX Prices for April 1,
2011

NYMEX Light Sweet Crude +1.22
$107.94
ICE Brent +1.34
$118.70
RBOB Gasoline NY Harbor +0.0436
$3.1513
Heating Oil NY Harbor +0.0220
$3.1345
NYMEX Natural Gas -0.027
$4.362

http://www.wtrg.com/index.html

Barry Buys a Big New Truck! Ethanol and Food Riots !

 

Middle East Events Drives Oil Speculation

 

Ron Paul The real reason why oil prices are high

Bulltick’s Vera Forecasts $100 Oil Through End of 2011


As Market Manipulation Drives up Gas Prices


CHHS Director discusses excessive speculation in oil markets


Oil speculation and oil prices


America’s Energy Security

 

Barack Obama on Offshore Oil Drilling


Obama’s Promise the Bankrupt the Coal Industry


Air quality control technology at Dry Fork Station

 

Chris Horner On Obama Energy Policy

 

“…Crude oil, refining, distribution & marketing, and taxes are the four major cost components for estimates of the retail price of a gallon of gasoline:

  • Crude oil – the major feedstock used to produce gasoline. This portion of the gasoline price is represented by the cost of crude oil purchased by refiners.
  • Refining – processing the crude oil into gasoline. The refining portion of the gasoline price is the spread between the cost of crude oil purchased by refiners and the wholesale price of gasoline. This spread represents both the costs and profits associated with the refining process.
  • Distribution & Marketing (Retail) – the part of the supply chain where wholesale gasoline is brought to a retail station and sold to the final consumer. This portion of the gasoline price is the retail price minus the other three price components. It represents both the costs and profits associated with selling retail gasoline to the final consumer.
  • Taxes – The Federal Government levies a tax of 18.4 cents on each gallon of gasoline, and the States levy an average tax of 22 cents on each gallon. This does not account for all State and local taxes, such as sales taxes, so this component, ranging from 7.5 to 37.5 cents per gallon across States, is probably understated (and the Distribution and Marketing component correspondingly overstated). …”

http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=470

Verleger Says U.S. Shale Gas Rivals Saudi Oil Reserves

ANWR Drilling

The truth about ANWR

First Deepwater Drilling Permit Since BP Oil Spill

U.S. Energy Policy Faces New Choices, Limitations

 

Dan Kish talks gas prices, keystone and energy policy

Secretary Salazar Objects to Anyone who will Listen

Inhofe Speech: Ending the Obama Administration’s Attack on Affordable Energy

Milito Says Obama Energy Lease Plans Are `Disincentives’

Shell’s Pete Slaiby talks about Alaska drilling safety

Rep Jeff Landry on FOX and Friends 031311

 

MAJOR REDUCTIONS IN CARBON EMISSIONS ARE NOT WORTH THE MONEY DEBATE: PETER Huber

Bjorn Lomborg – The Facts about the Environment

Bjorn Lomborg – The Facts about the Environment (part 2)

 

Bjorn Lomborg – The Facts about the Environment (part 3)

Forget about trying to decrease the demand for energy by wage, price and production controls and government regulations and executive orders.

Forget about trying to decrease the supply of energy by banning drilling and not approving permits to drill for oil and gas and build electrical power plants and oil refineries.

The United States government should not be in the energy or real estate business by trying to pick winners and losers with government subsidies and regulations.

The government is the problem by it pervasive interference and intervention into both the energy,  transportation, agriculture and real estate sectors of the economy.

Government produces nothing but uncertainty, inflation and massive debt.

If the Federal and state governments simply got out of the way the United States economy could double its rate of growth with a full employment.

Instead the United States economy now has more government employees than employees in the manufacturing sector.

Both Federal and state governments collect more in taxes from energy suppliers than the profits earned by energy companies.

The professional politicians of both political parties together with the government bureaucracies have become a drag on the economy and a threat to the liberties of the American people.

Get Federal and state governmenst out of business and businesses out of goverments.

First, permanently shut-down the Department of Energy, Department of Transportation,  Department of Interior and Department of Agriculture.

Second, sell off Federal lands to the highest bidders.

Third, lift all bans on oil and gas exploration on land and at sea.

Fourth, end all subsidies and mandates starting with ethanol.

Obama and Ethanol

 

PA Approves Higher Ethanol Fuel Blend for More Cars

 

Myth: Corn Ethanol is Great

 

The Ethanol Myth

 

Biofuels & Ethanol: The Real Story

Food Prices Rise to ‘Dangerous Levels’

 

Fifth, drill, drill, drill.

Dramatically increase the supply of all forms of energy fuels including coal, nuclear, natural gas,and  petroleum used for electrical power generation, transportation and heating.

 

The United States does not need an energy policy.

The United States and the American people are perfectly capable of producing all of the energy it needs from domestic sources.

This requies Federal and State governments to stop government intervention into the economy in the form of regulations, taxes, subsidies, and endless lawsuits.

What the United States needs to do is unleash free enterprise to produce the cheapest energy possible whatever the fuel source.

If wind and solar energy cannot make it in the market place without government subsidies, then stop the subsidies now.

If ethanol requires a government mandate to force Americans to use have it in their gasoline, then repeal the mandate now.

 

Obama Hates US…

DRILL! DRILL!! DRILL!!!

Take decisions about energy, transportation, agriculture and real estate out of the hands of the government and put these decision in our hands–the hands of the American people.

In Our Hands: American Free Enterprise, Anti-Communism, and the Cold War (1950)

 

With less than 5% of the world population and less than 6% of world’s land, the United States today produces over 20% of the world’s gross domestic product.  Sixty years ago the United States produced nearly 50% of the world gross domestic product!.

Put the American people back to work in a peace and prosperity economy and a constitutional republic.

Vote progressive radical socialists out of office including President Obama with his so-called energy policy with his master plan.

 

” In spite of the anticapitalistic policies of all governments and of almost all political parties, the capitalist mode of production is still fulfilling its social function in supplying the consumers with more, better and cheaper goods.”

~Ludwig von Mises, Planned Chaos, page 15


“Capitalism means free enterprise, sovereignty of the consumers in economic matters, and sovereignty of the voters in political matters. Socialism means full government control of every sphere of the individuals life and the unrestricted supremacy of the government in its capacity as central board of production management.”

~Ludwig von Mises, Bureaucracy, page 10

 

 

Background Articles and Videos

President Obama on Green Energy

Taking lawmakers to coal plants and a coal mine in 2010

How a coal power station works

Oil Crises and History

By Ed Wallace

“…Then the most overlooked story of all came out: Oil Movements, the British firm that tracks oil shipments worldwide, pointed out that OPEC nations were already shipping less oil last month. Not because of any uprisings or closures of oil fields as in Libya, but because oil shipments always fall this time of year. Refineries worldwide go down for maintenance, preparing to switch to summer fuels for the northern hemisphere and winter fuels for the southern regions.

In a nutshell, the system already has some slack because refineries don’t want as much oil right now.

Here in America, oil marketers have not picked up oil in certain Texas counties because there’s a shortage of tankers and rail cars to carry all of the crude available. That’s because refiners want oil from the Midwest and EF Sour Crude. Those carry a discount right now, which improves refiners’ profits.

Basically, oil prices are once again being over-hyped based on speculation. This time the only legitimate fear is that, if Saudi Arabia comes undone, a real oil crisis might break out. But that possibility is remote. …”

Oil Prices and History

“…

http://www.wtrg.com/prices.htm

Oil reserves

“…The total estimated amount of oil in an oil reservoir, including both producible and non-producible oil, is called oil in place. However, because of reservoir characteristics and limitations in petroleum extraction technologies, only a fraction of this oil can be brought to the surface, and it is only this producible fraction that is considered to be reserves. The ratio of producible oil reserves to total oil in place for a given field is often referred to as the recovery factor. Recovery factors vary greatly among oil fields. The recovery factor of any particular field may change over time based on operating history and in response to changes in technology and economics. The recovery factor may also rise over time if additional investment is made in enhanced oil recovery techniques such as gas injection, water-flooding,[1] or microbial enhanced oil recovery.

Because the geology of the subsurface cannot be examined directly, indirect techniques must be used to estimate the size and recoverability of the resource. While new technologies have increased the accuracy of these techniques, significant uncertainties still remain. In general, most early estimates of the reserves of an oil field are conservative and tend to grow with time. This phenomenon is called reserves growth.[2]

Many oil-producing nations do not reveal their reservoir engineering field data and instead provide unaudited claims for their oil reserves. The numbers disclosed by some national governments are suspected of being manipulated for political reasons.[3] …”

Summary of Reserve Data as of 2010
Country Reserves [16] Production [17] Reserve life 1
109 bbl 109 m3 106 bbl/d 103 m3/d years
Venezuela 297 47.2 2.7 430 301
Saudi Arabia 267 42.4 9.7 1,540 127.5
Canada 179 28.5 2.1 330 188
Iraq 143 22.7 3.5 560 112
Iran 138 21.9 4.0 640 95
Kuwait 104 16.5 2.6 410 110
United Arab Emirates 98 15.6 2.9 460 93
Russia 60 9.5 9.9 1,570 17
Kazakhstan 47 7.5 1.4 220 93
Libya 41 6.5 1.7 270 66
Nigeria 36 5.7 2.4 380 41
United States 21 3.3 7.5 1,190 8
China 16 2.5 3.9 620 11
Qatar 15 2.4 0.9 140 46
Algeria 12 1.9 2.2 350 15
Brazil 12 1.9 2.3 370 14
Mexico 12 1.9 3.5 560 9
Total of top seventeen reserves 1,243 197.6 63.5 10,100 54

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_reserves

List of countries by population

Rank↓ Country / Territory↓ Population↓ Date of estimate↓ % of World population↓ Source
- World 6,909,700,000 April 3, 2011 100.00% US Census Bureau’s World Population Clock
1 People’s Republic of Chinan2 1,341,000,000 December 31, 2010 19.41% Official Chinese Population Estimate
2 India 1,210,193,422 March 1, 2011 17.51% Provisional 2011 Indian Census result
3 United States 311,092,000 April 3, 2011 4.5% Official United States Population Clock
4 Indonesia 237,556,363 May 2010 3.44% 2010 Indonesian Census
5 Brazil 190,732,694 August 1, 2010 2.76% 2010 Official Brazilian Census results
6 Pakistan 175,636,000 April 3, 2011 2.54% Official Pakistani Population clock
7 Nigeria 158,259,000 2010 2.29% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
8 Bangladesh 150,314,000 April 3, 2011 2.18% Official Bangladeshi Population Clock
9 Russia 142,905,200 January 1, 2011 2.07% 2010 Russian Census
10 Japan 127,960,000 March 1, 2011 1.84% Official Japan Statistics Bureau
11 Mexico 112,336,538 June 12, 2010 1.63% 2010 final census result
12 Philippines 94,013,200 Mid-2010 1.36% National Statistics Office medium projection
13 Vietnam 86,930,000 April 1, 2010 1.26% Official estimate
14 Germany 81,802,000 December 31, 2009 1.18% Official estimate
15 Egypt 80,025,000 April 3, 2011 1.16% Official Egyptian Population clock
16 Ethiopia 79,455,634 July 2010 1.15% Official estimate
17 Iran 75,078,000 2010 1.09% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
18 Turkey 73,722,988 December 31, 2010 1.07% Turkish Statistical Institute
19 Dem. Rep. of Congo 67,827,000 2010 0.98% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
20 Thailand 67,070,000 December 1, 2009 0.97% Official estimate
21 Francen3 65,821,885 January 1, 2011 0.95% Official INSEE estimate
The population figure for metropolitan France alone (without its
overseas departments and oveseas collectivities) is 63,182,000.[4]
22 United Kingdom 62,041,708 January 1, 2010 0.9% Eurostat estimate
23 Italy 60,605,053 November, 2010 0.88% Official ISTAT estimate
24 Myanmar (Burma) 50,496,000 2010 0.73% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
25 South Africa 49,991,300 July 1, 2010 0.72% Statistics South Africa
26 South Korea 48,988,833 2011 0.71% Statistics Korea
27 Spain 46,152,925 January 1, 2011 0.67% Official INE estimate
28 Colombia 45,919,000 April 3, 2011 0.66% Official Colombian Population clock
29 Ukraine 45,778,500 January 1, 2011 0.66% Official UKRSTAT estimate
30 Sudan 43,192,000 2010 0.63% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
31 Tanzania 43,187,823 2010 0.63% Official estimate
32 Argentina 40,091,359 October 27, 2010 0.58% Provisional census results
33 Kenya 38,610,097 August 24-25, 2009 0.56% Official census results
34 Poland 38,092,000 mid-2010 0.55% Official estimate
35 Algeria 36,300,000 January 1, 2011 0.53% Official estimate
36 Canada 34,406,000 April 3, 2011 0.5% Official Canadian Population clock
37 Morocco 32,107,000 April 3, 2011 0.46% Official Moroccan Population clock
38 Uganda 31,800,000 2010 0.46% Official estimate
39 Iraq 31,467,000 2010 0.46% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
40 Peru 29,461,933 June 30, 2010 0.43% Official INEI estimate (in Spanish)
41 Venezuela 29,167,000 April 3, 2011 0.42% Official Venezuelan Population clock
42 Afghanistan 29,117,000 2010 0.42% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
43 Nepal 28,584,975 2011 0.41% Official estimate
44 Uzbekistan 27,794,000 2010 0.4% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
45 Malaysia 27,565,821 2010 0.4% The 2010 Population and Housing Census (Census 2010)
46 Saudi Arabia 27,136,977 2010 0.39% Official Saudi estimate
47 Ghana 24,233,431 September 26, 2010 0.35% Provisional 2010 census results
48 North Korea 23,991,000 2010 0.35% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
49 Republic of China (Taiwan)n4 23,164,457 February 28, 2011 0.34% Official National Statistics Taiwan estimate
50 Australian5 22,608,000 April 3, 2011 0.32% Australian Official Population Clock
51 Yemen 22,492,035 2009 0.33% Official estimate
52 Mozambique 22,416,881 2010 0.32% Official estimate
53 Côte d’Ivoire 21,571,000 2010 0.31% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
54 Romania 21,466,174 January 1, 2010 0.31% Eurostat estimate
55 Syria 20,995,000 April 3, 2011 0.3% Syrian Official Population Clock
56 Sri Lanka 20,410,000 2010 0.3% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
57 Madagascar 20,146,000 2010 0.29% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
58 Cameroon 19,406,100 January 1, 2010 0.28% Official estimate
59 Angola 18,993,000 2010 0.27% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
60 Chile 17,211,200 April 3, 2011 0.25% Official INE projection (page 36)
61 Netherlands 16,659,100 April 3, 2011 0.241% Official Netherlands population clock
62 Kazakhstan 16,433,000 January 1, 2011 0.24% National Statistics Agency estimate
63 Burkina Faso 15,730,977 July 1, 2010 0.23% Official estimate
64 Malawi 15,692,000 2010 0.23% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
65 Niger 15,203,822 2010 0.22% Official estimate
66 Mali 14,517,176 April 1, 2009 0.21% Preliminary 2009 census result
67 Guatemala 14,361,666 2010 0.21% Official estimate
68 Ecuador 14,306,876 November 28, 2010 0.21% Preliminary 2010 Ecuadorian census result
69 Cambodia 13,395,682 March 3, 2008 0.19% Cambodian 2008 Census
70 Zambia 13,046,508 October 16, 2010 0.19% 2010 Zambia Census result
71 Senegal 12,861,000 2010 0.19% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
72 Zimbabwe 12,644,000 2010 0.18% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
73 Chad 11,506,000 2010 0.17% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
74 Greece 11,306,183 January 1, 2010 0.16% Eurostat estimate
75 Cuba 11,240,841 December 31, 2010 0.16% Official estimate
76 Belgium 10,827,519 January 1, 2010 0.16% Eurostat estimate
77 Portugal 10,636,888 January 1, 2010 0.15% Eurostat estimate
78 Tunisia 10,549,100 July 1, 2010 0.15% National Statistics Institute of Tunisia
79 Czech Republic 10,515,818 June 30, 2010 0.15% Official estimate
80 Bolivia 10,426,154 2010 0.15% Official estimate
81 Rwanda 10,412,820 2010 0.15% Official estimate
82 Guinea 10,324,000 2010 0.15% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
83 Haiti 10,085,214 2010 0.15% Official estimate
84 Hungary 10,014,324 January 1, 2010 0.14% Official estimate
85 Belarus 9,481,100 January 1, 2011 0.14% National Statistical Committee
86 Sweden 9,418,732 January 31, 2011 0.14% Statistics Sweden
87 Dominican Republic 9,378,818 December 1, 2010 0.14% Preliminary census result
88 Somalian7 9,359,000 2010 0.14% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
89 Azerbaijan 8,997,400 January 1, 2010 0.13% State Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan
90 Benin 8,778,646 2010 0.13% Official estimate
91 Burundi 8,519,000 2010 0.12% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
92 Austria 8,396,760 2010 0.12% Official estimate
93 United Arab Emirates 8,264,070 2010 0.12% Official estimate
94 Honduras 8,215,313 2011 0.12% Official estimate
95 Switzerland 7,782,900 December 31, 2009 0.11% Official Switzerland Statistics estimate
96 Israeln8 7,708,400 January 31, 2011 0.11% Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics
97 Bulgaria 7,528,103 2010 0.11% Official estimate
98 Serbian6 7,306,677 January 1, 2010 0.11% Official estimate
99 Tajikistan 7,075,000 2010 0.102% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
100 Hong Kong 7,061,200 July 31, 2010 0.102% Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department
101 Papua New Guinea 6,888,000 2010 0.1% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
102 Togo 6,780,000 2010 0.098% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
103 Libya 6,546,000 2010 0.095% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
104 Jordan 6,472,000 2010 0.094% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
105 Paraguay 6,460,000 2010 0.093% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
106 Laos 6,230,200 2010 0.09% Official estimate
107 El Salvador 6,194,000 2010 0.09% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
108 Sierra Leone 5,836,000 2010 0.084% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
109 Nicaragua 5,822,000 2010 0.084% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
110 Denmark 5,560,628 January 1, 2011 0.08% Statistics Denmark
111 Slovakia 5,435,273 December 31, 2010 0.079% Statistics Slovakia
112 Kyrgyzstan 5,418,300 2010 0.078% Official estimate
113 Finlandn9 5,379,800 April 3, 2011 0.078% Official Finnish Population clock
114 Eritrea 5,224,000 2010 0.076% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
115 Turkmenistan 5,177,000 2010 0.075% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
116 Singapore 5,076,700 June 30, 2010 0.073% Statistics Singapore
117 Norwayn10 4,932,700 April 3, 2011 0.007% Official Norwegian Population clock
118 Costa Rica 4,563,538 2010 0.066% Official estimate
119 Central African Republic 4,506,000 2010 0.065% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
120 Ireland 4,470,700 April 2010 0.065% Irish Central Statistics Office estimate 2010
121 Georgian11 4,436,000 January 1, 2010 0.064% National Statistics Office of Georgia
122 Croatia 4,425,747 January 1, 2010 0.064% Eurostat estimate
123 New Zealand 4,406,000 April 3, 2011 0.064% Official New Zealand Population clock
124 Lebanon 4,255,000 2010 0.062% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
125 Liberia 4,102,000 2010 0.059% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
126 Palestinian territories 3,935,249 2009 0.057% Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
127 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,843,126 June 30, 2010 0.056% Official estimate
128 Republic of the Congo 3,759,000 2010 0.054% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
129 Puerto Rico 3,725,789 April 1, 2010 0.054% 2010 census
130 Moldovan12 3,563,800 January 1, 2010 0.052% National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova
131 Panama 3,405,813 May 16, 2010 0.049% Final 2010 census results
132 Mauritania 3,366,000 2010 0.049% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
133 Uruguay 3,356,584 June 30, 2010 0.049% Official estimate
134 Armenia 3,254,300 September 2010 0.047% Monthly official estimate
135 Lithuania 3,249,400 December 2010 0.047% Monthly official estimate
136 Albania 3,195,000 January 1, 2010 0.046% Institute of Statistics INSTAT Albania
137 Kuwait 3,051,000 2010 0.044% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
138 Mongolia 2,798,000 April 3, 2011 0.04% Official Mongolian population clock
139 Jamaica 2,730,000 2010 0.04% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
140 Oman 2,694,094 December 12, 2010 0.039% Preliminary census results
141 Latvia 2,229,500 January 1, 2011 0.032% Official Statistics of Latvia
142 Namibia 2,212,000 2010 0.032% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
143 Lesotho 2,084,000 2010 0.03% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
144 Republic of Macedonia 2,052,722 January 1, 2010 0.03% Eurostat estimate
145 Slovenia 2,046,930 April 3, 2011 0.03% Official Slovenian population clock
146 Botswana 1,800,098 2010 0.026% Official estimate
147 Gambia 1,751,000 2010 0.025% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
148 Qatar 1,696,563 April 20, 2010 0.025% Preliminary 2010 Census Results
149 Guinea-Bissau 1,647,000 2010 0.024% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
150 Gabon 1,501,000 2010 0.022% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
151 Estonia 1,340,122 January 1, 2011 0.019% Official estimate
152 Trinidad and Tobago 1,317,714 July 1, 2010 0.019% Official estimate
153 Mauritius 1,280,925 July 1, 2010 0.019% Official estimate
154 Swaziland 1,202,000 2010 0.017% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
155 East Timor 1,171,000 2010 0.017% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
156 Djibouti 879,000 2010 0.013% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
157 Fiji 854,000 2010 0.012% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
158 Bahrain 807,000 2010 0.012% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
159 Cyprusn14 801,851 January 1, 2010 0.012% Eurostat estimate
160 Guyana 784,894 2010 0.011% Official estimate
161 Bhutan 695,822 2010 0.01% Official estimate
162 Equatorial Guinea [5] 693,000 2010 0.01% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
163 Comorosn15 691,000 2010 0.01% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
164 Montenegro 641,966 2010 0.009% Official estimate
165 Macau 542,200 December 31, 2009 0.008% Macau Statistics and Census Service
166 Solomon Islands 530,669 2010 0.008% Official estimate
167 Western Sahara 530,000 2010 0.008% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
168 Suriname 524,000 2010 0.008% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
169 Luxembourg 502,100 2010 0.007% Official estimate
170 Cape Verde 491,575 June 16, 2010 0.007% Official estimate
171 Malta 416,333 January 1, 2010 0.006% Eurostat estimate
172 Brunei 407,000 2010 0.006% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
173 Bahamas 353,658 May 3, 2010 0.005% Official estimate
174 Belize 333,200 Mid-2009 0.005% Statistical Institute of Belize
175 Iceland 318,452 January 1, 2011 0.005% Statistics Iceland
176 Maldives 317,280 2010 0.005% Official estimate
177 Barbados 257,000 2010 0.004% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
178 Vanuatu 246,000 2010 0.004% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
179 Samoa 187,032 2010 0.003% Official estimate
180 Guam 180,000 2010 0.003% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
181 Saint Lucia 166,526 May 10, 2010 0.002% Preliminary census result
182 São Tomé and Príncipe 165,000 2010 0.002% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
183 Curaçao 142,180 January 1, 2010 0.002% Official estimate
184 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 109,000 2010 0.002% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
185 U.S. Virgin Islands 109,000 2010 0.002% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
186 Aruba 107,000 2010 0.002% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
187 Grenada 104,000 2010 0.002% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
188 Tonga 104,000 2010 0.002% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
189 Federated States of Micronesia 102,624 April 4, 2010 0.001% Preliminary census results
190 Kiribati 100,000 2010 0.001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
191 Jersey 92,500 December 31, 2009 0.001% Official estimate
192 Antigua and Barbuda 89,000 2010 0.001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
193 Northern Mariana Islands 88,000 2010 0.001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
194 Seychelles 86,525 July 1, 2010 0.001% Official estimate
195 Andorra 84,082 December 31, 2009 0.001% Official estimate
196 Isle of Man 80,000 2010 0.001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
197 American Samoa 69,000 2010 0.001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
198 Dominica 67,000 2010 0.001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
199 Bermuda 64,566 July 1, 2010 0.001% Official estimate
200 Guernsey 62,274 March 31, 2009 0.001% Official estimate
201 Greenland 56,452 2010 0.001% Official estimate
202 Cayman Islands 54,878 October 10, 2010 0.001% Preliminary census result
203 Marshall Islands 54,305 2010 0.001% Official estimate
204 Saint Kitts and Nevis 52,000 2010 0.001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
205 Faroe Islands 48,585 January 1, 2011 0.001% Official statistics of the Faroe Islands
206 Turks and Caicos Islands 40,357 2010 0.0006% Official estimate
207 Sint Maarten 37,429 January 1, 2010 0.0005% Official estimate
208 Liechtenstein 36,157 December 31, 2010 0.0005% Official estimate
209 Monaco 33,000 2010 0.0005% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
210 San Marino 31,887 December 31, 2010 0.0005% Monthly official estimate
211 Gibraltar 31,000 2010 0.0004% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
212 British Virgin Islands 28,213 2008 0.0004% Official estimate
213 Cook Islands 23,400 September 2010 0.0003% Official monthly estimate
214 Palau 21,000 0.0003% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
215 Anguilla 15,236 2011 0.0002% Official estimate
216 Nauru 10,000 0.0001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
217 Tuvalu 10,000 0.0001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
218 Montserrat 6,000 0.0001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
219 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 4,000 0.0001% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
220 Falkland Islands 3,000 0.00005% 2008 UN estimate for year 2010
221 Niue 1,500 0.00003% UN estimate
222 Tokelau 1,200 0.00003% UN estimate
223 Vatican City 800 0.00002% UN estimate
224 Pitcairn Islands 50 0.000001% UN estimate

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

“… This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year. The GDP dollar estimates presented here are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

Several economies which are not considered to be countries (world, the EU, Eurozone, and some dependent territories) are included in the list because they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed.

The first list includes 2010 data estimates[nb 1] for members of the International Monetary Fund. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)

Rank↓ Country↓ GDP (millions of USD)↓
World 61,963,429[4]
European Union 16,106,896[4]
1 United States 14,624,184
2 People’s Republic of China 5,745,133
3 Japan 5,390,897
4 Germany 3,305,898
5 France 2,555,439
6 United Kingdom 2,258,565
7 Italy 2,036,687
8 Brazil 2,023,528
9 Canada 1,563,664
10 Russia 1,476,912
11 India 1,430,020
12 Spain 1,374,779
13 Australia 1,219,722
14 Mexico 1,004,042
15 South Korea 986,256
16 Netherlands 770,312
17 Turkey 729,051
18 Indonesia 695,059
19 Switzerland 522,435
20 Belgium 461,331
21 Sweden 444,585
22 Poland 438,884
23 Saudi Arabia 434,440
24 Republic of China (Taiwan) 426,984
25 Norway 413,511
26 Austria 366,259
27 South Africa 354,414
28 Argentina 351,015
29 Iran 337,901
30 Thailand 312,605
31 Greece 305,005
32 Denmark 304,555
33 Venezuela 285,214
34 Colombia 283,109
35 United Arab Emirates 239,650
36 Finland 231,982
Hong Kong 226,485
37 Portugal 223,700
38 Malaysia 218,950
39 Singapore 217,377
40 Egypt 216,830
41 Nigeria 206,664
42 Ireland 204,144
43 Israel 201,254
44 Chile 199,183
45 Czech Republic 195,232
46 Philippines 189,061
47 Pakistan 164,792
48 Algeria 158,969
49 Romania 158,393
50 Peru 153,549
51 New Zealand 138,003
52 Ukraine 136,561
53 Hungary 132,276
54 Kazakhstan 129,757
55 Qatar 126,518
56 Kuwait 117,316
57 Bangladesh 105,402
58 Vietnam 101,987
59 Morocco 91,702
60 Slovakia 86,262
61 Angola 85,808
62 Iraq 84,136
63 Libya 77,912
64 Sudan 65,930
65 Ecuador 61,489
66 Croatia 59,917
67 Syria 59,633
68 Oman 53,782
69 Belarus 52,887
70 Luxembourg 52,433
71 Azerbaijan 52,166
72 Dominican Republic 50,874
73 Sri Lanka 48,241
74 Slovenia 46,442
75 Bulgaria 44,843
76 Tunisia 43,863
77 Guatemala 40,773
78 Uruguay 40,714
79 Lebanon 39,149
80 Serbia 38,921
81 Uzbekistan 37,724
82 Lithuania 35,734
83 Burma 35,646
84 Costa Rica 35,019
85 Kenya 32,417
86 Ethiopia 30,941
87 Yemen 30,023
88 Panama 27,199
89 Jordan 27,129
90 Latvia 23,385
91 Cyprus 22,752
92 Tanzania 22,434
93 Côte d’Ivoire 22,384
94 Cameroon 21,882
95 El Salvador 21,796
96 Bahrain 21,733
97 Trinidad and Tobago 21,195
98 Estonia 19,220
99 Bolivia 19,182
100 Ghana 18,058
101 Paraguay 17,168
102 Uganda 17,121
103 Afghanistan 16,631
104 Bosnia and Herzegovina 16,202
105 Zambia 15,691
106 Honduras 15,340
107 Nepal 15,108
108 Equatorial Guinea 14,547
109 Jamaica 13,737
110 Iceland 12,767
111 Senegal 12,657
112 Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,600
113 Gabon 12,563
114 Botswana 12,501
115 Brunei 11,963
116 Republic of the Congo 11,884
117 Albania 11,578
118 Namibia 11,451
119 Cambodia 11,360
120 Georgia 11,234
121 Mozambique 10,212
122 Macedonia 9,580
123 Mauritius 9,427
124 Mali 9,077
125 Armenia 8,830
126 Papua New Guinea 8,809
127 Burkina Faso 8,672
128 Madagascar 8,330
129 Malta 7,801
130 Chad 7,592
131 The Bahamas 7,538
132 Haiti 6,495
133 Benin 6,494
134 Nicaragua 6,375
135 Laos 6,341
136 Mongolia 5,807
137 Kosovo 5,728
138 Rwanda 5,693
139 Niger 5,603
140 Tajikistan 5,578
141 Zimbabwe 5,574
142 Moldova 5,357
143 Malawi 5,035
144 Kyrgyzstan 4,444
145 Guinea 4,344
146 Barbados 3,963
147 Montenegro 3,884
148 Mauritania 3,486
149 Suriname 3,297
150 Swaziland 3,165
151 Fiji 3,154
152 Togo 3,074
153 Eritrea 2,254
154 Guyana 2,197
155 Central African Republic 2,113
156 Sierra Leone 1,901
157 Lesotho 1,799
158 Cape Verde 1,573
159 Burundi 1,469
160 Maldives 1,433
161 Belize 1,431
162 Bhutan 1,397
163 Djibouti 1,139
164 Antigua and Barbuda 1,099
165 The Gambia 1,040
166 Saint Lucia 1,000
167 Liberia 977
168 Seychelles 919
169 Guinea-Bissau 825
170 Vanuatu 721
171 Solomon Islands 674
172 Grenada 645
173 East Timor 616
174 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 583
175 Saint Kitts and Nevis 562
176 Comoros 557
177 Samoa 550
178 Dominica 375
179 Tonga 301
180 São Tomé and Príncipe 187
181 Kiribati 152

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Environmental Air Pollution – Introduction to Atmosphere

 

Lecture 2 Air Pollution Systems

Lecture_3 Air Quality Standards

 

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Professor Mukesh Sharma

http://home.iitk.ac.in/~mukesh/Education.html

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“…Minority Report is a 2002 American neo-noir[2] science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg and loosely based on the short story “The Minority Report” by Philip K. Dick. It is set primarily in Washington, D.C. and Northern Virginia in the year 2054, where “PreCrime”, a specialized police department, apprehends criminals based on foreknowledge provided by three psychics called “precogs”. The cast includes Tom Cruise as PreCrime officer John Anderton, Colin Farrell as Department of Justice agent Danny Witwer, Samantha Morton as the senior precog Agatha, and Max von Sydow as Anderton’s superior Lamar Burgess. The film is a combination of whodunit, thriller, and science fiction.[3]

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minority_Report_(film)

 

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By ROBERT PEAR

“…When a proposal to encourage end-of-life planning touched off a political storm over “death panels,” Democrats dropped it from legislation to overhaul the health care system. But the Obama administration will achieve the same goal by regulation, starting Jan. 1.

Under the new policy, outlined in a Medicare regulation, the government will pay doctors who advise patients on options for end-of-life care, which may include advance directives to forgo aggressive life-sustaining treatment.

Congressional supporters of the new policy, though pleased, have kept quiet. They fear provoking another furor like the one in 2009 when Republicans seized on the idea of end-of-life counseling to argue that the Democrats’ bill would allow the government to cut off care for the critically ill.

The final version of the health care legislation, signed into law by President Obama in March, authorized Medicare coverage of yearly physical examinations, or wellness visits. The new rule says Medicare will cover “voluntary advance care planning,” to discuss end-of-life treatment, as part of the annual visit.

Under the rule, doctors can provide information to patients on how to prepare an “advance directive,” stating how aggressively they wish to be treated if they are so sick that they cannot make health care decisions for themselves.

While the new law does not mention advance care planning, the Obama administration has been able to achieve its policy goal through the regulation-writing process, a strategy that could become more prevalent in the next two years as the president deals with a strengthened Republican opposition in Congress.

In this case, the administration said research had shown the value of end-of-life planning. …”

“…The new policy is included in a huge Medicare regulation setting payment rates for thousands of services including arthroscopy, mastectomy and X-rays.

The rule was issued by Dr. Donald M. Berwick, administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and a longtime advocate for better end-of-life care.

“Using unwanted procedures in terminal illness is a form of assault,” Dr. Berwick has said. “In economic terms, it is waste. Several techniques, including advance directives and involvement of patients and families in decision-making, have been shown to reduce inappropriate care at the end of life, leading to both lower cost and more humane care.” …”

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/26/us/politics/26death.html

 

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How Much Water Do You Need To Drink Per Day?–Videos

Posted on December 23, 2010. Filed under: Biology, Blogroll, Chemistry, Communications, Education, Health Care, Life, Links, Medicine, People, Raves, Resources, Science, Technology, Video, Wisdom | Tags: , , , , , , , |

8 Glasses Of Water A Day? (Health Guru)

 

Dr. Travis Stork: How Many Glasses of Water to Drink Every Day

 

Health Beat – How much water should you drink each day?

 

 

Water: How much should you drink every day?

Water is essential to good health, yet needs vary by individual. These guidelines can help ensure you drink enough fluids.

By Mayo Clinic staff

“…So how much water does the average, healthy adult living in a temperate climate need? In general, doctors recommend 8 or 9 cups. Here are the most common ways of calculating that amount:

  • Replacement approach. The average urine output for adults is about 1.5 liters (6.3 cups) a day. You lose close to an additional liter (about 4 cups) of water a day through breathing, sweating and bowel movements. Food usually accounts for 20 percent of your total fluid intake, so if you consume 2 liters of water or other beverages a day (a little more than 8 cups) along with your normal diet, you will typically replace your lost fluids.
  • Eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day. Another approach to water intake is the “8 x 8 rule” — drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day (about 1.9 liters). The rule could also be stated, “Drink eight 8-ounce glasses of fluid a day,” as all fluids count toward the daily total. Although the approach really isn’t supported by scientific evidence, many people use this easy-to-remember rule as a guideline for how much water and other fluids to drink.
  • Dietary recommendations. The Institute of Medicine advises that men consume roughly 3 liters (about 13 cups) of total beverages a day and women consume 2.2 liters (about 9 cups) of total beverages a day.

Even apart from the above approaches, if you drink enough fluid so that you rarely feel thirsty and produce 1.5 liters (6.3 cups) or more of colorless or slightly yellow urine a day, your fluid intake is probably adequate. If you’re concerned about your fluid intake, check with your doctor or a registered dietitian. He or she can help you determine the amount of water that’s best for you. …”

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/water/NU00283

Drink Water to Lose Weight and Burn Fat?

“…The most common recommendation It is commonly recommended that people drink between 8 and 10 glasses of water per day. This is a good starting point. The question is, how big is that glass?

The answer is that it depends. As with most things, the more you weigh, the more water you need.

In order to lose weight, every day you should consume between 0.5 and 0.64 ounces of water per pound of lean body weight.

Therefore, if you are going to drink 0.64 ounces of water per pound of lean body mass, use the following formula:


Lean Body Mass x 0.64 = Optimal Water Intake in Ounces


As you can see, a person that has 200 pounds of lean body mass should drink 128 ounces, or 1 gallon, of water. This equals 8 16 ounce glasses of water.

The table below will help you estimate the amount of water you should aim for every day to help weight loss, and how many 16 ounce glasses per day that amount equals.

Drink Water to Lose Weight
Lean Body Weight Water Per Day
0.50 Ounces of Water Per Pound 0.64 Ounces of Water Per Pound
Ounces Per Day 16 Oz. Glasses Per Day Ounces Per Day 16 Oz. Glasses Per Day
100 lbs. 50 oz. 3.1 64 oz. 4.0
125 lbs. 62.5 oz. 3.9 80 oz. 5.0
150 lbs. 75 oz. 4.7 96 oz. 6.0
175 lbs. 87.5 oz. 5.5 112 oz. 7.0
200 lbs. 100 oz. 6.3 128 oz. 8.0
225 lbs. 112.5 oz. 7.0 144 oz. 9.0
250 lbs. 125 oz. 7.8 160 oz. 10.0
275 lbs. 137.5 oz. 8.6 176 oz. 11.0
300 lbs. 150 oz. 9.4 192 oz. 12.0

http://www.build-muscle-and-burn-fat.com/drink-water-to-lose-weight.html

 

Cup

There is no internationally-agreed standard definition of the cup, whose modern volume ranges between 200 and 284 millilitres.[nb 1] The cup sizes generally used in the many Commonwealth countries and the United States differ by up to 44 mL (1.5 fl oz).

No matter what size cup is used, the ingredients of a recipe measured with the same size cup will have their volumes in the same proportion to one another. The relative amounts to ingredients measured differently (by weight, or by different measures of volume such as teaspoons, etc.) may be affected by the definitions used.

Metric cup
In Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa and Lebanon one cup is commonly defined as 250 millilitres.
1 metric cup  = 250 millilitres
  = 16⅔ international tablespoons (15 mL each)
  = 12½ Australian tablespoons
  8.80 imperial fluid ounces
  8.45 U.S. customary fluid ounces
United States customary cup
United States customary cup is defined as half a U.S. pint.
1 U.S. customary cup  = 1/16 U.S. customary gallon
  = ¼ U.S. customary quart
  = ½ U.S. customary pint
  = 8 U.S. customary fluid ounces
  = 16 U.S. customary tablespoons[nb 2]
  237 millilitres[nb 3]
  15⅔ international tablespoons
  11¾ Australian tablespoons
  0.833 imperial cups
  8.33 imperial fluid ounces
United States “legal” cup
The cup currently used in the United States for nutrition labeling is defined in United States law as 240 mL.[1][2][3]
1 U.S. “legal” cup  = 240 millilitres
  = 16 international tablespoons
  = 12 Australian tablespoons
  8.12 U.S. customary fluid ounces
  8.45 imperial fluid ounces
Imperial cup
The imperial cup, unofficially defined as half an imperial pint, is rarely found today. It may still appear on older kitchen utensils and in older recipe books.
1 imperial cup  = 0.5 imperial pints
  = 2 imperial gills
  = 10 imperial fluid ounces
  = 284 millilitres
  19 international tablespoons[4][5]
  14¼ Australian tablespoons[6]
  1.20 U.S. customary cups
  9.61 U.S. customary fluid ounces
Japanese cup
The Japanese cup is currently defined as 200 mL.
1 Japanese cup  = 200 millilitres
  7.04 imperial fluid ounces
  6.76 U.S. customary fluid ounces

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cup_(unit)

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Sir James Goldsmith–A Prophetic Interview–Videos

Posted on October 13, 2010. Filed under: Agriculture, Babies, Biology, Blogroll, Chemistry, College, Communications, Culture, Demographics, Economics, Education, Employment, Energy, Farming, Federal Government, Fiscal Policy, Foreign Policy, government, government spending, history, Homes, Immigration, Investments, Language, Law, liberty, Life, Links, media, Monetary Policy, People, Philosophy, Politics, Quotations, Rants, Raves, Resources, Science, Talk Radio, Taxes, Technology, Transportation, Video, War, Wisdom | Tags: , , , |

 

 

 

 

 

 

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